(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us) Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A collection of papers read before the Bucks County Historical Society"





Alumni ^iving Plan 

~^vyc_ks La\iv\\'y A^-s" 


i,tyj iJoyiftstc 







B. F. Fackenthal. Jr. 




Hon. Harman Yerkes Mrs. Agnes Williams Palmer 

Henry C. Mercer Clarence D. Hotchkiss 

Warren S. Ely B. F. Fackenthal, Jr. 


Press of 

The Chemical Publishing Co. 

Easton, Pa. 




List of Illustrations vi 

Officers of the Society vii 

New Members since August i , igoS - viii 

Necrology viii 

Status of Membership August i , 1909 viii 


Sketch of Log College Rev. D. K. Turner i 

The Smith Plow Miss Ellen D. Smith 11 

Two Old Horse Companies Rev. D. K. Turner 17 

The Town of Bethlehem John A. Ruth 24 

General John Lacey — Our Quaker Gen- 
eral Gen. W. W. H. Davis 32 

Reminiscences of Ouakertown and Its 

People Dr. Joseph Thomas 42 

Old Richland Settlers Ellwood Roberts 52 

Prehistoric Bucks County Charles Laubach 61 

The Parry Family of New Hope Richard Randolph Parry 69 

William Penn's Children Rev. D. K. Turner 89 

Bogart's Inn, An Old Hostelry Warren S. Ely 96 

Wrightstown Settlers Mrs. Cynthia S. Holcomb 107 

The German Element in Bucks County . -Prof. S. M. Rosenberger 118 

Stone Implements ; Miss S. Newell Wardle 122 

The Eastburn Family Eastburn Reeder 129 

The Warminster Harts Gen. W. W. H. Davis 138 

Biographical Notice of Rev. Douglas K. 

Turner Rev. S. F. Hotchkin 148 

The Wynkoop Family Capt. William Wynkoop 156 

The Kenderdines of Bucks County Thaddeus S. Kenderdine 162 

The Hilltown Thomas Family A. K. Thomas 170 

Revolutionary Events about Newtown • • • Samuel Gordon Smyth 177 

Judge Henry Wynkoop John Sparhawk Wurts 197 

The Rodmans and Foxes Marshall R. Pugh 218 

The Folwells of Bucks County Prof. William Watts Folwell • 232 


Historic " Summerseat " Dr. Richard H. S. Osborne. .. 237 

Morrisville and Its Vicinity Dr. Robert S. Dana 242 

Five Bucks County Generals Gen. W. W. H. Davis' 258 

The "Virginia Riflemen '' a Misnomer- .John A. Ruth 261 

The Old Pennypack Baptist Church Rev. S. F. Hotchkin 274 

Newtown — Old and New Capt. William Wynkoop 287 

The Tohickon Settlers Warren S. Ely 296 

Keller Family History Edward Matthews 307 

The Newtown Library George A. Jenks 316 

Historical Reminiscences of Pineville 

and Vicinity Matthias H. Hall 332 

Law Governing the Settlement of New 

Countries Gen. W. W. H. Davis 341 

Robert Morris, Founder of Morrisville . -Ellis P. Oberholtzer 345 

Morrisville the Capital Hon. Harman Yerkes 355 

Founding of Morrisville William C. Ryan 361 

Sharon and the Indian Legend Con- 
nected Therewith Miss Belle VanSant 368 

An Old Mowing Machine Thaddeus S. Kenderdine 373 

The Colonial Origin of Some Bucks 

County Families Samuel Gordon Smyth 379 

Old Presbyterian Church at Newtown - - -CapL. William Wynkoop 392 

Links in the Chain of Local History Gen. W. W. H. Davis 398 

Phases of Library Life John W. Jordan, LL-D. 404 

Jacob Jennings Brown, the "Fighting 

Quaker " of Bucks County Mrs. A. Elizabeth Wager-Smith 416 

The Dungan Ancestry Howard O. Folker 429 

The Chapman-Mina Tragedy Thaddeus S. Kenderdine 454 

Tools of the Nation Maker Henry C. Mercer 469 

Flax and Its Culture Grier Scheetz 482 

Brief History Talks Henry C. Mercer, et. al. 487 

Mexico and the Montezumas Gen. W. W. H. Davis 487 

Lord de la War's Scarf Mrs. Irvin Megargee James. . - 491 

Cave Explorations Henry C. Mercer 491 

The Lenape Stone Henry C. Mercer 492 

Origin and Customs of Christmas Fes- 
tivals Mrs. William R. Mercer, Jr. - - 493 

Anti Slavery Days — Experiences of 

Fugitives Hon. Harman Yerkes 504 

Bucks County in Our Nation's History - -Capt. William Wynkoop 513 


Firearms of Colonial Times Arthur Chapman 519 

The Military Halberd of the Eighteenth 

Century Frederick J. Shellenberger . . • 521 

Henry Quinn, Author of "Temple of 

Reason " B. F. Fackenthal, Jr 526 

Old Shad Fisheries on the Delaware 

River Dr. J. Ernest Scott 534 

The Spirit Colony at Parkland Charles M. Meredith 542 

Old New Hope, Formerly Coryell's 

Ferry, Pa Richard Randolph Parry 547 

Ivongstreth Family of Warminster Mrs. Anna Longstreth Tilney 565 

History of Bee Culture Prof. J. Wilmer Pancoast 571 

Silk Culture in Bucks County John A. Anderson 579 

A House with a History Gen. W. W. H. Davis 586 

The Ringing Rocks B. F. Fackenthal, Jr 590 

Rev. Nathaniel Irwin Rev. D. K. Turner 592 

Admiral John A. Dahlgren, U. S. N Rev. D. K. Turner 603 

The Relations of the Pennsylvania Pro- 
prietaries to the Colonists Rev. D. K. Turner 621 

Oeneral Jean Victor Maria Moreau Rev. D. K. Turner 632 

The Claim of Connecticut to Wyoming . . . Rev. D. K. Turner 644 

General Andrew Pickens Rev. D. K. Turner 657 

Old Doylestown Miss Mary L. DuBois 670 



Henry C. Mercer (portrait) Frontispiece 

Wooden Mould-board Plow 1 1 

Smith Cast-Iron Mould-board Plow 1 1 

The Durham Vigilant Society, Organized September 21, 1832, 

Certificate of Membership 23 

Richland Friends' Meeting-house, Ouakertown, Pa 42 

Men's Gallery in same 42 

Women's Gallery in same 42 

The Old Parry Mansion, New Hope, Pa 69 

The Washington Tree, at New Hope, Pa 69 

Chimney Corner and Crane in Kitchen of Old Parry Mansion 88 

Rev. D. K. Turner (portrait) 148 

Judge Henry Wynkoop (portrait) 197 

Tombstone of Henry Wynkoop 217 

General Daniel Morgan ( portrait ) 258 

Presbyterian Church, Newtown, Pa 392 

Brick Hotel, Newtown, Pa 392 

Tools of the Nation Maker — 

1. Pioneer's Tree-felling Axe 469 

2. Irish Rush Light 471 

3. Whetting the Dutch Scythe 472 

4. Pennsylvania German Fractur 474 

5. Boat Shaped Hanging Lard Lamps 475 

6. Striking Fire with the Tinder Box 477 

7. Shovel Plow 479 

8. Pennsylvania German Decorated Stove Plate 481 

Tools and Processes for Preparing and Spinning Flax (5 views) 482 

Military Halberd of the Eighteenth Century 521 

Henry Quinn (silhouette) 526 

Home of Henry Quinn in Durham Township 526 

Shad Fishing on the Delaware River (5 views) 534 

Ingham or Great Spring in Solebury Township 564 

John Fitch Monument 569 

A House with a History 586 

Ringing Rocks of Bridgeton Township (2 views) 590 


Organized November 20, 1880. 
Incorporated February 23, 1885. 

For Charter, Constitution, By-laws, and List of Members, see Vol. I. 


For the Year Ending January, 1910. 

General W. W. H. Davis 

Vice Presidents 
John S. Williams Henry C. Mercer 


Thomas C. Knowles Yardley, Pa. 

Henry C. Mercer Doylestown , Pa. 

Mrs. Richard Watson Doylestown, Pa. 

(Term expires January, 1910) 

General W. W. H. Davis Doylestown, Pa. 

Captain William Wynkoop Newtown, Pa. 

Miss Mary L. DuBois Doylestown, Pa. 

(Term expires January, 1911) 

Alfred Paschall West Chester, Pa. 

John S. Williams New Hope, Pa. 

Mrs. Harman Yerkes Doylestown, Pa. 

(Term expires January, 1912) , 

Secretary and Treasurer Librarian and Curator 

Clarence D. Hotchkiss, Warren S. Ely, 

Doylestown, Pa. Doylestown, Pa. 


See Vol. I for list of members corrected to August i, 1908. 

Name Address When qualified 

Bache, Miss Mabel S Bound Brook, N. J June 7, 1909 

Coryell, Torbert Lambertville, N.J June 7, 1909 

DuBois, John L., Jr Doylestown June 20, 1909 

Jones, Edward Russell Philadelphia Mar. 12, 1909 

Jones, Stockton W Doylestown Nov. 19, 1908 

Reeder, Watson K New Hope Jan. 20, 1909 

Reeder, Mrs. Watson K New Hope Jan. 20, 1909. 

Swope, Miss Laura R Erwinna Jan. 20, 1909 

Tierney, Robert Philadelphia Jan. 20, 1909 


Name Residence Date of death 

Alburger, Mrs. Eliza M Andalusia Apr., 1908 

Cadwallader, Capt. C. G Philadelphia Apr. 6, 1909, 

Cunningham, Matthew C Philadelphia Feb. 15, 1909 

Jenks, George A Newtown Apr. 2, 1909 

Reeder, Mrs. Eastburn New Hope Apr. 3, 1909 

Riegel, Warren N Philadelphia Dec. 9, 190S 

Twining, Henry M Philadelphia 


Living Deceased 

Men Women Total Men Women Total 

Life members 313 315 628 79 26 105 

Honorary life members 18 5 23 12 3 15 

Total 331 320 651 91 29 120 

Total enrollment 771 

Deceased 120 

Members living 651 

Sketch of Log College. 

(Ambler Park Meeting, June lo, 1886.) 

|00N after William Penn opened the Province of Penn- 
sylvania for settlement, a little more than two hun- 
dred years ago, many English people crossed the 
ocean and found a new home in and around Phila- 
delphia. They were followed somewhat later by immigrants 
from the north of Ireland, who were of Scotch descent, and who 
were attracted hither by the fertility and cheapness of the land, 
the genial climate and the civil and religious liberty enjoyed 
under the mild sway of the Proprietary. 

Among them was Rev. William Tennent, born in or about 
1673, in county Down, Ulster, Ireland. He received a thorough 
cla'ssical education, and was ordained deacon and priest in the 
established Episcopal church of his native country, where he was 
chaplain to a nobleman. Having married the daughter of Rev. 
Mr. Kennedy, a Presbyterian clergyman, and being dissatisfied 
with Episcopacy, he turned his steps with his family to America, 
where he arrived in 1716 or 1717, when he was in the vigor of 
his manhood, about 43 or 44 years of age. In 17 18, a year or 
two after he reached New York, he united with the Presbytery 
in that city, giving the reasons that influenced him in making 
the change in his ecclesiastical connections. From 1718 to 1726 
he was minister of the Presbyterian church in Bedford, N. Y., 
as appears from the records of that church still in existence. 
In the latter year he came by invitation to Bucks county, Pa., 
to the neighborhood of Neshaminy, now Hartsville. It is 
uncertain whether he found a church already formed or gathered 
one himself from the settlers, mostly his countrymen, who 
had recently' been landing in large numbers in Penn's hospitable 
domain. Settlements were forming rapidly on both sides of the 
Delaware river and in Maryland and Virginia, and ministers 
were needed to preach the gospel to the increasing population. 
Some of that profes'sion came from Great Britain and some from 


New England, but too few adequately to supply the destitution. 
A part of the synod of Philadelphia were decidedly in favor 
of a liberally educated ministry and were opposed to receiving 
any mto their number but such as had been trained at a uni- 
versity ; while others, contemplating the wants of the country 
and the lack of men thoroughly qualified, were ready to welcome 
candidates who were endowed with competent talents and piety, 
though their education was somewhat limited. 

Mr. Tennent sympathized with the latter class and was deeply 
impressed with the importance of having young men prepared 
for the sacred office on our own shores. No theological seminary 
had then been established in our land, nor was there any col- 
lege west of the Hudson river. To meet the demand for intel- 
ligent and devoted clergymen, he determined to open an insti- 
tution in which instruction might be given in the Latin classics, 
in the original language of the Scriptures. Greek and Hebrew, 
and in the doctrines of Christianity. It was designed to be not 
a mere academy nor a college for a scientific and classical course 
alone, but to combine the advantages which such institutions 
afford with training in theology. At what date Mr. Tennent com- 
menced his efforts in this direction imperfect records fail to in- 
form us, but it was probably not long after his settlement at 
Neshaminy. We are equally in ignorance of the precise spot 
where it was inaugurated. The site of the log structure, in 
which it was held during the later years of its existence, was on 
the "York turnpike, about a mile south of Hartsville, in Bucks 

county, on ground now occupied by Mr. Warner, formerly 

a part of the farm of Isaac Carrell. Mr. Tennent bought this 
tract of lOO acres of John White, of Philadelphia, September 
II, 1735, and in the deed conveying it to him he is spoken of 
as a resident of Northampton. Hence he must have had his 
seminary previous to 1735 in some other locality, perhaps in the 
township of Northampton. But in what precise spot it wds be- 
fore matters little. It was within the bounds of Neshaminy con- 
gregation, of which he was the pastor, and therein were educated 
many men eminent for learning, eloquence, talents and piety, who 
shone as bright lights in the subsequent history of the Presbyterian 
church. The building in which its exercises proceeded after 
1735. stood three-quarters of a century or more, until it had 


become time-worn, when it was taken down and appropriated to 
ignoble uses ; but a cane made from a part of it was deposited 
by Rev. Robert B. Belville, formerly pastor at Neshaminy, 
in the library of Princeton College, where it now is, a relic of 
an edifice within whose humble walls the minds of men were 
disciplined who became distinguished in the church and state. 

Four ,sons of Mr. Tennent, Gilbert, William, John and Charles, 
received all their training from their father, though the eldest, 
Gilbert, was not strictly speaking a student in the college, 
having reached the age of twenty-three when the family came 
to Pennsylvania. He assisted in giving instruction at Neshaminy 
in 1726 and became pastor of a church in New Brunswick, N. 
J., the next year, where he remained till 1743, when he was called 
to the Second Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, and there 
closed his labors and his life in 1764, in the 62nd year of his 
age. He was endowed with great mental ability, and preached 
with remarkable power, not only in the cities where he resided, 
but in Boston and other places in Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, whither he went on long evangelistic tours, and occupied a 
position among the most prominent in the land, which he ably 
filled. Rev. George Whitfield, the celebrated evangelist, speaks 
of him in the highest terms of commendation. Among other 
remarks he says, "In New York I went to the meeting-house 
to hear Rev. Gilbert Tennent preach, and never before heard 
I such a searching sermon. He is a son of thunder and does 
not regard the face of man." Dr. Alexander observes, "it is 
doubtful whether Mr. Whitfield ever expressed so high an opin- 
ion of any other preacher of any denomination. Indeed it 
is probable that he never met with a man of a more perfectly 
congenial spirit with his own." Gilbert Tennent was buried first 
under the middle aisle of the second church in Philadelphia, 
and when the building was remodeled his remains were depos- 
ited in the grave-yard belonging to that church in Arch street, 
between Fifth and Sixth streets, and in 1853 they were removed 
to the cemetery of the Presbyterian church in Abington, Pa., 
where they now lie. 

John Tennent was settled as minister to the church in Free- 
hold, N. J., when only twenty-three years of age, but died two 
years afterwards of consumption, when he had apparently but 


just begun his work. It has been said of him, '"Natural quick- 
ness of apprehension, copiousness of fancy and fluency of ex- 
pression served to quahfy him eminently for the office of a 
preacher." If he had lived till middle life he would in all 
probability have been in a high rank in the sacred profes-sion. 
\\'illiam Tennent succeeded John at Freehold, N. J., in 1733. 
Before his ordination, while pursuing his studies at the house of 
his brother, Gilbert, in New Brunswick, he became unwell from 
excessive mental application, and at length his life seemed to 
be in danger. While in this state of extreme debility he sudden- 
ly lost the power of motion, color left his face, his eyes closed, 
his senses failed, breathing and pulsation ceased, and he appeared 
to die. Every means was employed to recall the spark of anima- 
tion, but in vain. After two or three days the body was pre- 
pared for burial and invitations were sent out for the funeral, 
but a young physician who had attended him thought he ob- 
served an unusual warmth about the heart, and induced his 
brother, Gilbert, to postpone the last rites till the following day. 
Meantime the utmost exertions were made to reawaken vital- 
ity without avail. The hour for the interment had a second time 
arrived and the people were assembled, when the doctor, who 
had been near the body constantly, unwilling to withdraw his 
efforts for resuscitation, was putting some oil on the tongue, 
which had become swollen and cracked. At this juncture, to 
the alarm and astonishment of all present, the eyes, deep sunk 
in their sockets, opened, a dreadful moan was heard and again 
all was silence and apparent death. Thoughts of burial were 
now exchanged for renewed attempts to recall life, and in a 
few hours consciousness fully returned. For about six weeks, how- 
ever, he continued so feeble that his final recovery seemed doubt- 
ful, and a year elapsed before he was restored to ordinary health. 
When he was able to walk about his room and converse some- 
what, it was discovered that he had forgotten everything that 
related to his previous life. He did not know how to read or 
write, and Latin, which he could speak readily before, had 
entirely gone from his recollection. He; had to be taught anew, 
like a child. One day when he was reciting to his brother from 
a Latin author, he put his hand quickly to his head and remarked 
i:hat he felt a throb of pain there, and it seemed to him he 


had read that book before. From that time his memory gradu- 
ally recovered its strength, his former history came again to his 
recollection, and he could speak Latin as well as ever. He 
always thought that during the period of suspended animation 
his spirit was conducted by an angel to the confines of Heaven, 
and that he saw some of its ineffable glories and heard the songs 
of the ransomed, and it was a sore trial to him when he was 
told that he must return to earth. H^is pastorate at Freehold 
continued till his death in 1777, a period of forty-four years. 
His attainments in the classical languages and in divinity were 
of a high order, he was an earnest and impressive expounder of 
the word from the sacred desk, displayed rare wisdom and 
knowledge of human nature, and wielded a powerful influence 
over the minds of his hearers. He was an ardent patriot, and 
during the portion of the Revolutionary war in which he lived, 
he exerted his influence to the utmost for the success of the 
American Colonies in their struggle for independence. 

Charles Tennent, the fourth son of Rev. William Tennent, Sen., 
was born in Ireland and came to this country when five or six 
years old, with his father, by whom he was educated at home 
and in Log College. In 1737 he was ordained and installed 
at Vvhiteclay Creek, in Delaware, where he remained twenty- 
five years, and in 1762 removed to Buckingham, Maryland, 
serving the church there till about the time of his death in 1770 
or 1 77 1. Though less distinguished than his brothers, he pos- 
sessed a sound, clear mind, and was useful in the sacred calling 
to which his life was devoted. His son, Rev. William M. 
Tennent, was for many years pastor of the Presbyterian church 
in Abington, in this county, and having acquired extensive learn- 
ing he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Yale Col- 
lege. He married Miss Susanna Rodgers, daughter of Rev. Dr. 
John Rodgers, of New York. 

Another student at Log College was Rev. Samuel Blair. Born 
in Ireland in 1712, he was under Mr. Tennent's tuition between 
1730 and 1735, and was first stationed at Shrewsbury, N. J., 
afterwards, in 1740, at New Londonderry, Pa., often called 
Fagg's Manor. Here he established a school similar to that at 
Neshaminy, after Mr. Tennent had become too old and infirm to 
engage in that kind of labor. At this seminary, which may be 


regarded as a continuation of Log College, some men were 
trained who rose to eminence in- the land. Among these were 
Rev. Samuel Davies, the successor of Dr. Jonathan Edwards in 
the presidency of Princeton College ; Rev. Alexander Cummings, 
Rev. Dr. John Rodgers, Rev. James Finley and Rev. Hugh 
Henry. President Davies visited Europe, and on his return he 
was asked his opinion of the celebrated preachers he had heard 
while he was abroad. After speaking in most favorable terms of 
many, to whom he listened with much pleasure and profit, he 
said, that "he had heard no one who in his judgment was su- 
perior to his former teacher, Samuel P>lair." 

Rev. John Blair, a younger brother of Samuel, was also a pu- 
pil at Log College. He was pastor twelve or fourteen years 
of three congregations in Cumberland county. Pa., one of which 
was Big Spring, now Newville. When the French and Indian 
war commenced, his home was in danger of attack by the sava- 
ges, who were frequently making incursions against the frontier 
settlements, and he was compelled to leave that part of the State. 
.A.bout tliat time the church at Fagg's Manor vv'as made vacant 
by the death of his brother Samuel, and he v/as called to that 
field. Here he remained nine years, and besides performing his 
clerical duties in an able manner, he superintended the school 
his brother had established and prepared many 3'Oung men for 
the ministry by instructing them in the languages, philosophy 
and theology. When Dr. Finley, president of Princeton College, 
died, he was chosen professor of Divinity, and subseciuently vice- 
president of the college, and discharged the functions of the pres- 
ident till the arrival of Dr. Witherspoon. As the funds of the 
institution were at that time limited, and Dr Witherspoon was 
an eminent divine fully qualified to instruct in theology, he re- 
signed his professorshi]) and accepted an invitation to be minis- 
ter at Wallkill, Orange county. N. Y.. where he died in 1771. 

Rev. Samuel Finley. another of the students at Neshaminy, 
was seventeen years pastor at Nottingham. ^Maryland, where 
besides preaching the gospel with great fidelity and acceptance 
he established a school like that of Mr. Tennent, and that of 
the Blairs at Fagg's Manor. In it several men of a high order 
of intellect were fitted for honor and usefulness in the churches 
of America. Having proved himself able to conduct the educa- 


tion of brilliant young- men, as well as to move and edify an 
audience from the pulpit, he was chosen president of Princeton 
College, and succeeded Mr. Davies in that important position. 
While there he became favorably known in Great Britain for 
talents, learning and piety, and the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity was conferred upon him by the University of Glasgow, which 
was at that time an unprecedented honor for any American. 

I might speak particularly of others who studied under Mr. 
Tennent, as Rev. William Robinson and Rev. John Rowland, 
but limited time forbids. I will pass on hastily to Rev. Charles 
Beatty. His mother's maiden name was Christianna Clinton. 
General George Clinton, of the Revolutionary army, eighteen 
years governor of the State of New York and for two terms 
Vice President of the United States, was her nephew, and De- 
Witt Clinton, the projector of the Erie canal, was the son of 
another nephew. Charles Beatty was brought over from Ire- 
land when a child, and after he was sufficiently grown he traveled 
as an itinerant peddler for several years. One day in the pur- 
suit of this vocation he halted at Log College, and astonished 
Mr. Tennent by addressing him in correct Latin. After much 
conversation with him, in which he seemed to manifest talent, 
piety and a tolerably good education, the venerable clergyman 
said to him : "Go and sell the contents of your pack, and return 
immediately and study with me : it will be a sin for you to con- 
tinue a peddler, when you can be so much more useful in another 
profession." He accepted the invitation, became a minister, and 
the successor of Mr. Tennent himself at Neshaminy, where he 
was ordained in 1743 and where he remained pastor till his 
death, a period of twenty-nine years. During this time the 
French and Indian war took place, and troops were raised in 
Pennsylvania to defend the frontiers against the attacks of the 
savages. A corps of 500 men was enlisted and placed under 
the command of the philosopher. Benjamin Franklin, and Mr. 
Beatty was appointed chaplain. They marched against the ene- 
my early in January, 1756. While in this campaign of peril and 
hardship, an amusing incident occurred, which is thus related 
by Franklin himself. "W^e had for our chaplain a zealous 
Presbyterian minister, Mr. Beatty, who complained to me that 
the men did not generally attend his prayers and exhortations. 


When they enhsted they were promised, besides pay and provis- 
ions, a gill of rum a day, which was punctually served out to 
them, half in the morning and half in the evening, and I observed 
they were punctual in attending to receive it, upon which I said 
to Mr. Beatty, 'It is perhaps below the dignity of your profession 
to act as the steward of the rum, but if you were to distribute it 
out only just after prayers you would have them all about you.' He 
liked the thought, undertook the task, and with the help of a few 
hands to measure out the liquor executed it to satisfaction, and 
never were prayers more generally and more punctually attended ; 
so that I think this method preferable to the punishment inflicted 
by some military laws for non-attendance on divine service." 

From this expedition Mr. Beatty returned home early in the 
spring of 1756, and as recruits were much needed for the army 
he urged those of his people who could be spared to enlist and 
serve against the barbarous and cruel foe, and tokb them that if 
the synod would provide supplies for his pulpit he would offer 
himself as chaplain, and should be glad to have some of his con- 
gregation go with him. So forcible was his address that during 
the following week about a hundred men agreed to accompany 
him, and he was commissioned by the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the State to be chaplain to the regiment of foot under Colonel 
Clapham. The synod commended his course and provided for 
the supply of his pulpit, and he was absent most of the summer 
with the Provincial troops, going as far as the region west of the 
Susquehanna river. In 1758 an expedition was sent against the 
French and Indians in the western part of the State, consisting of 
9.000 men under General Forbes, and Mr. Beatty was invited to 
act as chaplain of the First Batallion of Pennsylvania Provincials. 
These forces compelled the French, who had been deserted by 
their Indian allies, to abandon Fort Du Ouesne and retreat in 
boats down the Ohio. Our army took possession of the fort 
November 25, and its name was changed to Fort Pitt, in honor 
of William Pitt, nov/ Pittsburg. Mr. Beatty preached a thanks- 
giving sermon after the triumphant occupation of the enemy's 
fortification, before the whole army, no doubt the first thanks- 
giving discourse, and perhaps the first Protestant sermon ever 
delivered in the valley of the Mississippi. 

In 1760 he was sent to Great Britain by the corporation of 


the fund for the widows and orphans of deceased ministers, to 
sohcit contributions in aid of the fund. He left Philadelphia in 
March and visited England, Scotland and the north of Ireland, 
and crossed over the channel to Holland, preaching often, and 
meeting with much encouragement in his efforts to collect money. 
He witnessed the coronation of George HI October 25, was pre- 
sented at court and received from his majesty a' handsome dona- 
tion for the fund. He seems to have been absent in this work 
two years, supplies being sent for his church by the synod. 

In 1766 he was commissioned by the synod to go in company 
with Rev. George Duffield, of Carlisle, to the western part of 
Pennsylvania to visit the Indian tribes there and prepare the way 
for the establishment of a mission among them. He penetrated 
the wilderness on horseback one hundred and thirty miles beyond 
Pittsburg, had several interviews with different sachems, to whom 
he explained Christianity through an interpreter, and returned 
after two months absence. In 1767, on account of the ill health 
of Mrs. Beatty, he visited Great Britain a second time, being 
absent, as before, about two years. He was treated with great 
respect in Scotland, being elected free burgess of three important 
towns in that country. 

He manifested much interest in the prosperity of Princeton 
College, of which institution he was a trustee nine years. In 
1772 it was deemed advisable that some one should go to the 
West India Islands, where many wealthy English planters resided, 
to secure donations for the support of the college. As Dr. With- 
erspoon, first appointed, could not leave his family, Mr. Beatty 
was selected for the important and honorable task. He repaired 
to Barbadoes, where he was taken sick of yellow fever and died 
August 13, 1772. Dr. Sproats, of Philadelphia, preached a funer- 
al sermon on his death, when intelligence of it reached this 
country, and he was widely lamented as an able and highly useful 
minister of the gospel. 

I have thus spoken briefly of some of the alumni of Log College. 
All of them, concerning whom we have knowledge, were accept- 
able public speakers, and faithful in the discharge of the ministe- 
rial office, and some rose to eminence and distinction. The institu- 
tion was the germ of Princeton College, which was founded soon 
after Rev. William Tennent, Sr., died, and located originally in 


Elizabethtown, N. J., in 1746, removed to Newark in 1748 and per- 
manently to Princeton in 1756. Most of the members of the New- 
Brunswick Presbytery at its formation had been students at 
Neshaminy, and all of them held views similar to those of the 
Tennents. They desired to have a college founded upon principles 
which they deemed sound and adapted to promote the good of 
men, and their efforts led to the establishment of the College of 
New Jersey, which has been for almost one hundred and fifty 
years a fountain sending forth streams of light and blessing to our 
country and the world. Log College was the predecessor and 
the origin of the two schools of a like character at Fagg's Manor 
and Nottingham, Maryland, which were opened by its pupils, 
and many noted men were educated wholly or in part in those sem- 
inaries ; and it has been said that JeiTerson College, Hampden 
Sidney and Washington College, in Virginia, sprang ultimately 
from the obscure seat of learning at Neshaminy, for they were 
all founded and conducted originally by graduates of Princeton. 

When the general assembly of the Presbyterian church in the 
United States determined in 181 1 to establish a theological sem- 
inary, some were in favor of fixing its location where Log College 
stood, to which the Presbyterian church owes so large a debt of 
gratitude, and Rev. Nathaniel Irwin, then pastor at Neshaminy, 
left in his will one thousand dollars to be given to the institution 
on condition that that site was chosen. But it v;as deemed best 
ultimately to place it at Princeton. It has been nearly a century 
and a half since Mr. Tennent's humble school of the prophets 
passed away, but it still lives in the important and beneficent 
results that flowed from it. 

rseded early in the nineteenth century by wrought-iron and cast-iron mould-boards. 
Photograph from plow in museum of the Bucks County Historical Society. 

Made by Mahlon Smith on the famous Smith mode 


hich was the successor of the 
wooden plow in Bucks county. The Smith mould-board was invented by Joseph Smith, 
for which a patent was taken out by his l>rother Robert Smith, May m, iSoo. 
Photograph from plow in museum of the Bucks County Historical Society. 

The Smith Plow. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 15, 1901.) 

A little more than one hundred years ago a resident of Buck- 
ingham township, a quiet, unassuming man, with a strong me- 
chanical genius, and a Yankee's aptitude for handling a pocket 
knife, amused himself by whittling out miniature models for a 
plow. For some years he had given attention to the best curves 
for a mould-board to turn a smooth furrow and of easy draught. 
Up to that time (at least in this section of the world) the plow 
was made wholly of wood, or, at its best, the mould-board was 
only sheathed with iron, and the work done by such plows was 
of a very rude and primitive sort. 

This man who had set himself the task of improving the 
plow was Joseph, son of Timothy Smith, who lived on a farm 
about a mile and a quarter northeast of Pineville. After the 
model was completed a patent for the mould-board was sought 
and obtained by Robert Smith, a brother of Joseph. Just why 
the patent was taken out in the name of Robert, instead of 
Joseph, is not known, for no doubt seems to exist as to Joseph 
having been the inventor, and moreover the invention was so 
well known and so important to agriculture, as to lead to a 
personal acquaintance with Thomas Jefiferson and other dis- 
tinguished men of that time. 

The patent sets forth that for certain improvements to the 
plow, it was granted to Robert Smith, in the city of Philadelphia, 
then the seat of Government of the United States, May 19, 1800, 
and is signed by John Adams, President, and Charles Lee, Secre- 
tary of State. The specifications which should accompany the 
patent have disappeared, but enough letters and other documents 
are still extant to prove the nature of the mould-board. An 
inquiry addressed to the patent-office a few years ago brought 
the reply that a patent for plow mould-board was granted to 
Robert Smith, of Pennsylvania, on the date given, and also that 


"The records of this patent were destroyed in the fire of 1836, 
and they have not been restored." 

The patent, together with some of the old letters, have been 
framed and may be found in the room of the Historical Society 
at Doylestown, where there is also a Smith plow made by Mah- 
lon, son of Joseph, who succeeded his father in the busuiess of 
plow-making. Both patent and plow have been photographed 
for the Society's album. 

The first mould-boards made after the pattern furnished by 
Joseph Smith were cast at the furnace of Charles Newbold, 
in New Jersey, below Camden, but later an agreement for 
casting them was made with Robeson & Paul, of Philadelphia. 

The late Josiah B. Smith, in his genealogy of Robert Smith, 
grandfather of Joseph, says : 

"The miniature models for a plow -whittled out by him with a pocket 
knife for amusement years before, when there was nothing else to do, at- 
tracted attention to the man who made them. He had now an opportunity 
of bringing his ideal plow to the test of a trial in the field, and went to 
work earnestly feeling sure of success. As soon as he finished a pattern it 
was taken to the foundry of Charles Newbold, below Camden, N. J., where 
it was used in making the first cast iron moulds. The castings were 
brought home and a plow finished ready for trial. The talk about the new 
plow during the progress of the work of making it, excited much interest 
to see it in motion. On the day of trial a large crowd of people came to the 
field to see it turn a furrow. One who was present at the trial told the 
writer, it was a proud day for the maker of the plow." 

Joseph Smith's home was with his father, Timothy, who 
united the two occupations of farmer and blacksmith. In the 
shop on the farm, erected by Timothy soon after his marriage in 
1745, Joseph also learned the trade of blacksmith, and it was 
here the first plow of the new pattern was put together. The 
farm is now owned and occupied by Heston J. Smith, a great- 
grandson of Joseph. A few years ago in making excavations 
near his buildings for a drain he came on the foundation walls 
and stone sills of Timothy Smith's blacksmith shop. At a little 
distance from the shop there are traces of an old lime-kiln, 
supposed to have been erected by the Robert Smith to whom the 
plow patent was granted, which was the first kiln in Bucks 
county in which lime was burned. 

The superiority of the iron mould -board over the wooden 

the; smith plow , 13 

one was so great that numbers of them were soon in use ; but 
they were made and sold at distant places without regard to 
the patent, and it was impossible to collect the royalty except 
on those made comparatively near home, so the pecuniary benefit 
to the inventor was small when compared to the number in use. 
Mahlon Smith, born in 1783, who could well remember seeing 
his father making the first pattern for the casting, said: "If the 
whole royalty on the cast iron mould had been collected it 
would have made all the family rich. But the plows came into 
use so rapidly, there was not one person in ten who knew there 
was a patent." 

Robeson & Paul, the founders, rendered an account February i, 
1804, for the preceding year. They had cast during the year 
1,200 moulds of which all were sold except 135. This statement 
of Robeson & Paul from 1804 to 1807, three years, shows a 
royalty in that time of $2,617. -'^"^^ i" a letter from Robeson & 
Paul, dated Philadelphia, March 11, 1808, they say that "many 
persons are making and vending Smith moulds without any re- 
gard to your patent." 

In reference to prior claims to the invention of the cast iron 
mould-board, Josiah B. Smith says : "A claim was afterward 
made in England of'a priority of right in the plow, by discovery 
and use. The claim excited a considerable degree of interest 
at the time, but it was not sustained at a hearing of the case." 
Mr. H. C. Mercer, in the description of the Smith plow in the 
Historical Society's Catalog, "Tools of the Nation Maker," 
pp. 68 and 69, says : 

"Plows made more or less of wood in Colonial Bucks county, and con- 
tinuing into the present century were make-shifts and did not represent the 
general development of the invention in regard to plows, wrought iron 
shares, mould-boards and other parts of plows having been in use in the old 
world at the time our colonists left it. In 1740 and 1785 James Small, 
of Scotland, and Robert Ransom, of Ipswich, England, patented cast iron 
mould-boards and shares to replace those of wrought iron previously used. 
Newbold, of New Jersey obtained an iron plow patented in 1797, and iron 
mould -board plows were in use in New York by 1800, but neither the 
Smith's nor Newbold can claim the cast iron mould-board as an invention."* 
* There is evidence among the original papers of the Durham iron-works, to show 
that wrought-iron mould-boards were made prior to the cast-iron mould-boards invented by 
Mr. Smith. A letter from Thomas Anderson of the Greenwich forge in New Jersey, 
situated about two miles across the river from Durham, under date of July 7, 1788, 
refers to sending "Six Share Moles & Land Sides." Editors. 


We have no reason to doubt the statements made ; they are 
evidently correct, except the last. In those days of slow commu- 
nication between different parts of the country, it might well 
happen that an article would come into use in one neighborliood 
long before it was known in another, or that two or more men, 
m widely separated countries or neighborhoods, urged by the 
same necessity, might invent the same implement, or improvement 
on one already in use, and each be perfectly honest in so doing. 
This might happen even in tliese days of lightning communica- 
tion ; how much more likely a century ago. Joseph Smith may 
have heard of the cast iron mould-board, but never saw one ; they 
evidently were not in use in this section of the country. Neither 
can we doubt he was an honest man and that the iron mould- 
board as shaped by him was really and truly his own invention. 
The time being ripe for its introduction, it soon came into gen- 
eral use, so fast that as before stated it was made and sold re- 
gardless of the patent, which was not renewed at the expiration 
of the first term of years. 

A subsequent claim to the invention was made by Jethro Wood, 
of New York, who it was said invented the truly first iron, mould- 
board in 1814, for which he obtained a patent in 1819. Alunn & 
Co., editors and proprietors of The Scientific American, publish 
a small hand book in which, but a few years ago, they gave 
among a list of great American inventors, Jethro Wood, as the 
inventor of the cast iron mould-board, and therefore one of the 
greatest benefactors to his fellow men, as before his time the 
plow was a mere stick of wood. Munn & Co., may have been 
honest in their opinion, but Jethro Wood himself must have 
known that iron mould-boards were made previous to his own, 
as sometime after the date when he claimed to have invented it. 
he wrote to Joseph Smith telling him of it, and making the propo- 
sition they go into partnership for their manufacture. Joseph 
Smith in reply said that as he had already obtained 'a patent years 
before for an iron mould-board, which patent had expired by 
limitation, he did not care to enter into any such partnership. Yet 
Jethro Wood obtained a patent, and has generally been credited 
with the invention. His family in after years was awarded 
$25,000 by Congress for his great service to mankind. 

Mahlon Smith said his father's idea of the proper siiape of 


a mould-board was that it should be a perfect screw, and Elihu 
Smith, grandson of Robert, the patentee, said the lines of the 
mould-board of the Syracuse Chilled Plow, the best modern 
make of plows, were almost identical with those of the Smith 

In 1802 Joseph Smith removed with his family from the 
Buckingham home to a point on the Delaware river, in Tinicum 
township, two miles above Point Pleasant, where he built dwel- 
ling houses and shops for blacksmithing and plow-making, and 
a mill for grinding grain. At that time there was no river road as 
known at the present, and he was obliged to go inland somewhat 
above the place he desired to reach, and return by a road which 
led down to the river. A newspaper account at the time of his 
death in 1826 says, "Selecting a rude and almost inaccessible 
spot on the Delaware he subdued the torrent to useful purposes 
and made his establishment the blessing of a large and populous 
district." The place b(.'came known as Smithtown, and is 
still so called, though the making of the canal at that narrow 
place destroyed the village. 

Bucks county is indebted to Joseph Smith for other things 
beside the iron mould-board. The obituary notice before quoted 
says : "His labors in introducing clover and the use of plaster 
have proved a lasting source of wealth to his native country." 
He was also the first person in Bucks county who succeeded in 
burning anthracite coal for fuel. His experiments in this line 
were made very early in the century. A wagon load of Lehigh 
coal was hauled down the river to demonstrate whether it could 
be burned in the blacksmith shop for making plow irons and 
other heavy work. The first experiment was made by heating the 
anthracite red hot with charcoal, but it was found the bellows 
could not be blown fast enough to keep the anthracite burning 
after the charcoal burned out. But he was not discouraged by 
failures though several experiments were unsuccessful. He no- 
ticed the draught was imperfect, and that it seemed to be choked 
with something which could not be removed by simply blowing 
the bellows, so it occurred to him that it might improve the 
draught if an opening cou'ld be made under the fire. To 
accomplish this he made a box with iron rods across the top 
to support the coal and keep a passage open for air beneath. 


This he sunk into the forge, then built a fire on top of the rods 
or grate, and blew the bellows into the box, thus making a draught 
up through the fire, instead of blowing directly into it which was 
sufficient for charcoal. The effect was instantly apparent. The 
important secret of igniting anthracite was solved. The discov- 
ery, simple as it was, enabled Joseph Smith to obtain a much 
greater heat than by the old method and also opened a market 
for Lehigh coal. In 1814 he went from Smithtown to Philadel- 
phia and spent two weeks superintending the construction of the 
right kind of forges for burning anthracite coal, in some of the 
larger shops and teaching the blacksmiths how to use it. To 
show that, like the iron mould-board, the use of anthracite coal 
increased rapidly when once it became known how to burn it, 
I quote one more item from his obituary notice : "To him we 
owe the introduction of anthracite coal into Bucks, and it is 
greatly through his example, that our cities and manufactories 
now enjoy a supply of this invaluable fuel." 

A short sketch of his life may not be amiss. He was the son 
of Timothy and Sarah (Kinsey) Smith, and grandson of Robert 
and Phebe (Canby) Smith, and was born 7th-mo. 7th. 1753, 
being the fourth one of seven children. He married Ann, 
daughter of Samuel and Jane (Schofield) Smith, of Windy Bush, 
iith-mo. 9th, 1774, this being the first union between the Smith 
families of Wrightstown and Buckingham. Ann Smith lived 
at the time with her parents in the old log house at Windy Bush 
The wedding was consummated in Wrightstown meeting-house ; 
the wedding dinner eaten at the home at Windy Bush; and, as 
the house was small, it was, according to prevailing custom, 
spread in the yard, and, remembering that the place was appro- 
priately named, that the time was November, and the meals served 
on pewter plates, we can well sympathize with the groom's say- 
ing, "He would rather have gone without his dinner." 

Joseph and Ann Smith had twelve children, all of whom lived 
to marry and have children ; there being all told upwards of 
eighty-four grandchildren, twenty of whom are still living. 
Nearly all of the children lived to the allotted age of man, sev- 
eral of them many years beyond. Daniel, the youngest son, died 
in Doylestown in October, 1893, in the 98th year of his age. 
The youngest, a daughter born in 1800, died in Doylestown, 


in August, 1897, and Mahlon, the second plow-maker, attained 
the ripe age of 93. 

Joseph died suddenly in 1826, aged 'j^ while away from home 
on a visit to relatives in Makefield and Solebury. His body was 
interred in the graveyard at Plumstead meeting-house. His 
wife survived him twenty-eight years, dying in 1854 within 
a few weeks of completing her looth year. 

The Historical Society has adopted the custom of erecting 
memorials to persons prominent in moulding the history of the 
county, and of marking spots fraught with historic interest. It 
would seem fitting that such a tribute be paid to Joseph Smith ; 
and a suitable spot would be the site of the village of Smith- 
town in the grass and weeds by the roadside. Near the foun- 
dation walls of one of the original houses, lies one of the old 
mill stones ; could not this be used in some way as part of a 
memorial, either as a base for a stone with suitable inscription, 
or, if it were set up on edge, as the background for a bronze 
plate recording the service to humanity rendered by Bucks 
county's blacksmith-farmer, Joseph Smith? 

Two Old Horse CompanieSi 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 15, 1901.) 

It is well to keep in mind and to transmit to posterity knowl- 
edge of all the institutions of every neighborhood, by which the 
social customs of the people are illustrated, especially if they 
have attained to considerable age, and have embraced many citi- 
zens within their limits. Nothing that has become venerable bv 
antiquity and has entered into the life and habits of the community 
ought to be regarded as unworthy of attention. Everything of 
this character communicated to future generations will show them 
how their predecessors lived, what their necessities and perils, 
their pleasures and enjoyments were and how they provided 
to meet them. 

With this idea in view I desire to present a brief sketch of two 
of the old horse companies of Bucks county. 

Previous to the formation of these companies there had been 


not infrequent instances of the stealing of valuable horses through- 
out the county and their total loss to their owners, for want of 
some more certain and reliable dependence for their recovery 
than the public authorities. The feeling was general that some 
measures ought to be taken to put a stop to the evil or to reduce 
it to a minimum. "The Warren Company for the recovery of 
stolen horses and other property and the detection of the thieves," 
was organized by 32 men who formed an association for this 
purpose, and subscribed a constitution and by-laws, most or all 
of whom resided in the townships of Warwick, Warminster, 
Warrington, Northampton, Southampton and Buckingham. Their 
first meeting was held at the house of Mrs. Earl in Warwick, 
March 22, 1824. The following officers were chosen: Presi- 
dent, Thomas Beans ; Vice President, William B. VanHorn ; 
Treasurer, John Hart ; Secretary, William H. Long. Commit- 
tee of Accounts, John Davis, William Hart, Robert Darrah. 

The other members were William Carr, Gaun Adams, Jona- 
than Conrad, Joseph Carrell, Jonathan Walton, William Long, 
Loto Search, Lewis F. Hart, John Polk, Charles G. Vansant, 
Thomas Hart, Edwin Yerkes, Joshua D. Hart, Joseph Carr, 
William A. Long, Thomas B. Craven, John Horner, John Thorn- 
ton, Simon Banes, William Rubinkam, James Johnson, James 
VanZant, Benjamin Montanye, James Horner, John Spencer. 

That a horse or other property, which had been stolen, might 
be recovered, it was necessary that some plan should be adopted 
for riding and search and that part of the country be divided 
into routes, which were assigned to different members of the 
company respectively. Route No. i was to Philadelphia. No. 
2, to Mitchell's and up the Delaware through Easton. No. 3. 
through Norristown to Wilmington. No. 4, by the Trappe, now 
Collegeville, toward Reading. No. 5, by Middle road, or Second 
street road, to Kensington and all the ferries to Trenton. No. 
6, through New Hope and down the river and across the country 
toward Flemington. No. 7, through Doylestown by Ouakertown 
and Allentown No. 8, through Newtown to Trenton and Prince- 
ton. The region was divided into two main districts, as above 
and below, and the members were classified in such a manner, 
that the class, from whose bounds property was first stolen, 


should pursue first and afterwards alternately. The expenses 
attending the apprehension and prosecution of thieves, it was pro- 
vided, should be paid by the company. The second regular 
meeting was held at the public house of Thomas Beans in War- 
minster, January i, 1825. This Thomas Beans was a noted man 
in his day; he owned and kept the tavern at the crossing of the 
Old York and the Street roads in Warminster many years, and 
it was much frequented by travelers and by farmers going to 
Philadelphia to market. He was fond of fine horses and had a 
race track on his property on which was tested the speed of the 
most famous roadsters. A level half-mile of the Street road 
just at hand was used for the same purpose. 

He was chosen president of the Warren Company annually for 
eighteen years, from 1824 to 1842. The other presidents in suc- 
cession have been: Robert Darrah, General John Davis, (father 
of Gen. W. W. H. Davis), John C. Beans, Joseph Barnsley, (who 
was formerly a member of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, and 
Collector of Internal Revenue of the United States for the Fifth 
District of Pennsylvania), and John M. Darrah, who is president 
at the present time. 

The following have been elected vice-presidents, serving in 
succession for different periods : William B. VanHorn, Robert 
Darrah, General John Davis, William Hart, John C. Beans, Joseph 
Carr, John Polk, Joseph Barnsley, Jonathan Davis, Ezra P. Car- 
rell. Sen., J. Johnson Beans, (formerly sheriff of the county), and 
H. Warren Hallowell, who is now vice-president. 

The following have been treasurers, elected yearly, serving 
different periods : 1824, John Hart ; 1840, William H. Hart ; 
1851, Harman Yerkes; 1869, Samuel Davis; 1870, William J. 
Kirk; 1884, T. B. Beans, now in office. 

The following have been secretaries: 1824, William H. Long; 
1832, James Horner, two or three years; 1851, William Glasgow; 
1884, R. T. Engart, the present incumbent. 

Hand bills containing the names of the members of the company 
have been printed at various periods and put up extensively in 
public places, that warning might be given the evil disposed of 
the danger of arrest. 

In 1850 Hugh Long, of Warrington, lost an old horse one night 
from the pasture, but as it was not certainly known, whether it 


Strayed or was stolen, the company paid him $30 for it and made 
no pursuit. 

On March 2"], 1858, John Hobensack had a horse stolen but as 
the matter was not brought to the attention 01 the company till 
April 12. more than two weeks later, Rev. Jacob Belville made 
a motion, which was adopted, that on account of the lapse of 
time no pursuit of the animal be made, and it does not appear 
that any compensation was offered. 

In 1859 Chalkley Wood, of Warminster, had some harness 
stolen. The company was sent out in pursuit of it, and the 
thief arrested. 

In 1888 Joshua Bennett lost a set of harness by the visit of a 
thief to his premises and $15 was paid him for it by the company. 

November 2-]. 1900, the house of Alfred Yerkes, of Warmin- 
ster, was broken into by a burglar and property carried away 
valued by him at $60. The company offered a reward of $50 in 
the public journals and handbills were printed and circulated for 
the arrest of the criminal. 

During all the history of this company there have been but five 
instances in which it has been necessary to take action. No doubt 
the fact that the company had thrown protection around the 
property of its members had a considerable influence in preventing 
crimes of this character. 

If a horse were stolen it was provided that a member having 
no horse should be exonerated from riding for the stolen one. 

The fee for admission into the company was fixed sometimes at 
a sum equivalent to each member's proportion of the funds on 
hand, and at other times it was fixed at $5. 

To enforce regularity and punctuality in attendance at the 
yearly meetings absence was fined fifty cents and tardiness after 
roll call I2>^ cents. 

In 1865 three of the original members being advanced in life, 
John Polk, General John Davis and William Long, were ex- 
cused from attendance except at their option. 

In 1898 a committee was appointed to visit the Consolidated 
Vigilance Society of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, which met 
at Trenton, and report the next year in regard to the propriety 
of the Warren Company uniting with that society. Tlie com- 


mittee performed their duty and upon their favorable report 
the union or confederation was effected. 

The amount of money in the treasury of the company has 
never been very large, usually less than $400 and most of it, 
accruing from fees and fines, has been expended for the annual 

Of the thirty original members not one is still lingering this 
side the unseen shore. The number of members on the roll at 
present is thirty-one, and for more than three-quarters of a cen- 
tury it has included some of the most worthy, reputable and 
intelligent citizens in that part of the country, in which it had 
the theatre of its activities. 

The yearly meeting in the early winter has been an occasion 
not only for the transaction of the business of the company, but 
for social intercourse. It has always been anticipated with 
pleasure, new ideas on public affairs have been mutually im- 
parted, agriculture, politics and government have been discussed, 
and the views of the members on a great variety of subjects 
have been broadened and corrected. It has been an honorable 
and useful organization. Long may its flag wave in the breeze 
of prosperity. 

The other company of which I desire to speak is the Karts- 
ville Protective Association which was formed at the public 
house of Samuel Y. Addis in Hartsville, January 2Q, 1852. Its 
object was the same as that of the Warren Company, viz., the 
protection of its members from the depredations of thieves, and 
the territory in which its field of action lay, was composed of 
the same townships. 

Its presidents in succession were Courtland Carr, Amos Sny- 
der, Charles Ramsey, Theodore Flack. Its vice presidents : 
James D. Brunner, James McKinstry, Thomas B. Spencer, Hugh 
J. Carrell, Samuel M. Banes, T. Willett Boileau, Theodore Flack, 
Henry McCluskey. 

Its secretaries : John Blair, George Ramsey, T. Elwood 
Flack, Dr. William E. Doughty. 

Its treasurers : Hugh Long, Charles Ramsey, G. Wynkoop 

As its constitution, by-laws and general regulations were simi- 
lar to those of the Warren company, it is unnecessary that I 


should enlarge upon them. The whole number of members tha: 
subscribed their names to the roll, was 95, and the largest num- 
ber at any one period was about 40. They annually had a sup- 
per together, transacted the business of the organization, elected 
their officers and committees, marked out the routes, which were 
to be followed by different pursuers, in case horses were stolen 
from any of the members, and took all the precautions their 
ingenuity could suggest to prevent the loss of live stock or other 
property. The history of the company during the forty-two years 
of its existence was honorable and worthy of commendation. It 
never had a large amount of money in its treasury, ordinarily 
less than $120, most of its income being used in defraying the 
expenses of the annual meeting, including the supper. 

In 1871 a horse was stolen from Hugh J. Carrell, of War- 
wick, and the company oft'ered a reward of $50 for its recovery 
and $100 for the arrest of the thief. Both these objects were 
secured. $12.26 were paid for telegraphing, advertising and 
horse hire, making the entire expense of the transaction, $162.26. 
This was the only instance, so far as appears from the records, 
in which a loss was sustained requiring the action of the asso- 

In 1894 the subject of disbanding was agitated as the telegraph, 
telephone and electric railroad made the apprehension of thieves 
more possible and it was therefore decided December i, of that 
year to wind up its affairs and pass into the realm of history. 

The members of the Hartsville Protective Associatioi con- 
sisted of the following 95 persons: General William M. 
White, William IVIaris, John C. Beans, Dr. William M. Mann, 
Captain Thomas Dixey, Frederick A. Kennedy, Robert Ramsey, 
Jr., James Wallace, Henry K. Ramsey, William H. Hart, Isaac 
J. Beans, William A^anZant, Jacob L. Walton, William Glasgow, 
John Engart, Thomas Bird, Charles Bird, Chalkey Wood, John 
Ritchie, Stephen Yerkes, Ezra Yerkes, Ezra Carrell, Clarissa 
Montanye, Amos Torbert, William L. Craven, Jonathan 
Davis, Jonathan Stackhouse, Samuel Davis, Charles H. 
Leedom, Robert Beans, C. Long, M. Long, John Hoben- 
sack, Thomas Fetter, Thomas Torbert, Joseph Barnsley, 
Rev. J. Belville. George C. Brock, Robert Laughlin. Rev. A. M. 
Woods, John M. Darrah, Abraham Danenhower, William F. 



Fenton, Daniel Pidcock, R. H. Darrali, Stephen Yerkes, Korace 
G. Phillips, R. Thompson Engart, J. Johnson Beans, William J. 
Kirk, Alfred C. Yerkes, William Moon, Hiram Carr, Stephen 

B. Cornell, Francis Matlack, Garrett Krusen, John Glasgow, 
Charles Bond, Stacey B. Beans, Watson M. Worthington, George 
Jamison, Samuel Hough, Denman Wilbur, Charles Trim- 
mer, Watson Wood, Isaac Parry, William Long, Harman Mon- 
tanye, Charles Parry, Samuel E. Robinson, Edward Randall, 
George Slack, Isaac Bennett, Thomas Long, Joseph Bond, Thorn- 
ton Stackhouse, H. Warner Hallowell, William Lewis, John Ben- 
nett, Howard Meredith, Albert R. Fesmire, Charles T. Dager, 
Hugh B. Mearns, Henry McClusky, William H. Malone. G. 
W. Rubinkam, James T. Keith, Silas M. Yerkes, Henry Jami- 
son, Isaac Gartenlaub, James J. Thompson, John C. Beans, Ezra 

C. Carrell, OHver Parrv. 

^\lant Unruly fri llic api if'itnlm^ •/ Jlor^e jinctn a iil olliti i tllmn^, 1 1 thtCnnUy of liu k';. Pa 
II !l7ics» 01 rill, >,li Ihs J^i^i^^ ) <l<"/ of ij^r e r^ 1 ^^// 



The Town of Bethlehem 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 15, 1901.) 

A visitor to the venerable town of Bethlehem at the junc- 
tion of the Lehigh river and the Monocacy creek is soon im- 
pressed with the fact that he is on historic ground. As he 
wends his way through the older streets, he becomes aware 
that he is among buildings that are relics of a former age. 
Their massive walls suggest the days wdien every man's house 
was his castle. Tablets of bronze and granite monuments di- 
rect the attention to historic events, and if the visitor has any 
interest at all in the history of our State, he at once realizes 
that he has come to a place of more than ordinary interest. For 
all history-loving people of Bucks county this old town should 
possess special charms for the early history of Bethlehem is a 
part of the history of Bucks, which was originally laid out in 
1682, almost an empire in extent, and included within its in- 
definite bounds, not only its present area but also that part of our 
State now included in the counties of Northampton, Lehigh, 
Monroe, Pike, Wayne, Carbon, Luzerne, Wyoming, Susquehanna, 
and a part of Schuylkill and Northumberland. 

The first settlers of Bethlehem were Moravians (members of 
the United Fratrum or Moravian Church) wdio came to Penn- 
sylvania from Georgia about 1740, and at first located at Naza- 
reth. On account of some difficulty with the authorities at 
that place they were ordered to leave, and in the spring ot 
1741 David Nitschman and a small band of followers came to 
the junction of the ' Lehigh and the IMonocacy and felled the 
first trees to build the first house, which stood on the present 
site of the Eagle hotel. This historic building became the farm 
house of the Moravian community, and remained until 1823, 
when it was removed. In 1741 was also started that ancient 
looking group of buildings on Church street, built on three 
sides of a square, some parts of which were not completed till 
1773. The first house in Bethlehem was a log house, but the 


buildings on Church street were of stone, laid in well seasoned 
mortar, having the consistency of cement, and capable of resist- 
ing the elements. The "Gemein haus" was built in 1:742, is 
still in excellent condition, and bids fair to outlast many a 
more modern structure. 

The settlement thus started in 1741 was soon joined by other 
Moravians. In 1742 arrived what is known in the Moravian 
annals as the "First Sea Congregation." These immigrants came 
from England in the ship Catharine, landed at Philadelphia, and 
numbered 56 persons, 21 of whom were in later years ordamed 
to the ministry. Let it therefore be remembered that the foun- 
ders of Bethlehem were not idle adventurers in search of fame 
or fortune, but earnest, devoted missionaries, filled with zeal 
for the spread of that pure gospel for which the early Mora- 
vian church had sacrificed so much blood and treasure. A 
"Second Sea Congregation" arrived in 1743, and later various 
accessions joined the colony, so that in a fev/ years the town 
had a population of about 500. These settlers were a thrifty, 
industrious class of people, and a number of industries were 
soon in successful operation. In 1743 a grist-mill was built on 
the present site of Luckenbach's mill. It wae rebuilt in 175 1, 
the iron work being brought from Durham furnace. The 
first waterworks in the United States were built at Bethlehem 
in 1750. A store was opened in 1753. A fulling-mill, dye- 
house, tannery, and a brick and tile factory were operated at 
various times. Before 1752 the Moravians were raising silk- 
worms. Mission work among the Indians was carried on with 
much success; the first convert was baptized September 16, 
1742. To Count Zinzendorf, who was at Bethlehem in 1741, 
is due the credit of organizing the settlement, and giving the 
town its Scriptural name. 

For the first twenty years the community worked in com- 
mon; the church was the ruling power; all worked for it, and 
it gave to all a comfortable home, and adequate support. This 
period is known as the "Economy." The regulations govern- 
ing the members were of the most rigid kind. General Davis 
in his "History of Bucks County," referring to this period, 
says : 

26 the; town of bethlkhem 

"The children were taken from their parents when very young and 
given into the care of disabled brethren and sisters to watch over them. 
They were not allowed to be out of their sight a moment even at recreation. 
The boys were prohibited associating with the girls in any wise, and if they 
ever met, they were not permitted to look at each other, and punishment 
was sure to follow such offending. If a grown girl was caught 
looking towards the men's side at church, she was called to 
account for the misdemeanor. When they took walks along the 
Lehigh Sunday afternoons, attended by their keepers, the sexes walked in 
opposite directions so as not to meet, but if perchance they should meet, 
both parties were commanded to look down or sideways. The girls were 
never allowed to mention the name of any male, and it seems an effort was 
made to have the sexes forget each other." 

During these years the Moravian brethren estabhshed at 
Bethlehem what is now the college and seminary for young 
women, and the Parochial school. Both of these institutions 
are as old as the town, and from them has gone forth an educa- 
tional and refining influence that will continue to bear fruit for 
years to come. Much attention was given to the cultivation of 
music, both vocal and instrumental. 

When Bethlehem was founded in 1742, it was on the frontier 
of civilization. Here and there a settler had located betv/een 
the Lehigh and the Kittatinny or Endless mountain, twenty miles 
northward. A few, more venturesome, had penetrated the 
mountains and settled in the wilderness beyond. This section 
of the country, now one of the garden spots of America, was 
acquired from the Indians by the "Great Walk" of 1737. The 
Indians always insisted that they had been cheated by this trans- 
action, and were very unwilling to leave the locality. The rapid 
increase of settlers and the threats of their enemies, the Iroquois, 
induced them to move westward, their hearts filled with resent- 
ment, and they waited for the opportunity to take revenge. 
Braddock's defeat in 1755 brought the opportunity. Loosed 
from all restraint and emboldened by an unexpected victory, 
bands of warriors came stealthily through the mountain passes 
and fell upon the defenseless settlers. Many left their homes 
and fled to the forts and block-houses that were hastily con- 
structed. Others, less fortunate, fell into the hands of the 
enemy and were massacred, or carried into a captivity, which 
was worse than death. Bethlehem and Nazareth became places 
of refuge for the fleeing settlers. Both places were enclosed 


by stockades with watch-towers, on which sentries were posted. 
A number of settlers were massacred, and the terror and con- 
fusion in the Lehigh valley became so alarming that the gov- 
ernment sent Benjamin Franklin as commissioner, to take charge 
of the military operations against the enemy. Franklin came to 
Bethlehem at once, and from there wrote to the Governor on 
January 14, 1756, as follows: 

"As we drew near this place we met a number of wagons and many 
people moving off with their effects and families from the Irish settlement 
and Lehigh township, being terrified by the defeat of Hay's Company and 
the burnings and murders committed in the township on New Year's day. 
We found this place filled with refugees, the workmen's shops, and even 
cellars being crowded with women and children, and we learnt that L,ehigh 
township is almost entirely abandoned by the inhabitants." 

For the peace loving Moravians these were months of intense 
anxiety ; some of their own number had fallen ; the refugees in 
their midst were to be fed and cared for, and unceasing watch- 
fulness was necessary to keep ofif the enemy. Tradition says 
that on one occasion Indians were waiting on the outskirts of 
the town, for day light, to make an attack. As the day began 
to dawn, it was greeted by strains of trombone music, and the 
Indians, supposing they were discovered, and that this was 
the alarm, hastily retreated. Who will say that an overruling 
Providence did not direct this event. 

Franklin remained at Bethlehem but a few weeks, but in 
that short time he restored order, commissioned officers, 
organized an efficient system of defence, and then turned 
over his command to Captain Clapham. The public does 
not regard Franklin as a military man, but his work at Bethle- 
hem shows his excellent ability in this direction. 

Scarcely had the French and Indian War passed into history, 
before the struggle for national independence began. Bethlehem 
being on the great road leading from the South to the New 
England States, was naturally on the line of march of troops 
moving between these points, and it was not long before the 
town once more witnessed the march of soldiery. Among these 
were Morgan's Virginia Riflemen who halted at Bethlehem July 
24 and 25, 1775, on their way to join Washington's army at 


On December 3, 1776, Dr. Baldwin arrived, bringing with 
him a letter to Rev. John Ettwein of ihe Moravian church, stating 
that General Washington had ordered the removal of all sick 
and wounded to Bethlehem. Two days later, on December 5, 
these unfortunates began to arrive in charge of Surgeons War- 
ren, Shippen and Morgan. They were quartered in the Smgle 
•Brethren's House, now known as "Colonial Hall." the center of 
the Moravian College and Seminary for Young Women. This 
building and also several others, were used for hospital pur- 
poses from December, 1776, to April, 1777, and again from 
September, 1777, to April, 1778. As many as 1,000 bick and 
wounded were cared for at a single time. Camp fever became 
epidemic among tliem, and before the hospital was abandoned 
more than 500 had died. These found their last resting place 
on the hillside west of the Monocacy. Who they were the re- 
cording angel only knows. For many years they slept in un- 
marked graves. W'liat should now be a national cemetery, is 
included in the borough of West Bethlehem, and only a small 
block of granite marks the spot where these fallen heroes sleep. 

General Lafayette was brought here from the battlefield of 
Brandywine, to be treated for wounds. He was cared for at 
the house of George Frederick Boeckel.* 

The care of so many sick and wounded entailed upon the 
Moravian brethren much labor and a great deal of annoyance. 
Non-combative by principle, and exempted from military ser- 
vice by legislative enactment, they nevertheless rendered ex- 
cellent service in the cause of freedom. Their principles led to 
their being much misunderstood and aroused not a little ani- 
mosity against them in some quarters. It is said that General 
Charles Lee made the threat that when he came to Bethlehem 
he would clean out that "Moravian Nest." On December 18, 
1776, General Sullivan came with Lee's division of the Conti- 
nental army and camped on the present site of South Bethlehem, 
but General Lee never arrived to carry out his sinister purpose. 
He had been captured by the British several days previous. 

On Christmas Eve. December 24, 1776, a train of 900 wagons, 
the heavy baggage of the Continental army, arrived and cainped 
for three months where South Bethlehem is located. 

* The site of the present confectionery store of John F. Rauch, on Main street. 


The reverses suffered by Washington's army at German- 
town and Brandywine, and the prospect of the British taking 
Philadelphia, brought to Bethlehem a number of prominent men. 
It was about this time that the Liberty Bell passed through 
town on its way to Allentown, where it was secreted in the 
Reformed church. It occupied one of the wagons of a train 
of 700, all in charge of Colonel Polk and detachments of 
North Carolina and Virginia troops, and reached Bethlehem, 
September 23, 1777. While passing up Main street the wagon 
which carried it broke down. A number of the members of the 
Continental Congress found a temporary refuge in Bethlehem 
at this time. Among them were John Hancock, Samuel 
Adams, John Adams, Richard Henry Lee, and Henry Laurens 
Military men of prominence were here frequently during these 
years of struggle. Of these we can but name Generals Sulli- 
van, Gates, Greene. Ethan Allen, Knox, Steuben, Baron de Kalb, 
and Count Pulaski. The latter spent some time in BeHilehem 
in 1778 while recruiting for his cavalry regiment, and while so 
doing requested the Moravian sisters to make for him a 
standard for his legion. This banner is now in the possession 
of the Maryland Historical Society. The event has been im- 
mortalized by the poet Longfellow in his "Hymn of the Mora- 
vian Nuns of Bethlehem." 

One of the most interesting spots in Bethlehem is the old 
Moravian graveyard. Located in the centre of the tnvn, in 
the midst of a busy, active community, it is the most quiet 
and peaceful place imaginable in which to spend a summer af- 
ternoon. Here "Each in his narrow cell forever laid," sleep 
the Moravian founders of the town. Each sex is buried by 
itself. The well kept walks are shaded by rows of majestic 
tulip poplars. There is no distinction between the grave of the 
rich man and the mound which holds the remains of his poorer 
brother. On each grave lies a small tablet giving name and 
dates, and often very interesting historical data. The harsh 
word "died" is not seen, but is replaced by the truer and kinder 
word "departed." As we enter at the northwestern gate we 
are soon at the grave of David Nitschman, who felled the first 
trees to build the first house of Bethlehem 165 years ago. In 
this "God's Acre" are the graves of no less than twelve of the 


bishops of the Moravian church. Here some of the early mis- 
sionaries rest from their labors. Of these we can but mention 
George Henry Loskiel, whose "History of the Moravian Missions'* 
is a book still prized by historians. Nor must we for- 
get the Rev. John Heckewelder, whose "History of the Indian 
Nations," is one of the publications of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society. Side by side with the missionaries, sleep their 
Indian converts, more than 150 of whom are buried here, 
many of them from the Delaware nation. Most interesting of 
all is the grave of Tschoop, who is said to be the hero of J. 
Fennimore Cooper's novel, "The Last of the Mohicans." Tschoop 
was a fierce, gigantic warrior, noted for his eloquence, and his 
ability to drink whiskey. Christian Henry Ranch preached the 
gospel to him, which at first had no apparent effect. Ranch, 
however, remained near him for months, and at last the Chief 
was converted. In a letter to his brethren he thus explains his 
conversion : 

"I have been a heathen, a preacher came to me and said, there is a God. 
I said 'Do I not know that? Go back whence thou earnest.' Another 
came to me and said it was ruin for me to lie and get drunk. I said 'Do 
I not know that? Am I a fool?' Then Christian Rauch came to my hut 
day after day and told me of Jesus who died to save me from my sins. 
I said 'I will kill you?' But he said, 'I will trust in Jesus.' So one day he 
laid down in my hut and fell asleep, and I said. 'What kind of a man is 
this little fellow? I might kill him and throw him into the woods and no 
man would regard it. Yet there he sleeps because Jesus will take care of 
him. Who is this Jesus? I, too. will find the man.'" 

Tschoop became a Christian, and for some years preached 
the Gospel to his red brethren. He was buried in 1746 amid 
strains of instrumental music. On his grave some kind hand 
has planted a white rose bush. 

Among the noted persons buried here, are Timothy Horse- 
field, who was a justice of the peace, and a prominent man during 
the early wars, and William Jones, who was Secretary of the 
Navy under President Madison, and also the first president of 
the Bank of the United States. Here are also the graves of a sur- 
geon and a steward who served in the Continental hospital 
and died of malignant fever, thus sacrificing their lives on 
their country's altar just as truly as if they had fallen in 


As Bethlehem was in the past, so it still is to-day — a Moravian 
town. While some of the older customs are gone, others are 
still retained and will long be characteristic of the place. The 
"Economy," with its rigid rules of life and conduct, has given 
way to more liberal ideas. Non-resistance is no longer ad- 
hered to, and the small flags seen on many a mound on Memorial 
Day, attest the patriotism and valor of Bethlehem's sons in 
times of National peril. The customs connected with the cele- 
bration of Christmas and Easter, have been handed down from 
generation to generation, and are likely to be always retained. 
Originally receiving its name from that older Bethlehem "on 
Judea's plains" the town has thoroughly imbibed the Christmas 
spirit. Here the Christmas ''putz" is yearly produced in hun- 
dreds of homes in all its elaborateness. The early Easter ser- 
vice is solemn and impressive, and once witnessed, is nevev 
forgotten. On Easter morning, long before daylight, the trom- 
bone choir plays at the street corners, calling the worshipers 
to early service in the big church. The service begins before 
daylight, the audience taking part in a beautiful liturgy. At a 
signal, all that have assembled, solemnly leave the chuich and 
make their way to the old graveyard, where the service is con- 
cluded just as the sun rises above the eastern horizon. When a 
member of the Moravian congregation dies the fact is announced 
by the trombone choir playing on the belfry of the church. 

Thus have the founders of Bethlehem left upon the town the 
stamp of their customs and religious habits. Long may they 
remain to cheer and bless all future generations, and help us 
to hold in grateful remembrance the good and noble deeds of our 

General John Lacey — Our Quaker General. 

(Point Pleasant Meeting, January 15, 1901.) 

The Story of the Revolution cannot be too often told, nor 
can we too frequently refer to the men who, in council and in 
field, pledged to each other "their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor," to stand by the cause of their country. 

The society of Friends were opposed to the war from the 
beginning, because strife and bloodshed were against their re- 
ligious tenets, but the authority of the fathers could not re- 
strain the conviction of the sons. Many sympathized openly 
with the Colonies, and not a few in this country entered the 
military service. Among the latter we find the well-known 
names of Janney, Brown, Linton, Shaw, Milnor, Hutchinson, 
Bunting, Stackhouse, Canby, Lacey and others. We must do the 
society the justice to say that it was consistent and treated all 
alike, the same punishment being meted out to the martial 
Quaker, whether he served King or Colony. Nevertheless, 
their hand of charity was as open as the day,, and down to April, 
1776, the society had distributed £3,900, principally to New 
England, to relieve the distressed ; and Falls Meeting authoriz- 
ed subscriptions for the suffering inhabitants of Philadelphia. 

John Lacey, the hero of our story, was a descendant of 
William Lacey, an early immigrant from the Isle of Wight, 
England, who settled near Wrightstown. There was some dis- 
pute as to the date of his birth, the popular time being given 
as February 4, 1755, but the meeting records of Wrightstown 
say he was born on the 4th of i2th-month,. 1752. He was the 
son of John Lacey and Jane Chapman, and grandson of John 
and Rachel Lacey. His grandmother, whose maiden name was 
Heston, was a native of New England, whence the family came 
at an early day. The ancestors of General Lacey were all far- 
mers, and members of the society of Friends, in whose belief 
he was brought up. Young Lacey enjoyed few advantages of 
education. He was sent to such schools as the neighborhood 
afforded, and records that the teacher of the school he attended 


could neither read nor write correctly; did not know the meaning 
of grammar ; and the only books allowed to be used in the school 
were the Bible, Testament and Dilworth's spelling-book. He 
was kept at school until 13 or 14 years of age, when he was set 
to work in his father's saw and grist-mills and cooper-shops, but 
m.ade every effort to supply the defects of early education, by 
reading and private study in his leisure from work. 

For several years the youth of Lacey, as of others of his class, 
passed with scarce a ripple to disturb "the noiseless tenor of 
their way," but there was a change about the time he arrived 
at twenty-one, which gave him a glimpse of the great outside 
world. In July, 1773, his uncle, Zebulon Heston, minister among 
Friends, made application to Wrightstown Monthly Meeting, for 
permission to make a missionary visit to the Delaware Indians 
in Ohio. This was granted and young Lacey allowed to accom- 
pany him. They traveled the whole distance on horseback. 
Leaving Philadelphia July 9, they reached Pittsburg the i8th ; 
tarried there a couple of days, then set out for the Muskingum, 
crossing the Allegheny river in a canoe, swimming their horses 
and plunged into the great wilderness of the northwest. 

The visit to the Indians being successful, they set out on their 
return by way of Virginia, reaching Wrightstown September 
14, having traveled upward of 1,000 miles, and been absent 
two months and seven days. Lacey kept a journal in which he 
noted down everything of interest that came under his obser- 
vation. On his return he resumed work at his former occu- 
pation, his father giving him the principal care and management 
of the mills. 

Lacey was thus employed until the spring of 1775, when the 
difficulty between the Mother Country and her Colonies broke out. 
As the trouble waxed warmer, the people began taking sides for 
or against Great Britain. John Lacey, being a close observer 
of passing events from the first, was not long in coming to a 
conclusion that England was in the wrong, and soon announced 
his determination to enroll himself on the side of his country 
and assist in her defence. He was one of the first in the neigh- 
borhood to announce himself, and in July, 1775, was chosen 
standard bearer of the 2d battalion, Bucks county mihtia. 


About the same time the young men of the neighborhood or- 
ganized a volunteer company and elected Lacey their captain. 

This was such an advanced step that the society of Friends, 
to which Lacey and many members of the company belonged, 
could not allow it to pass without proper action. The meeting 
took it up and called these erring ones back to duty. All obeyed 
but Lacey, who stood by his colors ; neither the meeting nor per- 
sonal friends could induce him to desert what he considered the 
cause of his country. He was now formally read out of 
meeting, but he would not }ield. His heart was torn by con- 
flicting emotions, but the call of patriotism was louder than that 
of sect. In a record which he left behind he says : "I alone 
stood the ordeal of the Quaker Society, of which I was then a 

In the autumn of 1775. the Committee of Safety of Pennsyl- 
vania, on the call of Congress then in session at Philadelphia, 
authorized the organization of six regiments, which was her 
quota of troops for the Continental army. Young Lacey was 
commissioned a captain in this force, January 5, 1776; received 
his recruiting orders on the 20th, and, despite the severe weather, 
set about enlisting the men, and his company was filled by 
February 12, eighty-five strong. They were principally young- 
men of his acquaintance, farmers' sons, who had confidence in 
him. The company was attached to the 4th Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Anthony Wayne. Captain Lacey 
marched with his command for Chester, on the Delaware, Feb- 
ruary 12, reaching Darby on the 14th, where they remained until 
the 2ist of March, when they went to Chester, where they drew 
their arms. The regiment was then ordered to New York, gomg 
by shallops to Trenton, and overland to their destination, which 
was reached on the 28th. They encamped on Long Island, where 
Wayne joined them April 27th. Captain Lacey describes the 
uniform of his company as follows : "Our regimental coats were 
deep blue, faced with white, white vests and overalls, edged with 
blue cloth; a very beautiful uniform, but, on experience, was 
found much better adapted for parade than utility in the hardship 
of a camp, as it too easily became soiled and was hard to clean." 
Captain Lacey was among the first of Bucks county's sons to 
be commissioned an officer in the Continental armv. 


From Long Island Wayne's regiment proceeded to the Canada 
frontier and took part in all the hardships and dangers of that 
arduous campaign, lasting the summer and fall. On two occa- 
sions Lacey was sent on special service ; once to carry despatches 
from General Sullivan to General Arnold at Montreal ; the other, 
in command of a party of ten men and an officer to communicate 
with the American army down the St. Lawrence, where it had 
met with a reverse and heavy loss, and he was complimented 
for his fidelity in executing these missions. In his papers some 
mention was made of these journeys. The trip to Montreal was 
made in a calash, on foot and by boat. Of this he says : "At 
every cross-roads or vicinity of a church was a cross or crucifix 
attached to a post in the ground. As we passed my driver never 
failed to pull ofif his hat and make a bow, turning his face to the 
post, muttering a few words in French I did not understand." On 
his return down the St. Lawrence his boat was upset in a squall, 
but the water was shallow and they were able to wade ashore. 
He mentions among other things, an invitation he received from 
Colonel Wayne to dine with him, cotiched in the following terms : 
"Col. Wayne's best compliments wait on Captain Lacey. and begs the 
favor of his dining with him on a roasted pig at 2 o'clock, this after- 
noon, by the edge of the woods." 

No doubt the invitation was accepted. 

In examining General Lacey's papers, many years ago, I 
came across the following order of Colonel Anthony Wayne, of 
September 19, 1776: 

"The 4th Batallion are all to be under arms, on Sunday next, at 9 
o'clock a. m.. and, as soap is now plenty, and new shirts ready to be de- 
livered to such companies as are in want, no excuse can be admitted for 
appearing dirty or indecent. All officers and soldiers will be particularly 
careful on that day, tOi appear on the parade as neat as possible ; for which 
purpose the officers will see that the men have their hair well powdered 
and neatly tied and plaited." 

On one occasion Captain Lacey was sent with 150 men and 
50 bateaux to Crown Point to bring the 6th Pennsylvania bat- 
talion to Ticonderoga. He gives a deplorable accounl. of the 
sickness and suffering in camp, of the large n amber of deaths, 
and the unfeeling way the dead were dumped into the trenches, 
the rags they died in, being their only covering. Smallpox broke 
out among the troops, and of the whole force of 5.000 not more 


than one-third were fit for duty. The campaign closed in Novem- 
ber and the troops went into winter quarters. Captain Lacey and 
other officers were now ordered home on recruitmg service, one 
for each company. They came across Lake George in boats, 
walked to Albany, then down the North river 60 miles by water, 
and the remainder of the way on foot, via Esopus, over the 
Blue mountains, by the Wind Gap, Bethlehem and Durham, 
reaching home in Buckingham about December the first. 

Soon after Lacey reached home he put in execution a resolu- 
tion he long contemplated, resigning his commission. Before 
doing so he consulted his uncle, John Wilkinson, an active pa 
triot, who had assisted to form the State Constitution and was 
then a member of Assembly, who sanctioned his course. There 
was much friction between Colonel Wayne and Captain Lacey, 
and they were better off separated. He sent his resignation to 
the Council of Safety, then in session in Philadelphia, wltli a 
statement of his grievances. His resignation was not in accor- 
dance with his feeling, but from a sense of duty to hmiself, and 
his course was fully vindicated by subsequent events. 

Captain Lacey did not remain long in private life. Under the 
Constitution of 1776. each county was given one lieutenant and 
four sub-lieutenants, to look after the militia and prepare them 
for service. On March 22, 1777, Captain Lacey was commis- 
sioned a sub-lieutenant of Bucks with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and entered immediately on duty. His knowledge of 
military affairs enabled him to discharge his new duties with 
great promptness, and he was complimented on being the first 
to make returns. On Mav 6 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel 
of the militia of his district. The summer of 1777 was a season 
of great military activity in this immediate section. The British 
were threatening Philadelphia ; the main Continental army was 
keeping watch and ward on the Delaware-Schuylkill peninsula, 
and the militia were called out to re-enforce it. The active cam- 
paign was marked by two severe battles — Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown. and other engagements of less importance. The 
British took possession of Philadelphia, September 26, 1777. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Lacey took part in the battle of German- 
town as a volunteer, not having any command. In October he 
was given a regiment and joined General Potter's brigade at 


Whitemarsh, and was in touch with the enemy for several days. 
Lacey participated in several of these combats, including the spirit- 
ed action near the Gulph Mills on the west side of the Schuylkill, 
where he made a narrow escape from capture, and Washington 
compliments his regiment, in orders for its handsome conduct. 
We next find Lacey the judge advocate of a court-martial, and 
when that duty is over, was ordered to march to the Cross 
Roads, the present Hartsville, where he encamped in a piece of 
timber on December 20. He had been there but three days 
when his regiment was ordered to the lower end of German- 
town in light marching order without baggage, with three days 
cooked rations, and one axe to each company. He now joined 
in the attack on the enemy's outposts at the Northern Liberties 
with cannon and small arms, and was back again at the Cross 
Roads the last of December. 

Higher honors awaited the Quaker patriot, and he was soon 
called to the discharge of more arduous and important duties. 
On January 9, 1778, he was appointed and commissioned a 
brigadier general, probably the youngest officer of that rank in 
service. Accompanying his commission was an official letter 
from the Secretary of the Executive Council congratulating him 
on his appointment, saying, "it does you honor in acknowledging 
your merits as an officer," and expresses "a reasonable ground of 
hope for benefit to the public by calling him into the field in an 
important station," a handsome compliment, and the more flat- 
tering to Lieutenant-Colonel Lacey as the appointment had come 
to him unsolicited. 

General Lacey shortly went on duty under his new commis- 
sion, taking the troops lately in command of Major General 
Armstrong. On joining them he says : "1 found the camp in 
a deplorable condition, the troops reduced from 3,000 to 600, 
equipments strewed everywhere, here a tent, there a tent, some 
standing, some fallen down." His command was the country be- 
tween the Delaware and Schuylkill. The British lay in snug 
quarters in Philadelphia, the Continental army freezing and starv- 
ing on the bleak hills at \^alley Forge, the intervening country 
raided by the enemy for provisions, and the people in daily 
practice of carrying their produce into the city and selling it 
for a high price. The surrounding country was largely disaf- 


fected and many of the inhabitants in open adhesion to 
the enemy. These conditions stared the young Quaker Brigadier 
in the face on assuming command. The situation was both deh- 
cate and dangerous, but he was equal to the occasion. 

Washington wrote Lacey from Valley Forge, January 23^ 
saying among other things : "Your want of wliiskey I cannot 
remedy; we are in the same situation here, and nothing effec- 
tive can be done until the arrival of the Committee of Con- 
gress, whom we expect every day." General Lacey first estab- 
lished headquarters at Graeme Park, on the county-line, but 
shortly removed to the Rodman farm, Warwick, now owned by 
the county. The depot of provisions and supplies was fixed at 
Doylestown, where he stationed a guard to protect them. His 
force at that time was about 370, very inadequate for the large 
territory entrusted to him. At one time his force dwindled 
down to 60 men lit for duty. On March 3 he again changed his 
headquarters to the Crooked Billet, the present Hatboro. We 
find him at Doylestown, March 19, and copy the following 
from his order book : "Parole, Salem, Countersign, Wilming- 
ton ; officer of the day to-morrow. Major Mitchell ; detail three 
captains, three sergeants, four corporals and forty-eight privates. 
Officers of all grades are cautioned not to quarter out of camp." 
Lacey and his men did not want for the good things of life 
while soldiering in Bucks county, if we are to believe the ac- 
counts of the purchasing commissary, which cover payments 
for veal, beef, flour, mutton, whiskey, not a rifled article, turkeys 
and fowls. 

General Lacey was occupied during the winter, spring and 
early summer, while the British occupied Philadelphia, in pro- 
tecting the country, between the Delaware ?.nd Schuylkill, 
from the raids of the enemy, preventing the Tories from carry- 
ing their produce into the city, and much other duty of the same 
character. He wrote Washington on the 29th of March: 
"Every kind of villainy is carried on by the people near the 
enemy's lines ; antl, from their general conduct. I am induced 
to believe but few real friends to America are left within ten 
miles of Philadelphia. By the end of INIarch the intercourse 
with the enemy, in Philadelphia, had reached such height and 
become so injurious to the cause of the Colonies, that the plan 


of depopulating the country between the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill for 15 miles around the city, was seriously considered. A 
conference on the subject was held at the Spring House tavern, 
March 23, between Generals Mcintosh and Lacey and several field 
officers of the army, and the plan was laid before Washington. 
General .Lacey's situation was very trying. With the nominal com- 
mand of a brigade, which had dwindled away to 57 men present 
for duty by April 2^, he had a territory nearly as large as Bucks 
county to safeguard, watch the five main roads leading into the 
city, furnish a detachment for headquarters and another to guard 
the stores at Doylestown. His reward was in the satisfaction he 
received from serving his country and in the commendation of 
his superior officers, from Washington down. During this 
harassing and fatiguing period, General Lacey was the most 
conspicuous military figure between the Delaware and the Schuyl- 
kill rivers. 

We left General Lacey at the Crooked Billet the last of April, 
where he was attacked by a large British force on the first of 
May, and came near suffering a disastrous defeat. The country 
was filled with spies, and the enemy made acquainted with all 
his movements. Lacey had taken every precaution to guard his 
camp and had patrols on all the roads. His force, about 500 
strong, was on the east side of the York road, below the county- 
line, and he with his aide-de-camp was quartered at a house 
owned by a man named Gilbert, on the opposite, or west side 
of York road near his command. The British troops, composed 
of Major Simcoe's Queen's Rangers, and a large detachment 
of light infantry and cavalry, the whole under Lieutenant Colonel 
Abercrombie, left Philadelphia the evening before led by two 
trusty guides. They made the attack on two sides, and by 
reason of one of Lacey's patrols neglecting its duty, the 
enemy was almost on him before he knew of his approach. 
Mrs. Gilbert, not being able to sleep, got up before daylight, 
and, on looking out the window, the night being starlight, she 
discovered several British soldiers in the trees near the house. 
She dressed immediately and aroused Lacey and his aide, who 
fled to camp, and soon had the troops under arms. They 
made a stubborn defence, fighting as they fell back. The com- 
mand was saved but with considerable loss, twenty-six killed. 


eight or ten wounded, and several captured. That of the enemy 
is not known as their killed and wounded were hauled back to 
Philadelphia in their wagons. 

The worst feature about the action was the cruel treatment of 
the wounded Americans by the British. Several of them had 
crept into a large heap of buckwheat straw in a field of Thomas 
Craven, on the north side of the county-line and were thrown 
into the burning straw. This would seem too cruel to believe, 
but General Lacey, in his official report to General Armstrong, 
imder date of May 7, speaks of this circumstance in the follow- 
ing manner : 

■■So,me of the unfortunate, who fell into the merciless hands of 
the British, were more cruelly and inhumanely butchered. Some were 
set on fire with buckwheat straw, and others had their clothes burned 
on their backs. Some of the surviving sufferers say they saw the enemy 
set fire to wounded while yet alive, who struggled to put it out but 
were too weak and expired under the torture. I saw those lying in the 
buckwheat straw — they made a most melancholy appearance. Others I 
saw, who, after being wounded with a ball, had received near a dozen 
wounds with cutlasses and bayonets. I can find as msny witnesses to 
the proof of the cruelties as there were people on the spot, and that was 
no small number who came as spectators.'' 

Lacey's conduct was highly applauded by his military su- 
periors, and the State Executive Council, Alay 16, wrote him : 
"Your conduct is highly approved, and your" men have justly ac- 
quired great reputation for their bravery." 

While General Lacey was in this command he had frequent 
occasion to pass through North Wales township, now Mont- 
gomery county. At that time the family of Daniel Wister, of 
Philadelphia, resided there while the British held the city. His 
daughter, Sally, a sprightly girl, kept a journal, and General 
Lacey must have been one of her callers, for she writes of him : 

"No new occurrence to relate. Almost adventureless except Gen- 
eral Lacey's riding along, and his fierce horse disdaining to go without 
showing his airs, in expectation of drawing the attention of the mill 
girls, in order to glad his master's eyes. Ha ! Ha ! Ha ! One would 
have imagined that vanity had been buried within the shades of North 
Wales. Lacey is tolerable ; but as ill luck would have it, I had been 
busy, and my auburn ringlets were much dishevelled ; therefore I did 
not glad his eyes, and cannot set down on the list of honors received 
that of a bow from Brigadier General Lacey." 


This is a pleasant little glimpse inside the social ways of the 
period, but how much they differed from the present I leave 
the ladies to tell. 

From this time forward, General Lacey had no command in 
the field, according to his rank, but continued to discharge his 
important duties as sub-lieutenant of the county. He exerted 
himself to keep up an efficient organization of the militia, and 
his brigade was called out to harass the retreating British after 
the evacuation of Philadelphia, in June, 1778. He met his colo- 
nels at Doylestown to receive their orders. 

About this time General Lacey held the first political office, 
that of one of the commissioners for Bucks oh confiscated es- 
tates. The same fall. he was elected a member of the Assembly, 
taking his seat in November, and in 1779 was chosen a inember 
of the Executive Council of the State, holding the office for two 
years. In the fall of 1781 the militia of the State were assem- 
bled at Newtown, under command or General Lacey, to resist a 
threatened attack on Pennsylvania, by the British army at New 

January 18, 1781, General Lacey married Anastatia Reynolds, 
daughter of Colonel Thomas Reynolds, of New Mills, now Pem- 
berton, Burlington county, N. J. In the fall of 1781, or the 
beginning of '82, General Lacey removed from Pennsylvania to 
New Mills, and entered extensively into the iron business, and 
passed the remainder of his life there. He was soon ajiven a 
prominent position at his new home, and was called to fill im- 
portant public stations, including those of member of Assembly, 
and judge and justice of the county in which he lived. 'He died 
at New Mills, February 17, 1814, at the age of 59, leaving a 
widow and four children. One of his daughters married the 
late Dr. William Darlington, of West Chester, one of the most 
distinguished botanists of the country. General Lacey, next to 
General Daniel Morgan, played the most prominent part of any 
son of Bucks county in the Revolution. He was a patriot from 
principle, and of him it may be said. "Well done, good and faith- 
ful servant." 

Reminiscences of Quakertown and Its People. 

(Meeting in Friends' Meeting-house, Quakertown, May 28, 1901.) 

About fifty years ago, when a young man I took up my 
permanent residence at Applebachsville to practice the "heaHng 
art." Quakertown was then a very primitive and inconsequen- 
tial village, both in appearance and numerical strength, vastly 
dififerent from the substantial town of to-day. There could 
not have been within the geographical limits, embraced in the 
town of to-day, more than one hundred and fifty or two hundred 
inhabitants. Nor more than fifty dwellings all told. And many 
of these were scattered farm buildings, located along the four 
roads diverging from the Red Lion hotel, one road going toward 
Allentown and Bethlehem, the second to Sellersville, the third 
to Doylestown, and the fourth to Hellertown and Easton. 

The road now called Main street, extending from the cross- 
roads at the Red Lion hotel to the Friends' meleting-house, 
where the Historical Society holds its session to-day, contained 
most of the town. On the Doylestown road, now Broad street, 
leading to the railroad station, were a few isolated habitations. 
On the east corner stood the store and dwelling of Richard 
R. Green, now the residence of his widow and daughter. A 
little further on, on the south side of the road, stood the handsome 
stone residence of Enoch Roberts, occupied at that time by Wil- 
liam Van Houghten, now the estate of Joseph Hill, and occupied 
by his daughter, Louisa. Still farther on stood the farm buildings 
of Joshua Foulke ; the old dwelling house is still there, and is 
owned by M. K. Afflerbach, near whose store it is located. A 
few hundred yards farther on toward the railroad station, on 
the south side of the street, stood the house and barn of Edward 
Foulke; the buildings are still well preserved, and are occupied 
by Joseph M. Hillegass ; they are owned by E. H. Blank, of 
Allentown, Penna. 

At the corner of Broad and Sixth streets there was standing an 
old log house, but by whom owned the writer does not know. 

The men's gallery. 

The women's galler 


On Main Street, Quakertown, erected in 1729; an addition was built in 1749 ; a second 

addition size 20 ft.x26 ft. added to the north side in 1762, and a further addition made in 

1795, leaving the building substantially as it is at present. This meeting-house is the 

successor of a small frame house erected in 1721 or 1723 a mile below Quakertown. 

(From photographs in Historical Society's album.) 


It was occupied by William Shafer, a shoemaker. The structure 
at a later day was removed and a commodious frame house 
built in its place. It is now owned by John A. Ozias. An old 
log barn stood near the location of the foundry buildings, just 
where the trolley leaves West Broad street. For a long time 
this structure served as a home for tramps, and the abode of 
Albert Lester, who was a vagrant around town at that time ; he 
lodged there at night, but left it in the morning with a crowd 
of roystering boys halloing "ham" at his heels, but maintain- 
ing a respectable distance to avoid his missiles. Across from 
the road, south, beyond a strip of timber, stood the farm buildings 
of John Strawn. These constituted the habitations, at that time, 
on this street as far as the North Penn railroad, which was 
not yet built. 

A considerable portion of the land along this road was un- 
drained, swampy, and covered with timber, interspersed with 
bushes and green briars, reminding one of the days when this 
whole district was called the "Great Swamp." The road was 
not piked, and in the spring of the year it was almost impassable 
for teams. It was turnpiked, however, about 1863. It runs 
nearly due east from the Red Lion hotel. 

The Hellertown, or Easton, road, running due north, had on 
the north corner a stone house, which either was or had been 
a short time before, occupied by a store and dwelling. The 
store was kept by the late Robert Stoneback, and John W. Mof- 
fley, of Philadelphia, was his clerk. Soon after this property was 
bought by William Green and the store was discontinued. It 
was then occupied by Tobias Grant, who carried on the butcher- 
ing business. In later years (1870) the Ouakertown Savings 
Bank carried on business in this building, and the same Robert 
Stoneback was its teller. A little farther out on this road stood 
Samuel Shaw's farm buildings. The property is now owned by 
Henry W. Weiss, who conducts a popular summer boarding 

The road running northwest to AUentown had several residences 
and buildings located along it, and prominent among these, at 
the border of the present borough line, stood the commodious 
stone dwelling and farm buildings of John Lester. He had 
a large family of children, boys and girls, but all are dead except 


the eldest son, Charles M. Lester, now living in the town, and 
his sister, Abbie Cooley, formerly Abbie Lippincott, now residing 
in California. The property was purchased by Jacob S. Cly- 
mer, and later by Frank JM. Roth, who conducted for many years 
an extensive dairy business, which w^ss a general milk depot for 
the people of the town. 

Nearer the Red Lion stood the farm buildings of Samuel J. 
Levick, who for many years conducted the tannery and currying 
business, in buildings wdiich stood on the north side of the street ; 
It was once the residence of Shipley Lester. The dwelling house 
IS still standing and is owned by Jacob S. Clymer. The tannery 
buildings, however, have entirely disappeared and not a vestige 
remains ; not even the vats to tell the story of their former bustle, 
activity and glory. On the south side of this road stood a very 
handsome frame edifice, the residence of Samuel J. Levick, 
whic'n is now occupied and owned by Frank H. Fluck, the paper- 

There may have been a few more small houses on this street, 
one of which was especially noticeable, the old log, or frame struc- 
ture of Joseph R. Lancaster. It was ancient and time honored 
looking enough to have been the first building in the settlement. 
It was removed in 1891 to give place to a handsome brick 
dwelling, owned and occupied at the present thv.e by Henry K. 
Kline. Joseph R. Lancaster, the occupant of the old building, 
had some resemblances to Rip Van Winkle after his twenty 
years' sleep on the Highlands along the Hudson. He filled, at 
one time, the honored position of postmaster at Quakertown anc 
was also, in later years, chief burgess after its incorporation as 
a borough in 1854. He was nominally a Friend, but his religious 
faith was more that of a Swedenborgian. He served for many 
years as sexton and grave-digger at the Friends' meeting-house. 
While very industrious and temperate in his habits he died quite 

The Red Lion hotel stood where it stands to-day, and was the 
principal hotel of the town. In by-gone days, and at the 
time referred to in this paper, it was kept very acceptably to the 
community by Peter Smith. He took special care of the bar- 
room and its revenues, sold whiskey at three cents a drink, and 

reminisce;nces of quakertown and its peopee 45 

his wife managed the rest of the estabhshment with great skill 
and satisfaction. 

There was a vacant lot where the drug business is now carried 
en by Charles T. Leitch. Farther down on this street toward 
the Friends' meeting-house stood a great number of dwellings, 
more compact, as has already been stated, for along there was the 
chief portion of the town, in both a business and social sense. 

Before leaving the corners at the cross roads, a little more 
must be said of the Richard R. Grier corner. This was famous 
as an old store-stand, perhaps the first in the town, and was erec- 
ted by William Green or his ancestor. It has attached to it on 
the east side a very ancient structure in which tradition says a 
hotel was once kept. But for many years past it was used as a 
feed-store, conducted by Benjamin R. Edwards. More recently 
it was renovated and has now a sign on the outside, with the 
legend inscribed "Liberty Hall, 1772-1900." For many years 
the Richland Library Company, which was chartered in 1795, 
held its headquarters and books in this place. This library 
served the commendable and worthy purpose of dissemmating 
knowledge through the select and carefully chosen volumes it 
contained. It may be difficult to estimate the amount of good it 
accomplished in fostering a love for reading, and creating ambi- 
tions in the young. This library to-day contains many valuable 
volumes and is in a prosperous condition, under the fostering 
care and direction of a few women of the town. 

Coming back to Main street, there stood two large brick build- 
ings on either side ; one was the residence of the late Samuel 
Kinsey, and still belongs to his estate. A few years prior to the 
date referred to in this paper a hostelry was kept there by Tena 
Myers and her husband, in which the feats of "Punch and Judy" 
were frequently exhibited by that famous, traveling show-man 
"Lindsay." And it was also a stopping place for the stages 
that plied between Allentown and Philadelphia. It was erected 
by James Green and owned by George Custard. 

The other building was owned by Enos Artman after he had 
retired from his farm, and the office of county commissioner, 
which he once filled. A part of it was used for a store, post- 
office and express office. Manassah & E. T. Ochs kept the 
store, and afterwards Major Enos A. Artman and E. T. Ochs. 


Charles C. Haring, the present cashier of the Ouakertown Nation- 
al Bank, some thirty years ago served an apprenticeship of store 
clerk under Edmund T. Ochs in this building. 

Solomon Jacoby lived in a log structure where now stands 
the home of Mrs. Charles Doll, a handsome brick building in 
which the post-office is now kept by Charles F. Strawn, post- 

The next house was a large stone one occupied by Amos Ed- 
wards. It is now the home of Elizabeth F. Hicks. Amos 
Edwards had retired from his farm and in the course of time was 
elected and served as chief burgess of the town. Then came 
the handsome three-story residence of ex-member of the Legisla- 
ture, Edward Thomas. The house is now occupied by his son 
and daughter. 

The large stone dwelling, now occupied by the children of David 
U. Shelly, was the residence of John H. Kaull. Mr. Kaull once 
kept the Continental hotel on the opposite side of the street, but 
at the time I am speaking of it was kept by Jacob Kern ; the 
post-office was also there at that time. It was discontinued as 
a hotel, and in 1866 Jonas S. Harley who had come to the town 
9 years before when a minor, built the extensive harness and 
saddlery manufactory in it^ place. In this business he has been 
signally successful. By the additions he has successively made 
to the structure it has become the largest manufacturing building 
in the upper portion of the county, if not anywhere in the entire 
county. It contains 56,000 square feet of floor space and gives 
room for more than 150 hands now employed in the plant. Just 
south of the Continental liotel stood the brick building once the 
house in which Richard ]\Ioore, in 1818, established a very 
popular and successful school for boys. At a later period the 
Rev. A. R. Home conducted a very largely patronized boarding 
school for both sexes, and still later the Soldiers' Orphan Schoo), 
was kept by Mr. Cort, and after him by. Fell & Marple. It is 
now an annex of Jonas S. Harley's plant and owned by him. 

Beyond this stood a fine stone residence owned by Dr. Charles 
F. Lott, who came originally from Burlington county, N. J., and 
died here in 1866. It is now owned by Mrs. Charles C. Haring, 
his daughter. Where Manassah B. Fellman now resides, and 
for a long time has carried on the store business, was the resi- 


dence of John Ball, who conducted a small private school. He 
was justice of the peace and did some conveyancing. 

South of the Friends' meeting-house, on the Philadelphia 
turnpike, just outside of the borough limits, stood the imposing 
residence of Richard Moore and John J., his son. It was for 
a long time the largest and best looking house in upper Bucks 
county. Near it stood their extensive pottery works where 
earthenware was manufactured on a large scale. Opposite stood 
the residence of James Hibberd, now occupied and owned by 
Amos H. Snyder. . 

Just along by the Friends' meeting-house, on a road now the 
Quakertown and Trumbauersville turnpike, leading to Trum- 
bauersville (as often called Charleston), stood the stone residence 
of James Jackson, the father of Mrs. Richard R. Green and 
William M. and Edwin A. Jackson, of New York. It is still 
the property of the estate. 

Next beyond stood the residence of Benjamin G. Foulke. Here 
he resided and reared his family as his father, Caleb Foulke, had 
done before him. In later years he sold the farm, retaining 
a portion near the Friends' meeting-house, on which he erected 
a handsome and substantial home, which is now occupied by 
his widow and daughters. 

One or two dwellings along Main street have been unintention- 
ally omitted, viz : the residence of Dr. Samuel Carey and that 
of David R. Jamison. The former stood on the north side of 
the street, and was built of stone, pointed. It was likely built 
by Dr. James Green, the elder, and the predecessor of Dr. Carey 
in practice. Joshua Bullock has been the owner of this property 
for over thirty years, and has greatly improved its appearance. He 
and his daughters and granddaughters reside here at the present 
time. Mr. Bullock is one of the oldest citizens of the place, 
having attained the ripe age of ninety years and is still (1901) 
hale and hearty. The other was a brick house near the corner 
of Juniper and Main streets. Mr. Jamison was engaged when 
the writer knew him, in the cattle business, and w^as known all 
over the country as a dealer in cattle. 

William Moss, ("Billy"), a watchmaker at that time, also lived 
on this street, with his daughter Jane ; he was an eccentric char- 
acter, but of much intelligence. Having been asked on a certain 


occasion what occupation he followed, replied to the astonishment 
of the inquirer, "an horologist." Having never heard of this 
line of business before he did not press for further information. 
Perhaps a few houses have 'been omitted in the account presented 
above, but they are all the writer remembers at this time. 

East Ouakertown, or tliat well built up portion east of the 
railroad, had really no existence fifty years ago. A pottery 
conducted by John Strawn, and a stone house where the Globe 
hotel now stands, were tlie only buildings to the corner where 
the Richlandtown road branched ofif from the Doylestown road. 
Here at the corner was the store-stand of David Johnston, who 
was a progressive and successful man of affairs. He was for 
many years a very popular auctioneer. The store, in 1856, was 
converted into a hotel, and became the headquarters for Richland 
township. It was called Richland Centre, and rapidly grew in 
size and population after tlie North Penn railroad was construc- 
ted to Bethlehem in 1857. In 1870 Richland Centre was annex- 
ed to the borough on petition of most of its citizens. Some op- 
position, however, was expressed by some of the people of the 
old town on account of changing the politics of the borough. By 
this addition the borough would become Democratic in politics. 
This opposition, however, did not assume any great proportions, 
and annexation took place. In 1859 the turnpike was built 
to Richlandtown. 

Fifty years ago the only place of religious worship nearer 
than Trumbauersville and Richlandtown was the Friends' mof^t- 
ing-house. At that time the attendance at the First and week- 
day meetings was much larger than to-day. The writer remem- 
bers Wilson Dennis and his family, who resided in Ha}cock 
township, driving over regularly to attend religious service here. 
The Friends have not maintained their numbers in this part of 
the county. They supported, and kept until recent years, s most 
excellent school near the meeting-house. This was the only 
school in the place except the select private school inaugurated 
by Richard Moore in 18:8, and later by John Ball, and still later 
by Rev. Dr. A. R. Home. The Friends' school therefore afford- 
ed an excellent opportunity for the young of both sexes to ac- 
quire a good education, which was not the case in other sections 
of the upper districts of the county. 


There were three practicing physicians in Ouakertown, namely, 
Drs. Samuel Carey, Samuel C. Bradshaw and Charles F. Mer- 
edith. Dr. R. J. Linderman did not locate here until 1857. Dr. 
James B. Green succeeded Drs. Carey and Btadshaw, but did not 
continue long in active practice. He established the first drug 
store in the town, and was engaged in that line of business for 
several years. 

Dr. Carey came from Plumstead and located originally 
at Sellersville, but later came to Ouakeiriown, and succeeded the 
elder Dr. Green. He was a popular and successful practitioner, 
enjoying the reputation of being the best obstetrician in the com- 
munity. He was elected to the vState convention to revise the 
constitution of the State. 

Dr. Samuel C. Bradshaw also came from Plumstead and 
began practice in Haycock township at a place now called the 
Mountain House. He afterwards came to Quakertown ami 
formed a co-partnership in practice with Dr. Carey. Tn later 
years he was elected to Congress to represent the district com- 
posed of Bucks and Lehigh counties. The district was strongly 
Democratic, but the doctor was elected by a fair majority. It 
was at the time when the Know-Nothings upset things generally 
in this portion of Bucks county. He was also a director for many 
years of the Doylestown National Bank. He was a pleasant and 
very agreeable gentleman. 

Dr. Charles F. Meredith came from Gwynedd and began 
practice at David Johnson's store, which was located where the 
Eagle hotel now stands, on the east side of the railroad. He 
enjoyed the reputation of being an excellent doctor and was 
famed especially in those days for his treatment of typhoid fever, 
and fevers generally. These were much more prevalent then 
than they are to-day. He was a man well informed on general 
subjects and was a great reader. 

The writer recalls to mind a large number of persons here with 
whom he was well acquainted, but most of them have long since 
departed this life. There are a few, however, a half dozen, 
perhaps, to whom memory clings with great tenacity. They 
were Richard INIoore and his son, John J. jVToore. Benjamin G. 
Foulke, Samuel J. Levick and Edmund T. Ochs. Richard Moore 
was identified with the town for manv vears in almost everv in- 


terest and business, religious and social. He was a man of great 
purity of character, noble nature and generous disposition. In 
appearance he was portly and dignified in bearing, indicative of 
the nobility of his true nature. He was closely identified with the 
anti-slavery movement and was a station agent of the "under- 
ground railroad" system which aided the escape of slaves on their 
way to Canada, or secured safety for them in the community. 
Many instances could be cited of this phase of his humane in- 
stincts, but space will not admit to note them. He died in 1874, 
regretted by every one who knew him.* 

His son, John J. Moore, was a surveyor and conveyancer, and 
carried on the business of making earthenware, in addition to 
farming. He had many of the excellent qualities of his father, 
and was noted as an amateur naturalist. In the study and obser- 
vation of plants and birds he had quite a local reputation. He 
was able to report the advent of the earliest bird in the spring- 
time, and note the first flower that made its appearance. 

Benjamin G. Foulke was gifted with an excellent mind. He 
was, perhaps, the best authority on real estate titles of any peison 
in the county. In writing wills, agreements, and preparing titles 
for property he was most painstaking and accurate. Had he 
adopted law as his profession he would have been the equal of 
any in the county. His reputation as a surveyor was such that 
he was employed by the authorities on the North Penn railroad 
to fix the points and determine lines of the road and its holdings 
from Bethlehem to Philadelphia. He was cautious and per- 
sistent in his endeavors to reach the truth, but reticent in speech, 
and kind in disposition and manner. 

Samuel J. Levick is remembered by me' as a speaker in the 
Friends meeting. He was exceedingly liberal and broad minded 
in his views, not only of religion, but subjects generally. He 
was a very fluent and eloquent speaker, especially when discoursing 
upon moral, religious, social and political topics. He was a great 
friend of the colored race and frequently aided them to escape 
the penalties of severe laws. He was afifable and friendly in 
manner, and just in his dealings with his fellow man. He was, 

* For full account of the "Underground railroad" in Bucks county and the assistance 
rendered by Mr. Moore see article by Dr. Edward H. Magill, Vol. II, page 493 of these 


at the time of his death, the secretary of the Society for the 
Prevention of Cruehy to Animals. He died in Philadelphia. 

Edmund T. Ochs was a warm personal friend whose many 
good qualities of head and heart I remember with pleasure. He 
was generous to a fault, and perhaps to his own disadvantage. 
On one occasion, on a cold day in winter, when a poor tramp 
accosted him in his store, asking for a pair of shoes to better 
protect his feet, friend Ochs took his own shoes from his feet 
and gave them to the imploring vagrant. He was quick and 
impetuous in temper, but with a heart as tender as a woman's. 
In politics he was an ardent Republican and saw very little good 
in anyone of the opposite party. He was a warm friend of the 
Union soldier, and, in fact, impoverished himself in his many acts 
to assist them during the Civil War. At the time of his death, 
he was postmaster at Ouakertown. 

It is not my purpose to discuss the early settlement of Quaker- 
town, or give the genealogy of the hardy pioneers who came here, 
cleared the land, drained the swamp, and built their early homes. 
All this may be found in Gen. Davis' "History of Bucks County," 
in Elwood Roberts' book, entitled "Old Richland Families," 
illustrated, published in 1898, and in Howard M. Jenkins' book, 
entitled, "Historical Collections of Gwynedd." 

Old Richland Settlers. 


(Meeting ill Friends' Meeting-house, Quakertown, May 28, 1901.) 

There is to me no more interesting locality than that which was 
known two centuries ago and for a long time thereafter as the 
"Great Swamp;" later as Richland, a name which the Monthly 
Meeting and the township still retain, because of the fertility 
of the soil ; and which as the village grew up, from small begin- 
nings, very naturally came to be called Quakertown — a name 
it is likely to bear for all time to come. No less than four of 
my ancestors in the sixth generation from myself, Edward Rob- 
erts, Thomas Lancaster, Samuel Thomas and Thomas Roberts, 
were among the earlier settlers of the vicinity. 

Two of these were noted ministers of the society of Friends, 
Edward ' Roberts, the first of my own family in this country, 
having begun to preach about 1725 in the log meeting-house 
erected in 1723 on the site where William Shaw now lives, on 
the road to Philadelphia about a mile south of the building in 
which we are now assembled. He and my other Roberts' ances- 
tor — Thomas — were not, so far as I know, connected by the ties 
of consanguinity, but their descendants have so often intermar- 
ried that the families frequently "run into" each other. I may 
be pardoned perhaps, for giving a brief account of each of these 
four men who exercised an important influence on the community 
in their day and each of whom became the founder of a numerous 

Edward Roberts came from Wales when only twelve years of 
age, tradition says "with his cousin (probably uncle) Thomas 
Lawrence." They arrived in Philadelphia in 1699. Edward set- 
tled in the vicinity of Abington meeting to which he attached 
himself, marrying in due time Mary, daughter of Everard and 
Elizabeth Bolton, who were prominent among the early settlers 
of Cheltenham township. He came to "Great Suamp" in 1716, 
through the influence, I imagine, of Morris Morris, who was 
the principal land owner in the vicinity, and who, like Edward, 


had originally settled at Abington, but had purchased from Penn, 
at an early date, a thousand acres of land on part of which the 
borough of Ouakertown is now located. The commissioners of 
property, by letters patent dated 1728, confirmed this tract to 
Morris, whose daughter Susanna became the wife of Abel 
Roberts, Edward's son. It should be borne in mind that these 
deeds from the commissioners were often executed many years 
subsequent to the original grants by Penn, as was probably true 
in this instance. 

I may digress at this point to say that Morns Morris was a 
man of literary ability as appears from his "Convincement of 
Evan Alorris," his father, which appears in full in my '"Old 
Richland Families," pages J'J to 82, the original paper in his 
handwriting being in the possession 'of Eleanor Foulke. This 
narrative of the sufferings of a faithful Friend who was stead- 
fast in the midst of persecution, is written in the characteristic 
style of the Welsh settlers, being pathetic in its simplicity. As 
a mirror of the times in which Morris lived it possesses especial 
value for us of the present day. Morris Morris had many 
descendants, some of whom have achieved more or less distinction, 
and most have been worthy men and women. He conveyed the 
property on which stands the building in which we are now gath- 
ered, to the meeting, the first structure on the site having been 
built in 1730, 19 years before the deed from Morris was given. 
The meeting-house was originally located in a fine grove of oaks, 
the tradition being that the Indians, who were numerous here at 
the time of the settlement of the place and always friendly to 
the Quakers, were wont to make the shade of the wide-spreading 
branches their resting place during the heats of summer. I may 
add, in this connection, that an enlargement of the building took 
place about 1760, and that it was further improved in 1795. 
It was torn down in 1862, when this building was erected. The 
first meetings in the settlement had been held at private houses, 
notably that of Peter Lester. 

Returning to Edward Roberts, it may be in order to narrate 
something of his early experiences, because they will give an 
idea of what befell others to a certain extent. Imagine a young 
couple with an infant child, setting out from the vicinity of By- 
berry and journeying all the way on horseback, carrying their 


movables with them, to the new settlement at Richland. Gwy- 
nedd, which was a stopping place on their way, had been settled 
in 1698, eighteen years before, but its people were scattered 
over a large area, the rude dwellings being scarcely within hail- 
ing distance of each other. The journey of forty miles or more 
occupied two days, and the couple found themselves in a very 
sparsely settled neighborhood, with Indians for their neighbors, 
kindly disposed towards the followers of Penn, it is true, but 
because of their habits far from desirable as associates. 

Smallpox, that scourge of the aborigines, happened to pre- 
vail among the red men, and Mary, the wife of Edward, con- 
tracted the disease. The husband saw no ray of hope for his 
wife, without comfortable surroundings, medicine, nursing and 
medical skill. These were not to be obtained at Great Swamp, 
or anywhere else nearer than Philadelphia, but at North Wales, 
now Gwynedd, there was a possibility of shelter and such treat- 
ment as might prove effective in saving her life. The faithful 
husband hesitated not an instant, but placing his sick wife and 
child again on their horse, he returned along the Indian path 
to the kindly Welsh brethren at North Wales, where she was 
nursed back to health and in five or six weeks, they returned 
joyously to Great Swamp, which was to be their home and that 
of their descendants for several generations. 

I have often followed this couple in imagination, on their 
weary journey to North Wales, thinking with a tremor what 
would have been the eft'ect had that mother of my race died 
on the way. Their only child at that date was Martha, who mar- 
ried in due time John Roberts, son of Thomas, already men- 
tioned. My ancestor, David, was not born until 1722, six }ears 
later. Had Edward been unsuccessful in saving the life of his 
companion these annals of Richland would have been Wi'itten by 
a different if not a worthier hand. Not only did Mary Roberts 
survive the attack of that dread disease, but she became the 
mother of seven more children, or eight in all, as follows : Martha, 
who married John Roberts and reared a numerous family, dying 
in 1768; Abel, born 1717, died 1808, married Susanna, daughter 
of Morris Morris, as I have said; John, born 1719, died 1776. 
married Margaret Gaskill. and became the founder of a numerous 
family; David, my ancestor, who married Phoebe Lancaster, 


daughter of Thomas Lancaster, and died in 1805 ; Everard, born 
1725, who married and left a daughter who did not marry, that 
Hne being now extinct; Nathan, born 1727, died 1806, unmar- 
ried; Mary, born 1730, died 1787, married John Foulke and left 
a numerous progeny; Jane, born 1732, died 1822, married Thomas 
Foulke, a brother of John, both being sons of Hugh Foulke, and 
left many descendants. 

Most of the children of Edward and Mary Roberts, despite 
their seemingly unfavorable surroundings at birth, lived to a 
good old age it will be seen, Abel dying at 91, and nearly all 
being more than 80. A climate and surroundings that were thus 
promotive of longevity, were not to be made light of by any 
means. Edward Roberts died in 1768, but his widow lived to 
1784, when she passed away at the age of 96 years, 6 months 
and 9 days. 

Edward and Mary Roberts lived for some time in the rudest 
and most primitive way, their permanent habitation not being 
erected until 1729. Their farm was the one now owned and 
occupied by my old friend, Stephen Foulke, and his children. 
I have in my possession at Norristown the door which Edward 
placed on the best room, having the old-fashioned iron knocker 
of that day, combined with the rude latch. When the old house 
was torn down, a few years ago, this door was preserved, and I 
succeeded in obtaining it from Stephen Foulke. I have a num- 
ber of relics of my Richland ancestors, but none that I value 
more highly. The stone for this house was quarried, I have 
been informed, on the farm formerly Abel Roberts', where 
Aaron Penrose lived later. Until a more comfortable cabin 
could be erected the Roberts home consisted of long strips of 
bark, reared up, wigwam fashion, against one of the large 
oak trees, then so common in that vicinity. It was amid such 
surroundings that the forefathers of our race were reared. Ed- 
ward became a speaker, as I have said, about 1725, "his min- 
istry," to use the words of his surviving friends in preparing a 
memorial of him, "being attended with divine sweetness and 
energy, being a lively example of humility, plainness, temper- 
ance, meekness and charity, and of justice and uprightness in 
his dealings among men, which gained him the love and esteem 


of people of all denominations." He was nearly 82 years of age 
when he died, and he had been a minister over 40 years. 

I hope I may be pardoned for speaking more in detail of my 
own ancestors than of others of early Richland settlers, be- 
cause I naturally know more about them than I do of other peo- 
ple's. I have dwelt upon the experiences of Edward Roberts 
because they are doubtless somewhat similar to those of other 
pioneers in this region. Of Thomas Lancaster, who settled in 
Richland about 1740, many circumstances have been handed down 
by tradition. They will be fully set forth, I suppose, in the 
"Lancaster Famil}-," which will shortly be published by another 
of his descendants, Harry F. Lancaster, of Columbia City, 
Indiana. His story has been often told, he having been brought 
from England when a lad of ten or twelve years of age, by Ann 
Chapman, daughter of John Chapman, of Wrightstown, she 
being a minister and engaged in a religious visit to that country. 
He married Phebe Wardell. In 1750 he paid a religious visit 
to Barbadoes, dying at sea on his way home. It is the testimony 
of Richland Friends in a memorial concerning him, that he 
was "sound in the ministry, and exercised his gift therein with 
great fervency and zeal, his life and conversation corresponding 
therewith." His children were John, born 1732; Phebe, my an- 
cestor, 1734; Job, 173.6; Joseph, 1738; Jacob, 1740; Isaac, 1742; 
Aaron, 1744; Moses, 1746; Elizabeth, 1748. Of most of those 
of whom I am speaking it may be said that they were laid in 
the cemetery yonder, where have been deposited for two cen- 
turies the dead of the vicinity, especially Friendly people. In 
the language of the poet : 

"Beneath those rugged elms, that yevvtree's shade. 
Where heaves the turf in many a moldering heap ; 
Each in his narrow cell forever laid. 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

This is not true, however, of Thomas Lancaster. His body 
was committed to the sea. Of Thomas Roberts I may say that 
he came from Wales about 1725, landing in Philadelphia. With 
a horse and cart and other necessaries purchased in that place, 
they journeyed, like the Israelites of old, into the wilderness, 
settling, it is said, in Milford township. Be that as it may, the 
draft of Richland township made in 1734, shows that Thomas 


owned 250 acres of land. He died in 1767, leaving a number of 
children of whom Alice, who married Edward Thomas, was my 
ancestor, their daughter Margaret, having become the wife of 
Amos Roberts. They were my great-grandparents. I know 
less of the Thomases than of almost any of the earlier Richland 
settlers. The will of Edward Thomas, "Old Richland Families," 
pages 97-8, shows him to have been possessed of some property. 

The first house erected in the settlement was built by Morris 
Morris. Peter Lester came to Pennsylvania in 1682. He ap- 
pears to have settled first at or near Chester where he was mar- 
ried in 1685. One of his daughters, Catharine, became the wife 
of John Ball, at Abington, in 1710. His daughter Hannah had 
become the wife of Abraham Griffith at the same place about 
two years earlier. It could not have been long afterward that 
Peter and his family, including Abraham Grifiith and 
wife, removed to Great Swamp, for he and his wife 
and daughter Elizabeth were given a certificate by Abing- 
ton J\Ionthly Meeting to Gwynedd in 17 16. The descen- 
dants of Peter have intermarried in the course of two centuries 
with many of the more prominent families of eastern Penn- 
sylvania. His home was the meeting place of Friends prior to 
the building of the first place of worship in 1723. His origmal 
purchase remained in the family name for five or six generations. 

The name of Green does not occur in the earliest records of 
the township, but they were here at a comparatively eaily date 
Joseph Green, about 1855 prepared a paper, given in "Old Rich- 
land Families," pages 162-3, in which he states that his great- 
grandfather took up a large tract of land on Saucon creek in 
Bucks county, "right among the Indians." He settled on it, 
marrying "Widow Large," a daughter of Ellis Lewis (probably 
the Ellis Lewis of Gwynedd). They had three sons, Francis, 
James and Joseph, of whom Joseph remarried in the vicinity, the 
others removing to Virginia. Joseph's son Benjamin had eleven 
children, with whose names I will not take up your time, since 
they and all the others of their name and kindred who were 
members of the Richland meeting, are to be found in the 
volume, "Old Richland Families," to which reference has been 
made, and which contains all that the meeting records reveal 
in regard to the settlers of Richland and their descendants. 


Joseph Green, in the paper already alhided to, corroborates 
what I have said in regard to the longevity of early Richland 
Friends. He says : 

"My mother was a daughter of John and Martha Roberts, he one 
of the early settlers of Richland. He died at the age of eighty-five years. 
Edward Roberts, his eldest son, died at the age o.f 80 years, 4 months. 
John the second son, died at the age of 89 years, 7 months. William, 
the third son, died at the age of 85 years. 7 months, 20 days. Jane 
Roberts Green, my mother, died at the age of 88 years, i month, 2 days. 
Aunt Ann Penrose, another sister, died at the age of 96 years, 2 months, 
12 days. Aunt Mary, Aunt Sarah and Aunt Martha all lived to a like 
good old age. The average age of six of this Roberts family was nearly 
ninety years, being an unusual instance of longevity in one family." 

Hugh Foulke was one of the early settlers of Richland. He 
was the second son of Edward and Eleanor who settled at 
Penllyn, then Philadelphia, now Montgomery county, and was 
born in Wales. He settled at Richland about the time that 
Edward Roberts located there. His wife was Ann Williams, of 
another well-known Welsh family. Their oldest child, Mary, 
became the wife of James Boone, of Exeter, an uncle of Daniel 
Boone, the celebrated pioneer of Kentucky. The second daugh- 
ter, Martha, married William Edwards, and had a large family 
of children. William dying, his widow married John Roberts, 
whose wife and the mother of all his children, Martha, daugh- 
ter of Edward and Mary Roberts, was also deceased. Of the 
children of Hugh and Ann Foulke, Samuel was a most useful 
member of the community. He was for 37 years the clerk of 
Richland Monthly Meeting. He was a member of the Colonial 
or Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania, from 1761 to 1768. We 
are indebted to him for the translation of earlier Friends records 
from Welsh into English, he being familiar with both tongues. 
He wrote many of the marriage certificates in his day for mem- 
bers of Richland meeting. He wrote a beautiful, plain hand, as 
appears from the marriage-certificate of my great-grandparents 
and other documents written by him, in my possession, and many 
others still in existence. 

Two of Hugh Foulke's sons as I have said, married daugh- 
ters of Edward and Mary Roberts, Mary becoming the wife 
of John, and Jane of Thomas. Many of the descendants are 
living among us, but a large number reside in the West. Everard 


Foulke, son of Thomas and Jane, was one of the United States 
assessors who were forced to abandon their duties during the 
Fries rebelhon in 1798. He was long a justice of the peace 
and a useful man in the community. 

Theophilus Foulke, another son of Hugh, married Margaret 
Thomas, and had many descendants, among them the Merediths, 
Howard M. Jenkins and others. 

William Foulke, another son of Hugh, married Priscilla Les- 
ter. They had several children, but few of their descendants sur- 
vive at the present time. 

Charles Foulke, the husband of Catharine Foulke, a well 
known minister, who resided at Stroudsburg (both now de- 
ceased) was a descendant of John and Mary Roberts Foulke. 

In the course of this paper I have incidentally mentioned many 
names of early settlers at Richland. Other property own- 
ers, as appears by a map dated 1734 were John Moore, Michael 
Atkinson, Michael Lightfoot, Thomas Nixon, William Nixon, 
William Jamison, William Morris, John Ball, Samuel Thomas 
and others. Some of these were non-residents. Others sold out 
their holdings, as appears by subsequent maps, and never became 
permanently identified with the history of the locality. 

The list of signers to road petitions about 1730 gives an idea 
of the residents at- that time. They include : Hugh Foulke, 
John Lester, John Adamson, Arnold Heacock, John Phillips, 
Arthur Jones, William Nixon, John Ball, John Edwards, Thomas 
Roberts Joshua Richards, William Jamison, Edmund Phillips, 
Johannes Bleiler, Michael Everhart, Joseph Everhart, Abraham 
Hill, Johannes Landis, Jacob Klein, John Clemmer, Jacob Mus- 
selman, Jacob Sutar, Peter Cutz, Jacob Drissel, Henry Walp, 
Samuel Yoder, George Hicks, John Zeitz, Heinrich Bitterly. The 
proportion of German names shows how early this element had 
learned of the fertile soil at Richland and hastened to avail them- 
selves of the advantages possessed by the vicinity. Other names 
appearing on maps and papers of the time are Duke Jackson, 
Lawrence Growden, George Hyatt, John Lester, Thomas Heed, 
Joseph Gilbert, James Logan, Joseph Pike, Griffith Jones, Samuel 
Pierson and Henry Taylor some of them evidently those of 

The descendants of the early English and Welsh settlers 


of Richland are scattered over a wide area. It is impossible 
in a paper of this kind to go fully into the details of a popula- 
tion which was less compact than at present, many of the mem- 
bers of the Friends' meecing at Richland having been residents 
of the township at some distance from the principal settlement 
and even of the adjoining townships, Springfield, Haycock, 
Rockhill and Milford. 

It is apparently true in the light of what has been said that 
the training given by the Friends of Richland to their children, 
in the past as well as in more recent times, has been productive 
of good results. The simplicity and plainness which were 
characteristic of earlier times not only promoted longevity, but 
they aided in making good and useful citizens, wherever their lot 
may have been cast. 

One point which I have not mentioned is the distinction of 
"Pot" and "Kettle" Robertses, which prevailed as between the 
two families of Thomas and Edward Roberts, which have now 
become more or less mixed by frequent intermarriages among 
their members. The most plausible explanation of this is that 
the designations were derived from the names of localities or 
townships in Wales from which the heads of the two Roberts 
families came respectively, the terms resembling the words "pot" 
and "kettle" in sound, though differing in Orthography, particu- 
larlv the latter. 

Prehistoric Bucks County. 

(Meeting in Friends' Meeting-house, Quakertown, May :8, 1901.) 

The discovery and settlement of the valley of the Delaware 
was prehistoric; the works and deeds of ancient man, his un- 
recorded monuments, ruins and sculptured rocks were already 
antiquated when the "Restless," built in 1614, commanded by 
Cornelius Hendrickson, coasted along the western bank of the 
Delaware river. Along the shore and some distance inland he 
found numerous tribes of savages who called themselves "Lenni 
Lenape" (the original people). This appellation, however, was 
a misnomer, for as set forth by other explorers, we find that 
when they asked these self-styled original people in regard to 
the use of some of their rude or primitive stone implements, they 
replied, "that they had used them but did not make them, and 
they were here when they came into the locality;" in fact they 
possessed no positive knowledge of the more primitive stone im- 
plements, nor of their owners. 

The locality to which I desire especially to call your atten- 
tion was occupied as late as 1728-30 by a brave and turbulent 
tribe of savages called the Shawnees. I have spent forty or 
more years in the realm of natural science, assisted by Dr. 
Swift, of Easton, in 1855-6, then personally looking up the 
Indian village-sites, mounds, quarries, implement-manufac- 
tories, mortuary-customs, etc.. in eastern Pennsylvania, until 
1877, when I was assisted by Prof. R. F. Berlin, a noted 
archaeologist of Allentown. In 1888 to 1893 I had the pleas- 
ure of accompanying Dr. C. C. Abbott, of Trenton, and Prof. 
H. C. Mercer, of Doylestown, in their expeditions throughout 
northern Bucks and New Jersey. Later through Prof. Holmes, 
of Washington, D. C. ; Col. H. D. Paxson, of Philadelphia, and 
various other experts in anthropological lines, I came into pos- 
session of nearly every variety of pre-historic art; some of 
which may be roughly classed as kitchen or tableware ; but by 
far the larger portion consists of implements of war and agri- 


culture. The pots used by the Indians to stew their meat were 
manufactured of clay, mixed with crushed shells and other 
substances, and so carefully baked that they could withstand the 
action of frost or fire ; they ranged from one to ten gallons in 
capacity. At times instead of building a fire under the pot, 
they heated stones and threw them into the pot boiling the 
meat in that manner. To fit their corn for cooking they pound- 
ed it in a mortar of stone or wood ; some of which were port- 
able and others stationary. When hunting or traveling the 
Indians simply picked up two flat stones with which they crushed 
the corn or other food material to suit their purpose. Their 
dishes were either flat stones or bowls made of birch-bark. The 
spoons were generally of shells or gourds, shaped for the pur- 
pose. To describe even a small part of their wares and imple- 
ments of war or of the chase would lead us far beyond our 
prescribed limits, therefore we must content ourselves with a 
brief outline of a portion of the Shawnee camp-site, and a few 
of the implements found during our investigations. 

In the advent of the white man the locality along the west 
bank of the Delaware river, extending from the foot of the second 
spur of the South mountains to the palisades of Nockamixon 
township in Bucks county, was occupied, as above noted, by a 
large body of war-like savages, under the protection of the Dela- 
wares, who resided on the eastern bank of the river, and closely 
watched their vicious proteges in their various dubious man- 
oeuvres, as is indicated by the numerous picket-camps abound- 
ing in the vicinity. The aboriginal inhabitants being savages 
and pagans, the early Colonists who came in contact with them 
doubtless considered themselves saints, and the red men devils. 
The Indians had two kinds of money — "sewan." made from the 
black portion of the clam shell and called "suck ahack," which 
was double the value of the white variety, "wampum," which 
was made from the stem of the periwinkle or ear shell, the 
black beads (sewan) were used as currency and for jewelry. 

One hundred and seventy years have come and gone since 
those who inhabited the large and beautifully located town of 
Pechequoelin have passed away. The only traces left of the 
presence of those dusky people are a few local names, and the 
numerous stone implements strewn about, accompanied by jas- 


per and argillite chips on the work sites. By proper investi- 
gation of these implements of stone we learn how primitive 
man through countless ages slowly but surely developed in his 
arts, habits and customs, and we also learn to know the Indian 
as he was before coming in contact with his conquerors, the 
white men. 

Laying aside, for the present, the inquiry into the manner of 
man's first appearance in America, let us look for a moment 
at the geological changes occurring as the world forged along 
through the successive ages. In delving down into the earth's 
strata, we turn over the massive stone leaves of geological record 
and read therein, in legible characters, the story of the evolu- 
tion and progress of terrestrial life. We find that some of the 
simplest primordial organisms, such as the pentacrini and other 
radiata have survived with but little modification from the dawn 
of the palaeozoic era to the present ; but as its ocean currents 
and atmospheric temperatures changed, the law of development 
produced successive races of animals tending to the possession 
of higher and more complex structures. Some exceptions might 
be noted, where through some occult limitations of capacity for 
further progression, types matured, then declined gradually, 
yielding their existence to more advanced species and finally 
become extinct. At the close of the Tertiary period, this por- 
tion of the United States was the home of the Mastodon and 
allied monsters of the forests. The gradual change of climate 
and the slowly advancing ice sheets caused the total extinction 
of these formidable monsters. They fulfilled their allotted part, 
passed away and in time were succeeded by a superior animal, 
savage man, who closely followed them in leading an arboreal 
life and slowly evolved to a cave and tent dweller. In the 
fullness of time civilized man appeared, the highest animal yet 
known, who now controls the earth. Will he, too, act out his 
allotted part, become extinct and be succeeded by a still higher 
and far superior being, who in the distant future may pry into 
the quintenary formation, and, finding fossil man of the quar- 
tenary period, marvel as to the manner of creature he was, 
how he lived, where he came from, and what sort of cataclysm 
•caused his extinction? 

Anthropology' in its latest researches claims that the budding 


instinct of some of the higher animals is nearly equal to the 
thinking of lowest man, and far less than that separating the 
savage from the scientist or politician. Knowing then, that 
the history of the earth for thousands of years is indelibly 
written on tablets of stone, it must ever remain a gratification 
and inspiration to the scientist as well as to the historian to read 
not only in the record of the rocks the history and progressive 
development of our home on earth ; but that we can trace the 
process by that which has brought it about. It is not, however, 
necessary that we become process mad, unable to see in and be- 
hind the unfolding, the power that moves the wheels, for who 
among us can rest content to know no more scientifically of 
the wondrous world we mysteriously inhabit than did savage 
man of the past? 

Geologically, that portion of the Delaware valley under con- 
sideration belongs to the Post-tertiary, or recent formation, and 
is characterized by deposits of glacial, post-glacial drift, and 
alluvium to a depth of from ten to sixty feet. 

A large portion of the river bank, north of Durham cave, 
wdiere primitive man had his dug-outs, fire-sites, pottery and 
implement manufactory has been destroyed by floods, the con- 
struction of the canal and other improvements in the vicinity of 
the ancient village site. 

The locality was. and is now an ideal one. the towering 
South mountains to the north and east, the Pennsylvania pali- 
sades and bend in the river to the southeast and the lofty Rattle- 
snake hill to the south and west formed a fitting and grand 
panorama, and a picturesque abode for primitive man, as it 
does for the modern inhabitants of the present village. P)esides, 
the historic Durham cave, located almost in the centre of the 
ancient village, afforded a convenient shelter during periods 
of intense cold or protracted bad weather. Prominent in geo- 
graphical position, remarkable in its natural features and mineral 
wealth, the locality early attracted the attention of savage man, 
and later that of the European, the naturalist and explorer. 
The settling of a tract consisting of over 5,000 acres of land as 
early as 1682. 50 miles from Philadelphia, proves that the mineral 
resources of the region were known to adventurers, while yet 
the country was to a great extent occupied by the descendants 


of the aborigines. Hence these dusky children of nature had 
but a Hmited time given them to remove their effects to more 
congenial parts of the country, while their cleared fields and 
the virgin forests were appropriated by the white man, the 
Indians receiving payment in clothing, guns, ammunition, iron- 
pots, whiskey, matches, etc. Yet they still were dissatisfied, 
as the following extracts dated May 21, 1728, will show: In- 
structions by Governor Gordon, of Pennsylvania, to John Smith 
and Nicholas Skolehoven, messengers from Kakowwatchy, chief 
of the Shawnees at Pechoquevalin. 

"You are to tell my friend Kakowwatchy that I am glad to hear 
from him. We have always understood him to be a wise good man, 
inclined toward peace and a lover of Christians. That is, if these eleven 
men were sent out to assist our Indians against the Flatheads, it was 
kindly done of him. But these people behaved politely. It was not 
becoming of our friends to come into the Christian's houses with guns 
and pistols, and swords painted for war, and take away the poor people's 
provision by force with great threatenings to those who opposed them. 
This was not a behaviour becoming friends, nor what we expected from 
the Shawnees, etc." * * * * "The Governor will be glad to see 
Kakowwatchy at Durham some time this fall when treaties are over and 
when the weather grows cooler. He will then treat him as a friend and 

September 28, 1728, the Governor said, (the larger portion 
of the Shawnees having left), "Inquire also after the Indians, 
and if you can, see Kakowwatchy, know of him why his friends 
left Pechoquevalin, after they had promised to meet me at Dur- 
ham iron works." 

December, 1731, the Governor addressed the Shawness at or 
near Alleghening, and reminded them of the eld league and 
covenant made 34 years previous between the Conestoga Indians, 
William Penn and the Shawnees, giving them the privilege of 
dwelling at Durham, and telling them in a friendly spirit that 
the English had supplied them with all they wanted and had given 
them good prices for their skins. Although there were a large 
number of Delawares, Shawnees, Mingoes and Asseckales settled 
at Alleghening from Durham and vicinity, a large number of the 
more civilized ones remained, residing in huts along the streams 
ekeing out a precarious living, until old age called them to the 


On November 26, 1678, a day of thanksgiving was set apart 
by the General Assembly for the great deliverance of the 
Colonies from a plot to murder the King and destroy the Protes- 
tants ; for delivering the people from the smallpox and other 
prevalent diseases, and from the Indians. Some evilly disposed 
persons told the Indians that the smallpox was brought to 
them by the Colonists trading match-coats, etc., on the lands 
belonging to the Indians. The Indians forthwith held a consul- 
tation ; one of their chiefs told them, while stretching his hands 
towards the skies, "It came from thence." To this his hearers 
assented with a grunt. 

In our early days it was told us that on the annual approach 
of Indian-summer the Indians in this locality held a grand 
jubilee on the southern slope of Rattlesnake hill. It was the 
belief of the Indians, 

"That the departed ones returned from the spirit-land to their old 
council-house and hunting-grounds, and found everything as they left 
it, perhaps thousands of years previous. The spirits came trooping over 
hill and vale in battalions of thousands. They passed and re-passed 
on the trails, smoothed by the feet of countless generations that had lived 
and trodden the path during the eons of the past. They again saw the 
grand old forest in its transcendent autumnal glory; the native hills and 
valleys w^here once they roamed and basked in the bright and glorious 
sunlight. Rejuvenated, they departed again into the misty great un- 

There is a great deal to be learned in this line that ouglit t^o 
have a place in history and year by year the records of these 
dusky tribes are gradually fading, and will continue to fade un- 
less preserved by that great educator, the press of our nation. 

Should these questions be asked in our schools : What is 
the archaeology of your district? Give a synopsis of the topog- 
raphy and geology of the district. Also outlines of the 
local history of your locality. If so the answer would probably 
be: "Nothing worth consideration." So drift we on, and his- 
tory and science ofttimes slumber. 

In conclusion I will call your attention to the Indian mode 
of fishing in the Delaware river in the locality under con- 
sideration. The Shawnee Indians, evidently driven by necessity 
to invent an apparatus to supply their larder with fish, invented 
a device which was constructed in the following manner. In 


the river nearly midway between the Durham cave and the 
northern ward of the village, was and is yet a ripple and strong 
current, which in the latter part of summer, and at low water has 
a depth of from one to three feet. About seventy yards from 
the west shore of the river the Indians had erected a braided 
incline, or fish-basket. This was composed of a series of slen- 
der saplings about fifteen feet in length, woven together with 
basket-willow to a width of six feet, with sides a foot high. 
From this fish net or weir an oblique line of stones was 
piled, extending a considerable distance toward the east or 
New Jersey side of the river; on the west or Pennsylvania side 
the stones were piled in a similar manner extending to the bank 
of the river. Close to the weir a short semi-circular wall was 
erected to form an eddy. Here they anchored a canoe as a 
receptacle for the fish caught in the weir. In the spring of the 
year, the lish generally came up the river in shoals, tumbling 
over the walls they became bewildered and were then driven by 
Indians into the narrow space at the weir, captured and thrown 
into the canoe. In the fall of the year immense quantities of 
eels and other migrating fish coming down the river were strand- 
ed in the weir and easily captured. 

After the Shawnee Indians had been driven to the Ohio coun- 
try by orders of the Six Nations, the pioneer whites captured 
immense quantities of fish in the same manner. Later in 1804, 
the weir was remodeled by the pioneer residents in the vicinity. 
They split the saplings and nailed them on a rude oak frame 
which had been pinned together with wooden pins. In this 
manner some of my own ancestors, assisted by the Stems, 
Schanks, Tinsmans and others, caught large quantities of fish. 
Along the steep river banks the Indians had cut dug-outs, which 
were all located on the west bank of the river, and were about 
eight feet in width by twelve feet in depth, opening towards the 
river, and elevated sufficiently so that ordinary freshets seldom 
reached them. Several of these dug-outs were cleaned out and 
utilized by our pioneer ancestors when fishing, until the great 
freshet of January 3, 1841, when a large portion of the river bank 
Avas washed away, along with many towering sycamore trees, 
which were, according to trustworthy evidence fully four feet 
in diameter, six feet above the ground. When the fiood sub- 


sided the fish weir and most of the wing-walls were gone, and 
as a new generation had arisen, which cared more for ease and 
less for the hardships to be endured while fishing, it was de- 
cided to no longer continue the old method. 

Among the curiosities in early times were the Indian corn- 
fields, trails, crematories, burial-grounds and the large quantities 
of primitive art scattered about. The Durham cave might have 
been classed among the seven wonders of the world. Tourists 
from all sections had carved their initials on the flat entrance 
stone and also in the interior of the cave. Queen Esther's 
rooms, a portion of the subterranean chamber, were also to 
some extent disfigured by carvings. 

On the sloping banks, at the confluence of Durham creek 
with the Delaware river, was built the first canoe-shaped Dur- 
ham boat, so named after its artificer, Robert Durham, who was 
connected with the early iron industry at Durham. The sloping 
beach as described by our ancestors covered fully two acres of 
ground, the sand was of almost pure silica. It was shaded by a 
number of huge sycamores and must have been a grand working- 
place for our pioneer boat-architect and builder. 


In New Hope, Bucks county. Pa. Built in 1784. 

Residence of Richard Randolph Parry. 

On property of Paxson estate, on the north side of Old York road in the borough of 
New Hope, Bucks county, Pa. This chestnut tree was about 150 yeans old, and measured 
22 ft in circumference when it was cut down Nov. 28, 1S93. Under this tree, when it was 
about 33 years old. Gen. Washington met Genls. Green and Alexander (Lord Sterling) 
and first planned the battle of Trenton. 

(From photograph by John A. Anderson.) 

The Parry Family of New Hope. 

(Wrightstown Meeting, October i, 1901.) 

Doubtless many of you have been familiar from childhood with 
the ancient colonial double stone mansion standing alone at the 
southwest corner of the Old York road and th.e Trenton or 
River road, in New Hope borough, Bucks county, famous in 
the days of the Revolution as "Coryell's Ferry." a name then, 
and now, representing ideas of patriotism, valor and devotion 
almost lost to the present generation. Few readers of history 
to-day recognize Coryell's Ferry so often mentioned in mili- 
tary dispatches, papers and letters of General Washington, Lord 
Stirling and divers others of his generals, in its present name 
of New Hope. Let us hope that the time may soon come when, 
thanks to the efforts of the "Sons of the Revolution" and various 
other patriotic bodies, all working to the same end, ideas of 
veneration for all that belonged to those "times which tried 
men's souls" will be so deeply and keenly felt, appreciated and 
revived that a public sentiment in our midst will demand the re- 
storation of the old things, and New Hope, divested of its al- 
most meaningless name, again be known to the world as "Cor- 
yell's Ferry;" for the able defense of which, in the year 1776, 
General William Alexander, of the Continental army, better 
known, however, as Lord Stirling, received the thanks of the 
Continental Congress. The name of "Kings Bridge." "Dobb's 
Ferry," and other places having Revolutionary interest, have 
never been altered or changed. 

The old colonial building to which I have referred, has bravely 
stood through three centuries, and long has been known as "The 
Old Parry Mansion," and has been the home of the Parrys 
of New Hope for five generations, and in the present year, 
1 90 1, an event so unusual in its character occurred beneath 
its wide roof as to make it historic and worthy of passing 
notice in the birth of a daughter to Mr. and Mrs. Oliver 
Parry, (named Margaret Kreamer Parry) in the same room 

70 the; parry i-amily of new hopk 

in which her great-grandfather, Ghver Parry, was born in 1794, 
one hundred and seven years ago, and in the same old mansion 
in which her great-great-grandfather, Benjamin Parry, born 
March i, 1757, hved and died. Such events are of rare occur- 
rence in x\merica, where the strong love of family homes and 
their possessions does not have the same deep root wliicii 
exists in our mother country of England, and in other foreign 
lands. Seldom do we find homes in the United States passed 
on beyond the second or third generations. 

Descriptions of the "Old Parry Mansion" have been so often 
given in print that it would seem superfluous to detain you with 
an account of it at this time, and I would therefore refer any 
one further interested to the "York Road, Old and New," by 
the Rev. S. F. Hotchkin, for its history, with illustrations; to 
General Davis' old and "Revised History of Bucks County." 
soon to be published, and to other published works. An illus- 
trated sketch of the "Old Parry Mansion," by the Historical 
Editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer, appeared in the columns of 
that paper at a recent date. It also makes mention of two 
different portions of this property having been in a state of 
armed defense against the British troops, just before the battle 
of Trenton. 

Lord Stirling's (Gen. Alexander's) headquarters at New 
Hope are said to have been in the old hip-roofed house now torn 
down, on the site now occupied by the new hip-roofed house of 
Phineas R. Slack, just opposite the avenue and entrance to 
"Maple Grove," then and now owned by the Paxson family, one 
of whom (Jane Paxson, daughter of Oliver Paxson) Benjamin 
Parry married November 4, 1787, and immediately on their 
return from their wedding trip took her to his home at 
the Parry mansion, where they passed the remainder of their 

It may be of interest to state that during the most of Decem- 
ber, 1776. a considerable body of Continental troops was quar- 
tered at New Hope, to defend which General Alexander (Lord 
Stirling) threw up a strong redoubt on top of the hill across 
the pond in a southwesterly direction from the old Parry man- 
sion, and part of that estate. These earth works extended 
from about where the yellow public school-house now stands 


in an easterly direction towards the Delaware river. Lord 
Stirling also had another redoubt thrown up on the Old York 
road at the corner of Ferry and the present Bridge streets, 
opposite where the "Old Washington Tree" (cut down Nov. 
28, 1893,) then stood. From this somewhat elevated position he 
likewise commanded the approach from the ferry at the Dela- 
ware river. At the river's brink, just above and below the 
ferry landing, and also a part of the Parry estate, (purchased 
of the Todds) stockade entrenchments were erected, and bat- 
teries were placed. Such, you see, were the defenses of "Cor- 
yell's Ferry," (now New Hope) in December, 1776. But who 
can say that had it not been for the keenness and activity of 
two patriotic young Jerseymen named Jerry Slack and Capt. 
(afterward General) Daniel Bray, New Hope and the Ferry 
■ might not have been captured, the battle of Trenton never 
fought and dire disaster come to the American arms and cause. 

Washington evacuated Fort Lee on the Hudson, November 
26, 1776, and retreated through New Jersey before Lord Corn- 
wallis' troops, arrived December 3d at the eastern bank of the 
Delaware river, to find boats and floats ready to convey his 
army across the river to Pennsylvania. All of these boats and 
floats were secured by these two young men, acting under or- 
ders, who had correct knowledge of every owner from Trenton 
to Easton. General Washington was also several weeks later 
indebted for the more numerous fleet procured, and which 
ferried him over the river at McKonkey's ferry just alcove Tay- 
lorsville, at the point now world-famous as "Washington's Cross- 

The British troops, following on Washington's trail, arrived 
but an hour later at the river landing in the city of Trenton, 
only to find that the bird had flown, that the General with a 
large body of soldiers had crossed over to the west side of the 
Delaware, and that with no boats for British use, the pursuit 
of Washington and his Continentals must be abandoned and 
come to an untimely end. As the British found themselves un- 
able to continue the pursuit or effect a crossing at Trenton, a 
body of soldiers was ordered to march 16 miles up the Delaware 
river to the present site of Lambertville, N. J., and endeavor to 
get into Pennsylvania by crossing over at "Coryell's Ferry." 


Bvit here. too. they were disappointed and baffled, for as at 
Trenton no boats or flats could be found or obtained, all having 
been removed to the Pennsylvania side of the river and secreted 
behind "Afalta Island." just below the present "Union Paper 
]\Iilis." It is now mainland, but was then surrounded by water 
and thickly wooded. All attempts of the British to enter 
Pennsylvania either at Trenton or "Coryell's Ferry" were suc- 
cessfully resisted, and from December 8, 1776, to the 25th, the 
hostile armies "remained facing each other on oposite sides of 
the river, and, as history states, the cause of Independence 
was saved." Lord Cornwallis, who could never even have dream- 
ed of a battle at Trenton, (and feeling sure of his prey) no 
doubt had bright visions floating through his mind, of our 
army hemmed in between his forces and the Delaware river, 
marching on to their probable destruction, and but little recked- 
of the true picture the camera would reveal v^hen turned on 
the scene, to display his own troops defeated and broken, 
many wounded and killed, stores, arms and cannon surrendered, 
and all that went to make glorious the battle and victory at 
Trenton. Cornwallis. at this period, doubtless thought the war 
would be of brief duration, nor dreamed of his sun setting at 
Yorktown long after. 

The whole district of country at and about Xew Hope, dur- 
ing the few weeks prior to the battle of Trenton, was bristling 
with arms and the tramp and tread of armed men, a situation 
hard to realize in these quiet and peaceful days, a century and a 
quarter later ; but at that time, with Lord Stirling occupying 
"Coryell's Ferry," there were General Knox and Captain Alexan- 
der Hamilton (killed by Aaron Burr in their memorable duel) at 
Dr. Chapman's, over Jericho hill to the north, just below New 
Hope. A short distance beyond, on the road from Brownsburg to- 
wards Newtown, we find Gen. Washington, with his headquarters 
at the "Keith House," General Greene living in clover at ^lerrick's 
farm-house, and General Sullivan quartered at Hayhurst's, but a 
few fields away, all waiting, eager and anxious to bear their part 
in the bloodv engagement which thev well knew was so near 
at hand. 

Tradition (which may perhaps be correct) informs us that 
under the old 'A\'ashington Tree," in the Paxson field, opposite 


Stirling's headquarters, in New Hope, General Washington and 
his trusted Generals, Knox, Stirling, Greene and Sullivan, first 
talked over and first planned the battle of Trenton, and from 
the time of the Revolution to November 28, 1893, (when it was 
cut down to make way for improvements), it was always known 
and spoken of as "The Old Washington Tree." 

The brush of the artist has already placed upon canvas the 
famous scene of "Washington's Crossing." What an opportunity 
for poet and novelist still remains amid such surroundings as 
can be depicted, to weave both in prose and in verse, stories of 
those grand old days when brave deeds were enacted, the re- 
cital of which would be the very poetry and romance of history 

Thomas Parry, the grandfather of Benjamin Parry, already 
mentioned, was born in Wales in the year A. D. 1680, came to 
America towards the close of the seventeenth century, settled 
in Pennsylvania in that part of Philadelphia county long after- 
wards set aside as Montgomery county. There are several ac- 
counts of this Thomas Parry, rendered perplexing to many 
from the fact of there having been two or three Thomas 
Parrys in Pennsylvania in his day. One account is that he 
belonged to the Cardiganshire, South Wales, family of Parrys, 
whose descent is traced from the ancient and honorable family of 
Rhys (Reese) settled in Cardiganshire from very early times, 
and that his progenitor was Thomas Rhys ap Harry, the Welsh 
nomenclature of which when translated into English reading 
Thomas Reese the son of Harry, thus Thomas ap Harry, 
Thomas the son of Harry when Anglicised becoming Parry. 

The accounts, however, handed down in the writer's branch 
of the Parrys are that the said Thomas Parry was of the Caer- 
narvonshire, North Wales, Parrys, and that he was born in 
Caernarvonshire, near the Snowden mountains, in 1680, as stated. 
He is recorded as having been the owner of over 1,000 acres 
of land in Mongomery county, Pennsylvania, to a part of which 
his son, John Parry, subsequently succeeded. Of the above 
thousand acres Thomas Parry conveyed 200 acres to John 
Van Buskirk by deed dated September 2, 1725, and 300 acres to 
David Maltsby by deed dated December 29, 1726. 

The wife of Thomas Parry is said to have been Jane Morris, 


whom he married in the year A. D. 1715, and by whom he had 
issue ten children, all born between the years 17 16 and 1739, 
inclusive, the exact dates of which I have. Eight of these were 
sons, and two daughters, named Alary and Alartha. The 
eldest son, Thomas, v\as born on July 26, 17 16. The third 
child, John, the ancestor of the writer, was born July 25, 1721, 
and Martha, the youngest, on March 3, 1739. The descendants 
of Thomas and Jane Parry are to be found at the present day 
not only in Pennsylvania but in parts of Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, 
New Jersey and Virginia. From early times they have held com- 
missions for various honorable positions in both the civil and 
military departments of the States and Federal governments. As 
Whittier has it, "and this has worn the soldier's sword and that 
the judge's gown." The American branch of the Parry family 
in the United States has become allied by marriage and inter- 
marriage with some of the oldest families of colonial times, such 
as Tyson, Randolph, Morris, Waldrons, Garrish, Winslows and 
others of note. 

Thomas Parry was a man of excellent good sense and judg- 
ment and he and his neighbor and acquaintance, Sir William 
Weith Bart, of "Graeme Park," Proprietary Governor of Penn- 
sylvania under the Penns, consulted together about their internal 
local affairs, such as roads, etc., and certainly the roads were bad 
enough in their day. It is only since comparatively late years 
that there were turnpikes from Willow Grove to either New 
Hope or to Doylestown. Philadelphia, Montgomery and Bucks 
counties have much for which to thank the greatly abused Gov- 
ernor Keith in the matter of public roads in which he felt and took 
the deepest interest. Indian trails and bridal paths were frequent- 
ly the best that they had before his day. In time came roads with 
wagons and coaches. The first riding-chair in Bucks county 
is said to have been owned and used by John Wells about A. D. 
1739, although I think others have claimed precedence. 

In the days of staging when the writer was a lad Willow 
Grove was the first station where the horses were changed and 
the old "Buck Hotel," still in existence, did a large and thriving 
business with the country people and travelers in its various de- 
partments, including the bar, for it was then deemed almost a 


point of honor to so patronize the wayside inns and thus con- 
tribute to their support. 

From early times Bucks county has always had many practi- 
tioners at the bar, though in quite another sense, not a few of 
whom have risen to distinction and among others we might note 
the following who have been elevated to and worn the judicial 
ermine, not only in the courts of Philadelphia, but the Supreme 
Court of the State: Judge Bregy, from Centreville ; Judge 
Briggs, of TuUytown, and Judges Paxson and Fell, of Buck- 
ingham township, with still another eminent citizen and judge of 
the capitol town of the county, already in nomination and per- 
haps soon to be added to the list, though his gain would be our 
loss. Nor must we omit from the list the names of our home 
judges, the Rosses, Chapman and Watson, eminent for their 
great learning and distinguished parts, or the Honorable George 
Lear, attorney general of the State of Pennsylvania. 

But I am again digressing and must return. An ancient 
paper in my possession, stained yellow with age, recites quaintly 
that "Thomas Parry died the thirtieth day of the Seventh Month, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and forty- 
eight (1748)." Also that "Jane Parry departed this life the 
sixth day of Ninth Month, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy-seven, in the eighty-second year of 
her age (1777)." This would show that she was born in A. 
D. 1685, her husband, Thomas, having been born 15 years earlier, 
in the year 1680. 

John Parry, of Moorland Manor, so styled to distinguish him 
from another John of the same name, was the third child of 
Thomas and Jane Parry, born 1680. He was born on July 25, 
1721. and married Setember 21, 1751, Alargaret Tyson, daughter 
of Derick and Ann Tysoh and granddaughter of that Renier 
(sometimes also spelled Reynear) Tyson, who came to Ger- 
mantown. Pa., from Crefeld, in Germany, in 1683, and was 
twice chief burgess of that borough. In early days he removed 
to Montgomery county, then a part of Philadelphia county, ac- 
quired a large estate and was ancestor of the Pennsylvania and 
Maryland Tysons. 

John Parry and Margaret Tyson Parry, his wife, had seven 
children, named Thomas, John, Benjamin, Phebe, Stephen, David 


and Daniel, the eldest born August 20, 1752, and Daniel, the 
youngest, on April 21, 1774. John Parry lived on the back road 
near the present Heaton station of the Northeast Penn R. R., 
the road running into the Old York road at about that point. 
This estate was derived from his father, Thomas Parry, and his 
house, a large double stone mansion, was not unlike the old 
Parry mansion at New Hope. When the writer was a small 
boy his father, Oliver Parry, in driving to or from Philadelphia 
to New Plope would frequently turn off the Old York road to 
drive by this property to show his son where his great-grand- 
father, John Parry, had lived and where he died. This ancient 
mansion still stands, but has since that time been altered by carry- 
ing the attics up square, making it now a double three-story 
structure ; the change, however, being a loss from an architec- 
tural standpoint as well as in other respects, and the mind and 
the heart of the writer cling to the old days and ways. 

John Parry was an elder in the society of Friends and had 
many city acquaintances whom he often entertained at his 
home, being much given to hospitality, and a drive from Phila- 
delphia being a pleasant day's diversion as to distance, and the 
enjoyment of beautiful scenery, then, however, only in a primi- 
tive state of nature. Since then under the landscape gardener's 
care, stimulated and directed by the hand of great wealth, the 
whole country has become cultivated and improved almost beyond 
comparison. In early times the residents of that section at 
and about Horsham, Abington, Jenkintown, etc., had no post- 
office facilities nearer than Philadelphia, and one can imagine 
how rapid was the mail delivery wdien in 1794 Lawrence Erb, 
of Easton, ran stage coaches between Philadelphia and the for- 
mer place, and the first day's journey was ended at Jenkintown 
where they remained over night. Ten pounds of baggage was 
allowed to each passenger. The stages started in Philadelphia 
from the sign of "The Pennsylvania Arms," a tavern or inn 
conducted on Third street between Vine street and Callowhill 
street. Callowhill street was named in honor of the family of 
William Penn's second wife, the Callowhills. 

The writer, a great-grandson of this John Parry, has an 
ancient oaken and iron-bound chest once owned by him and which 
was used as a receptacle for various bottles of a bibulous kind. 

the; parry family of new hope j'j 

each having its separate place and most of them still unbroken. 
They are very thin and bear curious devices, and the wine glasses 
and two glass funnels are dotted with cut gilt stars ; they were, 
no doubt, considered very handsome in their day and presumably 
much admired. The writer also owns several books formerly 
belonging to John Parry, containing his autograph and dated ; a 
stout gold-headed walking stick or cane of John Parry's, 
engraved with his name and dated 1751, was also in the possession 
of his great-grandson. Judge William Parry, now deceased, and 
doubtless is still preserved in the family. 

John Parry, of Moorland Manor, died November 10, 1789, 
his wife, Margaret Tyson, surviving him for eighteen years and 
dying in 1807. They both lie buried in the old burying-ground 
of Friends at Horsham, Montgomery county, and we might in 
passing note that this and the grounds about the Friends' meet- 
ing-houses at Abington and Byberry, in Montgomery county, 
and at Fallsington, Wrightstown and Buckingham, in the county 
of Bucks, are among the earliest cemeteries laid out in Penn- 

The third child of Margaret and John Parry, of Moorland Man- 
or, was Benjamin Parry, the progenitor of the Parrys of New 
Hope. He was born March i, 1757, and obtaining from his father 
considerable means settled in 1784 at "Coryell's Ferry." He was 
an influential citizen of Bucks county during the latter part of 
the i8th and early part of the 19th centuries, and is mentioned 
at considerable length in General Davis' history of Bucks county 
and in other printed and published works. In the chapter upon 
New Hope in General Davis' history he says : 

"The coming of Benjamin Parry to New Hope in 1784 gave a fresh 
impetus to the business interests of that station. He was largely engaged 
in various commercial enterprises and acquired a large estate for that 
day. He was also a man of scientific attainments, having patented one 
or more useful inventions, of varied and extensive reading, was public- 
spirited and took deep interest in all that would improve his neighborhood 
or the county. His death was a serious loss to the community." 

Benjamin Parry was the original promoter of the New Hope 
Delaware Bridge Company, and in A. D. 18 10 first agitated the 
subject. At that early day he and his friend, the Hon. Samuel 
D. Ingham, of Solebury, Secretary of the United States Treas- 
ury under President Jackson realized the great importance 


of bridging the Delaware river at New Hope, and never 
rested until it was accomplished in 18 14. Benjamin Parry 
headed the subscription list and ]\Ir. Ingham signed as 
second subscriber. The first public meeting, held towards this 
end, was on September 25, 181 1, at the tavern of Garret Meldrum 
in New Hope, at which time vigorous action was taken towards 
securing the building of the bridge. The printed proceedings, 
still in existence, I have among my papers. Benjamin 
Parry and Mr. Ingham were the commissioners appointed to su- 
perintend its construction as noted in the very interesting paper 
by Rev. D. K. Turner upon our "Representatives of Bucks 
County in Congress," read before this society on January 22, 
1895. It was necessary to obtain charters from both the States 
of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, which were granted in 1812, 
or about fifteen months after the first eventful meeting in Mel- 
drum's tavern. The charter gave the company banking privi- 
leges and acting under the written advice of their counsel, the 
Kon. George M. Dallas, once vice-president of the United States 
a banking business was conducted and bank bills were issued, 
which became largely the currency of the country, both in 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Tlie first president of the New 
Hope Delaware Bridge Company was the Hon. Samuel D. Ingham, 
and Benjamin Parry was a member of its first board of managers 
in 181 1. It may perhaps be of some interest to note that in 
1901, 90 years later, the family is still closely connected with 
this ancient bridge, and one of its members, a grandson of Ben- 
jamin Parry, has been for a number of years president of the 
company. Daniel Parry, a younger brother of Benjamin, 
was treasurer of the company in 1814, having been elected on 
November 22, of that year. The present treasurer is John S. 
Williams, well known to you all. 

Upon property at "Coryell's Ferry" purchased of the Todd 
heirs Benjamin Parry had erected the colonial residence long 
known as the "Old Parry Mansion." This structure was slowly 
and carefully built that it might be well seasoned and staple and 
sure in all its parts, and the walls still stand as true as then, 
without crack or seam. This home he occupied until his death, a 
period of nearly sixty years. On November 14, 1787, he married 
Jane Paxson, daughter of Oliver Paxson, the elder of "A'iaple 

the: parry family of nfw hopf 79 

Grove," of Coryell's Ferry, and took her to his home and there 
they passed the remainder of their lives. 

Like many other men of strong and decided character Ben- 
jamin Parry had a gentle and tender side to his nature not always 
exhibited to every one. This is made quite apparent by various 
mementos found after his death, one of which he wrote in 
1786 to Jane Paxson before she became his wife, and is entitled 
''A Lover's Acrostic." 

* Inform me, shepherds of the green, where roams my lovely maid? 
Enamoured of the birds that sing, she's sought some pleasant shade. 
Not blooming meade or golden fields were ever half so fair. 
Nor May, with all her fragrant flowers did e'er so bright appear. 
Young as the morning her blushes far more dear. 
Pure as the morning dew her breath that blows the fragrant flower, 
And rubby lips a saint might kiss or infidel adore; 
Xenophon wise, who scoft at love and mocked the lover's pains. 
Saw never half so fair a maid or he had owned young Cupid's chains; 
O'er hoary mountain tops I'd glide, from forest leaves I'd tear 
Nor bars of steel obstruct my way, to keep me from my fair. 

This rhapsody is perhaps high flown, but then as now a lover 
must be allowed full license. 

And that the deep feeling of affection between them was lasting 
and did not wear itself out could be easily shown were any 
evidence required by subsequent correspondence between them. 
The concluding parts of two charmingly quaint letters written 
some years after their marriage I will quote here. 

Under date of June 28th, 1790, at Philadelphia, Jane Paxson 
Parry thus writes to her husband, Benjamin Parry, at Coryell's 
Ferry : 

"Once more, my dear, is thy poor wife left alone and who can she 
speak to or think of but her best beloved, who indeed is ever in my 

"Two weeks, my dear, is a long time blowing over when separated 
from those we dearly love and in whose welfare we are so deeply inter- 
ested as I am in thine. I do so long to see thee once." Concluding 
with — "Give my love to our father's family and visit them as often as 
possible on my behalf. Reserve a large share of that love which has 
ever subsisted between us for thy own dear self. From thy affectionate 
wife, Jane Parry. 

Benjamin Parry romantically concludes a reply to ihis lett-j' 
as follows, but we must first remember that in 1790 public com- 
munication between Coryell's Ferry and Philadelphia was very 
infrequent and difficult, and many holes, quicksands, etc., tf> be 

* The first letter " I " must be read in the old .style as " J " in order to make Jenny. 


overcome and the chair or chaise of their kinsmen, "B. Pax- 
son," referred to by B. Parry, was considered a golden private 
opportunity, no doubt, for this dear Httle wife to return to her 
husband and home. He therefore tlius instructs her as to her 
entering upon this perilous expedition : 

"I expect that B. Paxson will go up to Solebury in a day or two in 
a chair and perhaps there may be an opportunity for thee at his return 
to write me, or come down thy own pretty self. From thy loving husband, 
Benjamin Parry." 

Jane Paxson was born at "Maple Grove," New Hope, in 
1767, and died while visiting in Philadelphia on May 13, 1826. 
When the wife of the celebrated Rufus Choate died he had the 
hardihood to have graven upon her tomb that she was his only 
wife. Benjamin Parry did not do this, though he privately en- 
acted it, never contracting another marriage and livin"- a wid- 
ower for many years, and to the day of his death deeply mourned 
his loss. 

From 1784 to about 181 5 Coryell's Ferry was admittedly the 
most active and thriving town in Bucks county and the means 
and influence and the hand of Benjamin Parry end his younger 
brother, Daniel were those mainly who guided the helm. So 
much so that in early times Benjamin Parry was known and 
styled "The Father of Coryell's Ferry." Beside his linseed oil- 
mills, flour-mills and saw -mills, etc., in Pennsylvania, he was own- 
er of flour-mills in Amwell township, New Jersey, on the opposite 
side of the river from New Hope, and interested with his relative, 
Timothy Paxson, afterwards one of the executors of the rich 
Stephen Girard. in the flour commission business in Philadelphia. 
He had also timber lands in several counties bordering on the 
upper Dela^vare river, from whence came principally the supply 
of logs for his saw-mills. In 1788 a great freshet washed away 
his flour-mill at New Hope, which proved a total loss, as no 
insurance could be obtained against floods or can be at this day. 
In the year 1790 a most disastrous fire destroyed his flour, oil 
and saw-mills, and it was after this disaster and from these cir- 
cumstances, and when his mills were rebuilt that the name of 
"Coryell's Ferry" was changed to that of "New Hope," as an 
incentive to new and fresh courage. On a private map made for 
Benjamin Parry, dated 1798, it was called New Hope. A portion 


of his business affairs was conducted under the style of Parry & 
Cresson, and others as B. Parry & Co. A letter from the late 
Martin Coryell, to the wr'iter, dated July 22, 1876, states as 
follows : 

"Benjamin Parry had a very large and profitable trade for the product 
of his mills with the West Indies and other tropical countries, having 
invented in 1810 a process by which malt, corn meal, etc., would resist 
the heat and moisture of voyage through tropical climates and remain 
sweet and wholesome, and that the amount of production was the only 
limit for the demand in foreign ports." 

The flour of General Washington's mills at Mt. Vernon had 
also this similar high reputation abroad. Lossing in his "Mt. 
Vernon and its associations" on page 82 states that any barrel 
of flour stamped "George Washington, Mt. Vernon," was e.xenipt 
from the customary inspection in the British West Indies ports. 
In Mr. Coryell's letter he also mentions this curious circumstance, 
that a shipment of corn-meal once made by Mr. Parry's firm to 
the West Indies, a hogshead came back to New Hope long after 
filled with molasses, having been purchased by one of the mer- 
chants of New Hope. The head was stamped as when it was 
originally shipped from New Hope, "B. Parry & Co., New Hope, 
Pa., Kiln Dried Corn Meal." The patent from the United States 
to Benjamin Parry for his "Kiln Drying Process" was issued 
during the term of President James Madison, and bears the auto- 
graph of Caesar A. Rodney, one of the signers of the Decic ration 
of Independence. The patent is dated July 10, 1810, and is record- 
ed in both Washington and Philadelphia, the recorder's ofiice 
in Philadelphia book 25, "L. W." of Miscellaneous, page 67. 
This process was not superseded for any different method for 
a period of nearly 75 years.* This invention has been claimed 
at different times of late years for Joseph ElHcott, of the family 
of Ellicotts of the famed "Ellicott's Mills," in the State of Mary- 
land, but as I have just shown this is an error, and the credit 
belongs to a citizen of our own county of Bucks, though 
doubtless the Ellicotts, who were also exporters of grain, 
etc., needing the same kind of protection, did purchase 
of Benjamin Parry the privilege of using this patent 
right, thus giving an impression to some that it was an 

* See paper in this volume on " Henry Quinn, Author of The Temple of Reason," for 
account of his patent kiln for drying corn. 


invention of Joseph Ellicott, who was a man of great ingenu- 
ity and skill. The Ellicotts moved originally from Solebury to 
Maryland. Andrew Ellicott, son of this Joseph, born in Solebury 
in 1754, was surveyor general of the United States and complet- 
ed the laying out of the city of Washington, D. C, which Major 
L'Enfant had planned. PJe was also at one time professor of 
mathematics at the Military Academy, West Point, and died 
there in 1820. The Ellicotts became both wealthy and promi- 
nent in Maryland. 

In both Benjamin Parry's day and that of his son, Oliver 
Parry, the "Old Parry Mansion" was the scene or much hospital- 
ity and its doors were thrown open wide upon many an occasion 
to bid welcome to both city and country guests. In fact, during 
the life time of the latter and of his hospitable and popular wife, 
Rachel Randolph, daughter of Captain Edward F. Randolph, 
again mentioned later on, this ancient homestead was affection- 
ately called by their friends "Hotel de Parry," and sometimes 
"Liberty Hall." Many distinguished persons have been enter- 
tained beneath its broad roof and if it could speak it could tell 
of many interesting events that have happened in three centuries. 

Interesting mention of bygone days has been sacredly treasured 
up and much old family furniture is yet preserved in this house, 
some of it being nearly or quite 200 years old, and brought from 
over the sea, and the ancient high clock standing half way up the 
stairs on the broad landing has ticked in and out the lives of 
many generations of the family and still shows upon its familiar 
face the moon in all its phases. 

On November 22, 1839, Benjamin Parry died in the old man- 
sion and was buried in his family lot in the Friends' burying- 
ground at Solebury, where many others of his nam-e and race 
peacefully slumber in that last and final sleep which knows no 
awakening until the resurrection morn. 

Benjamin Parry's only son, Oliver was born at the "Old Parry 
Mansion," Coryell's Ferry (New Hope) on December 20, 1794, 
and married May i, 1827, Rachel Randolph, daughter of Captain 
Edward F. Randolph, a patriot of 1776, who had served in many 
of the principle battles of the Revolutionary War, and was an 
eminent citizen of Philadelphia. 

It may perhaps be interesting to note that this Capt. Randolph. 

the; parry family of new hope 83 

then a first lieutenant in Col. William Butler's Fourth Regiment 
Infantry, Pennsylvania Line of the Continental army, command- 
ed the outlying guard at the terrible battle and "Massacre of 
Paoli," where he was desperately wounded and left upon the 
field for dead, escaping by the merest chance. His portrait 
in oil hangs upon the walls of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania at Philadelphia. 

Oliver and Rachel Randolph Parry had twelve children, four 
sons and eight daughters, all born between March 24, 1828, and 
August 17, 1848. Of the sons, Oliver Paxson Parry, born June 
20, 1846, died in 1852, aged six years, and the others will be 
noted later on. Oliver Parry, the elder, born December 20, 1794, 
was a large land holder and his name appears upon the records 
of Philadelphia county oftener, perhaps, than that of any other 
person of his day. A part of his property was a large tract of 
the once famous "Bush Hill Estate," Philadelphia, long the 
residence of Governor Andrew Hamilton, in colonial times, which 
he conjointly with his nephew, Nathaniel Randolph, purchased 
and had improved, a process which in a few years converted 
what had been broad acres into handsome streets, extended by 
name from Broad street to the Schuylkill river, as Green street, 
Spring Garden street. Mount A^ernon street, etc., in the 
northwestern section of the town, a credit to the city 
and much admired by strangers, as well as by Phila- 
delphians. From 1856 to 1862 the writer was living in 
the Territory and State of Minnesota and remembers in 
the spring of 1857, while east on a visit, walking with his 
father up Green street and seeing the whole square of ground 
from Green street to Mount Vernon and from i6th street to 
17th street in a field of rye, which Mr. Parry and Mr. Randolph 
had planted. Later on in the Fremont and Dayton presidential 
campaign they loaned the whole square to the psrty for political 
purposes and it was covered over with canvas and called "The 
Wigwam," and many were the sharp and exciting campaign 
speeches delivered there by able men long since gone from works 
to reward. 

Rachel Randolph, the wife of Oliver Parry, died at "The Old 
Parry Mansion" on September 9, 1866, his own death occurring 
on February 20, 1874, at his town house. No. 1721 Arch street, 


Philadelphia. They both are buried in the family lot in the 
Friends' burying-gronnd at Solebnry. 

The close of an obituary notice of Oliver Pariy in a Philadel- 
phia newspaper, thus paid tribute to his high character: "Born 
a member of the society of Friends, he lived and died in that 
faith, walking through life with a singleness and direct honesty 
of purpose which made the name of Oliver Parry synonymous 
with truth and honor." 

Oliver Parry's eldest son. Major Edward Randolph Parry, 
U. S. A., was a brave and gallant officer who served from the 
beginning to the end of the Civil War of i86i. The following 
notice of him appeared in many of the newspapers after his death, 
which occurred at the "Old Parry Mansion."' 

"Major Edward Randolph Parry, late of the United States Army, died 
at his residence. New Hope, in this county, April 13, 1874, and was buried 
on the i6th at Solebury burying ground. He was a son of the late 
Oliver Parry, of Philadelphia and Bucks county, and was bo.rn July 27th, 
1832. In May, 1861, he entered the army as first lieutenant in the nth 
United States Infantry and served throughout the war with great credit. 
In 1864 he was made captain in the nth; afterwards transferred to the 
20th, and on re-organization of the army was promoted to a Majorality 
for gallant services. He was in the terrible fighting along the line of the 
Weldon railroad, and before Petersburg, Va., commanding his regiment 
in several actions. In 1865 he was Assistant Adjutant General of the 
Regular Brigade, Army of Potomac, and served upon the stafif of Gen- 
eral Winthrop, when he was killed. At Lee's surrender he was attached 
to army headquarters. In 1868 Major Parry commanded Forts Philip 
and Jackson at the mouth of the Mississippi, and Fort Ripley in I\Iinne- 
sota, in 1869. He resigned on account of ill health in 1871." 

Major Parry's wife was Frances, daughter of General Justin 
Dimick, U. S. A., whom he married in Boston, Mass., December 
17th, 1863. She with one child, an unmarried daughter named 
Catharine, survived him. Two other children, daughters, died 

Dr. George Randolph Parry, son of Rachel and Oliver 
Parry, herein mentioned, died it the age of 54 years. 
He was well known, had many friends and was greatly 
beloved by his patients, many of whom still mourn his loss, 
and to many he was not only the physician but kind friend as 
well. The following notice is from one of the Doylestown 
papers of the day : 

the; parry family of new hopf 85 

"A little after 11 o'clock on Monday morning last, Dr. G. R. Parry, 
of New Hope, breathed his last. The Doctor was brought home from 
Atlantic City in a very critical condition on Thursday of last week, where 
he had gone for the benefit of his health. He was suffering from an 
aggravated case of jaundice, coupled with other diseases. 

"Dr. George Randolph Parry was the third son of Oliver and Rachel 
Randolph Parry, and was born in Philadelphia, September 3, 1839. He 
began the study of medicine in Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 
1859, and graduated in 1862. He entered the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1864, and was graduated in 1867. He be- 
gan the practice of medicine the same year at Union Springs, N. Y., 
remaining there until 1880. He then located in New Hope, in the ances- 
tral home, the "Old Parry Mansion," where he built up a large practice. 
Dr. Parry was a member of the Bucks County Medical Association, and 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. He was married March 2, 1869, 
to Miss Elizabeth VanEtten, by whom he had two daughters. Elizabeth 
Randolph and Jane Paxson. 

Dr. Parry was also a member of this society and of the Medical 
Society of Hunterdon county, New Jersey, facts not stated, how- 
ever, in this newspaper notice. 

OHver and Rachel R. Parry's son, Richard, still survives and 
owns and occupies the "Old Parry Mansion" at New Hope. He 
married Ellen L. Read, of Portland, Maine, on October 11, 1866, 
and they have three children, two daughters, Gertrude R. and 
Adelaide R., and one son. This son, Oliver Randolph Parry, 
born March 29, 1878, married Lida Mae Kreamer, and have one 
child, Margaret, born May 3, 190 1. This is the child already 
noted as having been born in the same room of the "Old Parry 
Mansion" in which her great-grandfather Oliver Parry was born 
one hundred and seven years ago. 

The longevity of the Parry's of Bucks county as a rule has 
been frequently noted and commented upon in private and in 
the public press, and indeed the following memorandum shows 
that a number of them have attained a green old age : 

Benjamin Parry, born March 1st, 1757, and died in his 
83d year. 

Daniel Parry, brother of Benjamin, born 1774, and died aged 
82 years. 

David Parry, brother of Benjamin, born 1767, died aged 81 

Oliver Parry, son of Benjamin, born 1794, died aged 80 years. 


Ruth Parry, daughter of Benjamin, born 1794. died aged 

89 years. 

Jane Parry, daughter of Benjamin, born 1799, died in her 
81st year. 

David Parry, cousin of Benjamin, born 1778, died aged 97 

Charity Parry, sister of David, born 1781, died aged 98 years. 

Tacy Parry, sister of David, was hving in 1877, then over 

90 years. 

Mercy Parry, sister of David, was hving in 1877, then over 
90 years. 

Hannah Parry, died 1876, aged 88 years. 

Thomas F. Parry, of Attleborough, cousin of aboye Benjamin, 
died March 27th, 1876, aged 85 years. 

Daniel Parry, born April 21, 1774, and son of John Parry, 
was more than 17 years younger than his brother, Benjamin, 
and followed him to Coryell's Ferry several years later. He 
was engaged with Benjamin in various business enterprises and 
was a man of considerable estate. He was the owner or interest- 
ed in large tracts of timber lands in Pennsylvania, in the counties 
of Carbon, Wayne, Luzerne, etc., the title to some of which was 
derived through the Marquis de Noailles, of France. Parryville, 
Carbon county. Pa., was named for this Daniel Parry. It is 
on the Lehigh river and was formerly an important point for 
the shipment of anthracite coal. It was supposed it would become 
a considerable town, but other places overshadowed it. Upon 
the building of the Lehigh Valley Railroad it became, and is, one 
of its stations. Daniel Parry married Martha Dilworth, of Dil- 
worthtown. Pa., they had but one child, named for his grand- 
father, John, who died in infancy. Mr. Parry's wife died April 
3, 183 1, aged 53 years, and he survived her for 25 years, but never 
married again. After his death there was found among his 
effects a tiny half-worn shoe, which had been his infant son's 
and which the father's loving and faithful heart had treasured 
for half a century and was doubtless many a time bedewed 
with his tears. 

Daniel Parry was a man possessed of many lovable traits of 
character, and in his intercourse with all, practiced a courtesy 

the; parry family of new hopf 87 

and kind consideration of manner such as was always to be found 
in the true "gentleman of the old school." 

He was extremely benevolent and his charities were wide and 
many in the community in which he lived. The county papers 
in noticing his death spoke of him "as a man of large benev- 
olence and a generous friend to the destitute," and many poor 
persons, indeed, mourned his taking away and felt that they 
had lost a sincere friend, ever ready to help them. 

In one of the chambers of the "Old Parry Mansion" styled 
the "Antique Room" there hangs on the wall a framed sampler, 
worked by Martha Dilworth Parry before her marriage, and 
dated 1788, and it thus recites: 

"This work in hand my friends may have when I am dead 
and gone. Martha Dilworth, her work, in the eleventh year of 
her age, in the year of our Lord, 1788," and it is with a strange 
sensation that one reads from the wall the words and message 
of this fair young girl, speaking to us through the misty and 
far distant past of one hundred and thirteen years ago. 

Long after their emigration to America from Great Britain 
and other foreign lands the descendants of the early settlers 
retained many of the customs and methods of their homes in 
the old world, as shown by the Penn and Logan irredeemable 
ground-rents, etc.^ the exaction of the annual red rose rental, 
preserved by Lancaster county's, Pa., early iron founder, the 
Baron Henry William Stiegel in his deed of gift to Zion Lutheran 
Church, Manheim, in said county, of a plot of ground for the 
church, in A. D. 1772. Also a somewhat similar quit rental 
payment by the city of Easton, Pa., annually to the Penns, which 
reservation was released by Granville John Penn, Esq., of Eng- 
land, on his last visit to Pennsylvania some 30 or 40 years ago. 

In "York Road Old and New," at page 369, Rev. Hotchkin 
states that "an interesting bit of local history in this section lies 
in the fact that an old family on the Pennsylvania side of the 
Delaware river had a quit rent like the Penns on the Jersey 
side, by which 32 shad per year were to be delivered to them for 
one hundred years and this was faithfully carried out for the 
century when it expired by its own limitation." I might add 
that this reservation was held by the Parry family, that the 
32 shad were received regularly during the life time of my 


grandfather Benjamin Parry, and my father Ohver Parry, and 
were paid to me, as the active executor of my father, for some 
dozen 'or more years after his death. It took many more 
than the 32 shad during the season to supply the family table, 
but somehow the surplus, which we had to pay for, did not seem 
to have that extra fine flavor of the 32 which came and were 
delivered to us as a matter of ownership and light. 

Times, events, customs, all change, but the noble Delaware, 
placid and changeless still flows on its tireless course to the sea, 
as it did in the old days, and a happy and prosperous people 
still abide on its banks at historic "Coryell's Ferry" as their 
fathers did in the long ago. And still in the twentieth century, 
as in the eighteenth, do we find the family herein named and 
there let us leave them. 


William Penn's Children. 

(Wrightstown Meeting, October i, 1901.) 

It has been remarked that the children of eminent men rarely 
attain the celebrity of their fathers. Though this may be true, 
we are not destitute of curiosity to know something about the 
posterity of those, who have written their names in large letters 
on the tablets of fame. Particularly is this the fact in regard 
to such as have lived in the region we inhabit, or have been 
closely associated with it. 

Few who have heard the deserved praises of William Penn, 
the founder of the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, know 
much about his domestic history, or of those who have looked up 
to him as their father. It may not be amiss, therefore, to 
dwell for a brief period upon the children of him who was 
once the proprietor of all the lands in our State, who felt a special 
interest in our county, and who fixed one of his places of resi- 
dence within its bounds. 

Penn was married early in 1672, about a year and a half after 
the death of his father, to Gulielma Maria Springfield, daughter 
of Sir William Springfield. His first child was a daughter, 
named for her mother, Gulielma Maria, who lived but a few 
months. His next two children were twins, William and Mary, 
born in 1673. William lived only about a year and died in 1674, 
and Mary survived nine months longer, passing away during the 
same year. The fourth child, named for his mother's family, 
Springfield, was born in 1675, and lived to grow up to manhood, 
dying in 1696, being at his death about twenty years of age. Thus 
we find that the father had been sorely bereaved by the loss of 
three children before the birth of the fourth, and before he 
came to America. The fifth child of Penn was Letitia, born in 
1678, at Worminghurst. She was a bright, healthy, lively girl 
and lived to be an old woman. When Penn made his second 
visit to America in 1699, she came with him and her stepmother, 
and saw something of the New World and of the society of the 


infant city of Philadelphia. It is reported of her that she was 
taken by her father to the home of Thomas Evans in Gwynedd, 
whither he went on some business. While there she heard men 
threshing grain at the barn with a flail ; she went out to see the 
operation and thought she could do that ; they let her try her 
skill and she brought down the loose part of the implement in 
a racket around her head and shoulders and ran back to the 
house in a hurry. After being in Philadelphia and vicinity about 
two years, William Masters, a young man, paid her special atten- 
tion with a view to marriage and she seemed to favor the suit. 
But the Proprietor put down his iron heel on the project and soon 
the wide ocean parted the lovers. Probably this caused him 
much regret subsequently, for in 1702 she married William Au- 
brey, who sprang from a genteel family, but lacked sufficient 
energy or disposition to maintain those who were dependent 
upon him. He seemed to imagine that it behooved his father-in- 
law to furnish him with the means of support, and made imperi- 
ous demands for large sums of money at frequent intervals. 
While Penn encountered great difficulties with the Council, his 
agents and the settlers in Pennsylvania, and expended much of 
his private resources for the benefit of the Province, and received 
little pecuniary return. Aubrey insisted that a large amount from 
the new world should be paid to him. Penn in one of his letters 
says that he had given Aubrey ii.ioo and that "his treatment 
of him was mad and bullying and that nothing but his rude and 
tempestuous conduct would have forced it from him." The do- 
■ mestic relations of Letitia to her husband were not always har- 
monious and cloufls sometimes darkened their sk^^ She died 
without children in 1746. aged 68 years. Aubrey preceded her 
to the grave fifteen years, obeying the last summons in 1731. 

The sixth child of Penn was named William, as one before 
had been, born in 1680. at Worminghurst. The mansion on 
this estate, surrounded by extensive grounds and beautifully 
situated in the Southdowns. within a few miles of the sea. was 
the home of the great philanthropist a protracted period. This 
fine property, which came under his control through his wife, 
was bequeathed by her at her death in 1694 to her son. William, 
then fourteen years old. When he was twenty-six years of 
age. in 1707, he sold it, but before his death he had squandered 

WILLIAM pe;nn s children 91 

the large sum he obtained for it. From this fact it would seem 
that he was inclined to profuseness, if not to profligacy. He 
married Mary Jones. 

William Penn in his manhood possessed estates in England and 
Ireland, derived from his father, Admiral Penn. These produced 
an income of ii,500 a year, or about $7,500 annually, and were 
generally esteemed more valuable than the lands in America. At 
the death of the Founder William Penn in 1718, the estates in 
Ireland were left to his son William, but after his decease differ- 
ent claimants entered suit for them and the decision was not 
rendered till 1800, when it was determined by court that they 
belonged to the heirs of Peter Gaskill and Alexander Burden, 
some of Penn's descendants. 

The seventh of Penn's children was Gulielma ]\Iaria. She 
was born in 1685. and died when four years of age, in 1689. 
She was the fourth that was taken from him in early life. By 
his first marriage he had seven children, only two of whom sur- 
vived the perils of childhood and youth. The five that crossed 
the dark river prematurely were laid away for final repose in 
the family lot at Jordans. 

Penn's first wife, Gulielma Maria Springfield, died in 1694, 
when they had been married twenty-two years ; he wrote and 
published a little volume in which he praised in warm terms her 
virtuous, exemplary career and her peaceful. Christian death, 
and took as the motto of it, "The memory of the just is blessed." 


Two years after the death of his first wife, being in sore need of 
a discreet companion and of a competent lady at the head of his 
large domestic establishment, he was joined in marriage to Han- 
nah Callowhill, a member of the society of Friends, with which 
most or all of her relatives were connected. 

Not long subsequent to this, in 1697, he removed from Worm- 
inghurst to Bristol, for which town the one in our own county 
was named. It was the place of his residence when he sailed 
to America on his second visit in 1699. The vessel met with 
violent contrary winds, which delayed it so long that three months 
elapsed before it reached Philadelphia. But he represents the 
tempestuous weather, though most tedious and severe to the 


travelers, as the means of purifying the city of a dreadful visita- 
tion of yellow fever, in the course of which no less than 215 per- 
sons from that comparatively small settlement were carried ofif, 
and which disappeared soon after he arrived. He first went to the 
house of Edward Shippen, where he spent a month, and then 
moved to Samuel Carpenter's, in Second street, south of Chest- 
nut, in which his first child by his second marriage was born, 
called John Penn, in 1699. Isaac Norris wrote thus about him 
in a letter in 1701 : "The Governor, wife and daughter well. 
Their little son is a lovely baby and has much of his father's 
grace and air." John is reported to have remembered something 
of the city of his birth in after years, though this seems problem- 
atical, as he was only two years old when the family returned to 
England. He was nineteen years of age when his father died. 
He is described by Watson as "quite an amiable man," and 
James Logan, who was Penn's agent, or deputy governor many 
years, says that he was "the favorite of all the Proprietor's 
children." He lived most of the time at Bristol, England, en- 
gaged in trade with a cousin in the linen business, till 17 12, when 
his father was disabled by paralysis. Though by the paternal 
will the American possessions were devised to three sons, John, 
Thomas and Richard, yet in the final agreement of affairs they 
fell under the principal control of John and he is not infrequent- 
ly spoken of as the "heir of Pennsylvania." However, he bore 
his distinction and superior advantage with affability, avoiding 
haughtiness and unbecoming pride. The Colonists immigrated 
from the northern country, influenced to a large extent by a 
desire to enjoy liberty, civil, social and religious, and they were 
not averse to control, which they did not impose upon them- 
selves. Penn gave them a system under which they chose repre- 
sentatives to frame and execute laws, and they desired to do 
this in their own way. They thought that as lands which had 
been sold to them were liable to taxation to support the gov- 
ernment, those large districts still owned by the Proprietaries 
should be taxed likewise, as they were protected by the same 
authority. Hence disputes arose, ill feeling was engendered and 
harmony of counsels, between Penn or his sons on the one hand 
and the settlers on the other, was often interrupted. 

But John Penn was as popular as a ruler under such un favor- 


able circumstances could be expected to be. He visited America 
in 1734, when he was 35 years of age, and was received with the 
honor due to the exalted position he occupied as the highest mag- 
istrate of a noble, rapidly advancing Commonwealth. He died in 
1776, at the age of jy, and left his estates to his brother, Thomas. 

Thomas Penn, second son of the Founder by the second 
marriage, was born March 9, 1702, in Bristol, in the house of 
Thomas Callowhill, his maternal grandfather. At the age of 
fifty he married Lady Tulianna Pernor, and had a daughter, 
Sophia Margaret, who became the wife of Archbishop Stuart, 
of Armagh, a descendant of the royal family of Stuart and Lord 
Primate of all Ireland. This prelate suffered many years with 
gout and having at one time called in the night for an opiate 
to relieve his pain, his wife gave him the wrong medicine, which 
soon was followed by his death. She was struck with horror at her 
mistake, rushed into the street in her night dress and her hair 
turned white. She never recovered her equanimity. 

Thomas Penn owned the site of the city of Easton, Pa., and 
gave to the young town two squares of ground for a court-house 
and prison. In this it was stipulated that a red rose should be 
given yearly at Christmas to the head of the Penn family. In 
course of time the city fathers wished to remove the court-house 
and prison and employ the ground for a public park. To ac- 
complish this legally they were obliged to secure the consent of 
the heir, who happened to be in America at the time. This was 
granted the more readily, because they sent him a check for a con- 
siderable sum of money. 

Thomas Penn had a son, John, the last of the lire of that name, 
who was a gentleman of fine taste, fond of curiosities and rare 
and beautiful specimens in literature and art; a builder and 
ornamenter of mansions. He published two volumes of poems, 
elegantly printed and bound in expensive style. He was Gov- 
ernor of the Island of Portland, off the coast of England, from 
w^hich celebrated building stone is quarried, the material used 
in the erection of the two Houses of Parliament. He built a 
castle there and called it Pennsylvania Castle. While he re- 
sided there and performed the duties of magistrate. King George 
III sometimes came to Weymouth, adjoining the island, and John 
was a member of the royal court. This grandson of the Founder 


visited the New World and erected the pretty dwelhng on the west 
bank of the Schuylkill in Philadelphia opposite Fairmount Park, 
called Solitude. This he occupied as a residence and employed 
his time largely in elegant studies, in which he very much dis- 
liked to be interrupted by the intrusion of curious strangers. 
He had a younger brother, Granville, who was an author and 
engaged in literary pursuits, and who inherited his rights in 
Pennsylvania. The son of the latter, called Granville John Penn, 
came to Pennsylvania in 175 1, and once afterwards. He realized 
far less from the magnificent property in this State than he 
should have done, as agents sold it at insignificant prices before 
it was ripe for the market. While on this side the ocean many 
honors were showered upon him by the mayor and councils of 
Philadelphia, a public dinner was tendered and speeches were 
made of rare elegance and classical taste. 

His only brother, Thomas, the only survivor of the name of 
Penn, died childless in 1869. The last of the Founder's de- 
scendants bearing his name has passed away. 

The poet Gray, author of the "Elegy in a Country Church- 
yard," one of the most delightful, though melancholy poems, 
ever written, lived on a farm belonging to the Penn estate and was 
very highly esteemed by Granville John Penn. The original 
manuscript of the Eleg}^ was preserved as a relic in Gray's 
house. Granville John was many years a magistrate for Bucks 
county, in England, and lived there a still longer period, and the 
name of the district, in which we reside, is most intimately asso- 
ciated with the family. He died in 1867, with a will in his hand 
unsigned and his property descended to his brother, Thomas, who 
was a clergyman of the established Episcopal Church of England, 
but who possessed no inclination or capacity for the management 
of financial afifairs, and at his decease it went to his nearest 
relative, William Stuart, an ofifshoot of royalty. 

Besides John and Thomas, concerning whom we have already 
spoken, William Penn by his second wife had a daughter, Han- 
nah Marfiarita, born in 1703, died in 1707, aged four years. A 
son, Dennis, born 1706, died unmarried in 1722, aged 16 years, 
four years after his father's decease. He was assigned a share 
in the Pennsylvania property. A daughter, Hannah, born in 
London, 1708, died in 1709, aged a few months. He also had a 


daughter Margaret, who was born in 1704 and hved to maturity. 
She married Thomas Fraeme, and died in England in 1751, aged 
47 years. Her husband, Thomas Fraeme, was a captain of one 
of the seven companies, raised in 1740 in Pennsylvania to take 
part in an expedition against Carthagena, South America, in the 
war with Spain, under Admiral Vernon. 

The Fraeme family came to Philadelphia wuth John Penn, 
in September, 1734, and lived there some years, and it was during 
this residence that he was at the head of one of the Pennsylvania 
battalions in the struggle with Spain. 

Penn likewise had a son, Richard, born in 1705, who grew 
up and married Hannah Lardner. He was one of the Propri- 
etaries of Pennsylvania, and greatly interested in the prosperity 
of the Province. A remarkable paper drawn up by Thomas Penn 
and completed by Benjamin Franklin in 1759, reckons the value 
of the lands and improvements in the Colony to be ten millions 
of pounds, or fifty millions of dollars, a truly magnificent sum in 
those days. Twenty years later, November 27, 1779, the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania passed an act escheating it, or confiscating 
it all to the Commonwealth. It was no longer to be undvr the con- 
trol of or subject to dues from the Proprietaries. This wa.= far 
more valuable than any other ever forfeited to the States, perhaps 
more so than any ever forfeited by law in the whole world. By this 
act, however, the private estates of the Proprietaries were re- 
served to them and £130,000 sterling, or $650,000, was directed 
to be paid to the legatees and divisees of Thomas and Richard 
Penn on the termination of the Revolutionary War in remem- 
brance of the enterprising spirit of the Founder, and in view 
of the expectations and dependence of his descendants. 

In addition to this the English Parliament in 1790 granted 
an annuity of £4.000 or $20,000 per annum to the eldest male 
descendant of William Penn by his second wife, to indemnify 
the family for their loss in Pennsylvania. 

John Penn. son of Richard, and grandson of the Founder, was 
Governor of the Colony from 1763 to 1771, and from 1775 to 
1776. He died in this county in 1795. 

The amount of money received by Pennsylvania from the sale 
of lands originally granted to Penn was £824.000 or $4,120,000. 

As a summary of the statements in respect to Penn's family. 

96 BOG art's inn, an old hostelry 

it may be said that he had fourteen children, seven by each 
marriage, of whom a large number died in very early childhood 
and only a few survived to have a share in the labors and re- 
sponsibilities of manhood and womanhood. 

Bogart's Inn, An Old Hostelry. 

(Wrightstown Meeting, October i, iqoi.) 

There is something about the very word "Inn' that appeals to 
the English speaking race. We are fully mindful of the fact 
that m modern times many of our best citizens do not concern 
themselves with the roadside inn except to file remonstrances 
against the granting of license ; but it is the duty of the historian 
to record what has taken place in the past : and the inn cannot 
be eliminated from the records of our county without positive 
detriment to local history. In fact the old time hostelry was a 
most conspicuous institution so far as human habitations had to 
do with the life and customs of the people. Some philosopher 
has said "There is no hospitality in the world like that of the 
inn." From time immemorial the inn has had its place in history 
and romance. Who would eliminate the old "Blue Boar" from 
the legends of Robin Hood and his merry men ? What man so 
lacking in imagination and poetic sentiment that he cannot pic- 
lure and appreciate the famous old inns of the English coaching 
days with the light from glowing logs on the wide hearth re- 
flected on pewter tankards and platters ; the savory roasts turn- 
ing on the spit, the quaint paved courts and cool gardens? 

And in our own country, in the early days when this great and 
powerful Republic was struggling for its very life, what an at- 
mosphere of romance surrounded the inn. Every cloaked and 
mud-stained stranger seeking the hospitality of the inn was 
watched by eagle-eyed, stern-faced men : and under smoke- 
stained joists, by the light of a tallow dip were seen gathered for 
mutual counsel the architects oi the grand Republic of which 
we are so proud to-day. 

The modern great piles we call hotels, with their tiled corri- 
dors, myriads of glittering lights, luxurious furniture and uni- 

bogart's inn, an old hostelry 97 

formed lackeys are the resorts of politicians and statesmen, but 
none of them is so closely associated with the life of the times 
as was the humble inn, that witnessed the birth and evolution 
of this great nation. 

And so these ancient taverns become a subject of importance 
to the student of local history. The relation of the country inn 
or tavern, on one of the main thoroughfares, to the community 
in which it was located, a century and a half ago, is an interest- 
ing study. It was almost the sole point of contact with the 
outside world to the isolated pioneer in the country districts. The 
ponderous stage-coach, then the only public conveyance, dis- 
charging its living freight at the doors of the country inn for a 
single meal or night's lodging, brought to him glimpses of the 
outside world, of the fashions of the cities and remote settle- 
ments, as well as news of the progress of civilization in the new 
country. The drover of cattle from the back settlements, seek- 
ing u market for the product of the virgin meadows brought 
to the home dweller the gossip and news from distant settle- 
ments. The Provincial land-surveyor, on his return from laying- 
out new tracts for settlement, brought news of a new conquest 
of virgin forest and mead. The strolling fiddler beguiled the 
winter evening for swain and damsel and won his way to 
their hearts and pockets. And so, about the simple country inn, 
gathered all sorts and conditions of men having a common in- 
terest, coming in contact with each other and the outside world, 
learned the great lesson of toleration, which is the corner-stone 
of civil and religious liberty. 

In our day of railroads, trolleys, telegraph and telephone lines 
intersecting every rural district, it is hard to realize how much 
of a necessity the old time tavern was to our great-grandsires; 
nor do the present dwellers in this quiet neighborhood realize 
that 150 years ago, the great highway of communication, not 
only between New York and Philadelphia, but between New 
England and the latter city and points South and West, ran 
through our county. 

Early in the second half of the eighteenth century a petition 
for a license to keep a "House of Entertainment" at what is 
now the home of Thomas H. Ruckman in Solebury township, 

98 bogart's inn, an old hostelry 

sets forth that the "appHcant is compelled to entertain nu- 
merous drovers and other travellers from New Ingland, Vermont, 
New York, and the Jersie States." And we recall an instance 
where the petition for a license at Warwick Cross Roads, now 
Hartsville, was signed by numerous residents ni New Jersey, 
Forks of Delaware, and points beyond, who stated that they had 
been entertained at that hostelry for many years ; it being, 
"The end of their first day's journey" out from Philadelphia. 
This was in 1755. when the license was withheld, supposedly 
on account of the character of the applicant. The court in 
those days evidently exercised a more careful discretion in the 
granting of license than at a later period, and no mere grog-shop 
was ever tolerated. Therefore, the character of the men who 
obtained license was probably above that of the average hotel- 
keeper of to-day. In fact the average inn-keeper was a leading 
man in his community and exercised a wide influence therein. 
We could refer to a number of colonial inn-keepers who achieved 
distinction and left a record of civil and military service with- 
out a blemish. A direct ancestor of Theodore Roosevelr was 
for many years an inn-keeper within a few miles of thi'S place. 

In our own Quaker community the attitude of the members 
of the society of Friends toward the inn was not altogether 
unfriendly, though the meeting very early manifested a strong 
feeling against the use of intoxicating liquor. The Friends evi- 
dently realized the necessity of the inn, since it relieved them 
of the burden of entertaining numerous travelers wending their 
tedious way across our county from the Jerseys and elsewhere ; 
and we find the names of the most prominent Friends appended 
to petitions for license to keep houses of entertainment. In 
fact the names of many of them will be found on the lists of 
inn-keepers in various parts of the county. 

Buckingham towniship was without a tavern within its borders 
for a longer period after its settlement than any other township in 
the county. The first petition for license within the township, of 
which we have a record, was in 1748, when Benjamin Kinsey 
sought to obtain a "recommendation to his Excellency the Gouv- 
ernor" to keep a house of entertainment at the present village 
of Holicong, "Where one part of Durham Road crosses York 
Road, that leads from Canby's Ferry to Philadelphia, and neare 


the Road that leads from said York Road to Butler's Mill and 
North Wales." This petition though numerously signed by his 
brethren and Quaker neighbors, the Byes, Pearsons, Scarbroughs, 
Shavvs, Browns and others was turned down, as were a number 
of other applications for several years following. 

At the sessions of the court held June ii, 1752, George 
Hughes, of Buckingham, presented his petition for license to 
keep a house of entertainment where he lived at the junction of the 
York and Durham roads and his petition was "allowed." This 
was the first tavern in Buckingham, and stood where the farm- 
house on the Hughesian farm now stands. At that time the 
nearest taverns were Canby's, at the Ferry, now New Hope, on 
the east; Joseph Smith's, at Wrightstown, on the southeast, 
Neshaminy bridge on the south; Doyle's on the northwest, 
and Patrick Poe's "Sign of the Plough" on the north. Hughes 
does not seem to have been pleased with the venture, as he did 
not renew his application until eleven years later. At the June 
sessions, 1763, he again petitions for a license. This later peti- 
tion is supplemented by a numerously signed recommendation 
of his neighbors and others, setting forth that "Where George 
Hughes is living is a suitable and convenient place for a publick 
House of Entertainment, and where one is very much wanted, 
and he having put himself to a considerable expence in buildings 
and preparing of other necessaries to enable him to undertake 
the business, they make bold to pray the Court, would be 
pleased to grant such recommendation, &c." To this paper ap- 
pear the names of 67 persons, comprising most of the adjacent 
land owners and a few from Wrightstown, Warwick and Sole- 
bury. Among them were the names Fell, Gillingham, Parry, 
Brown, Church. Fenton. Chapman, Watson, Bye, Blaker, Ely, 
and many other names still familiar in the neighborhood. 

At the same session of court the petition of Henry Jami- 
son was presented, setting forth that the petitioner "hath lately 
purchased the House and Plantation of Samuel Blaker, adjoining 
the Roads that lead from Philadelphia to New York and from 
Newtown to Durham" and asks that he be recommended to 
the Governor to obtain a license, &c. Like the petition of 
Hughes, this one has appended to it the following supplement : 
"The undersigned are acquainted with Henry Jamison and be- 


lieve him to be a proper person to keep a House of Enter- 
tainment * * '^ that there is no tavern within foure miles, &c." 
This recommendation is signed by John Gregg, then sherifif 
of the county, Joseph Ellicott, who became sheriff four years 
later ; Samuel Harrold, William Corbet, Euchdes Scarbrough, 
Matthew McMinn, Thomas, Samuel and Benjamin Kinsey, nine 
in all, and all with the exception of the Kinseys and Ellicott, like 
the petitioner, of Scotch-Irish origin. This petition was "al- 
lowed" and Hughers' is marked "rejected." 

Henry Jamison was born in the neighboring township of War- 
wick in the year 1729, only a few years after the arrival of his 
father, grandfather and uncles from county Tyrone, Ireland. 

"The Plantation" referred to in the petition comprised 166 
acres, embracing the present farm of Joseph Anderson and 
all the land iying between it and the York road. It was a 
part of the 1,000 acres "back in the woods." which Richard 
Lundy received in exchange for 200 acres on the Delaware in 
the year 1688. The 200 acres, of which the 166 acres were 
a part, were conveyed by Lundy to Francis Rossel in 1692, 
who devised it to the sons of his friend Samuel Burgess. John 
Burgess conveyed it to Lawrence Pearson in 1702, who, in 
the following year, conveyed a one-half interest therein to 
his brother Enoch Pearson, reserving to the heirs of the said 
Lawrence Pearson "the right to get limestone for their own 
use, with free ingress and egress to fetch the same." The 
Pearsons conveyed to Robert Saunders, he to Benjamin Hop- 
per, Hopper to James Lennox, in 1724, Lennox to Thomas 
Canby in 1729 and Canby to Samuel Blaker in 1747. As the 
home of Thomas Canby. a prominent Friend, a justice of the 
peace and member of Colonial Assembly, it became a place 
of noted hospitality and local prominence. 

Under the administration of Mine Host Jamison and his en- 
terprising wdfe Mary, supposed to have been the sister of Sher- 
iff Gregg, the Buckingham inn became profitable. No com- 
plaint came from his Quaker neighlx)rs and we find it soon 
became a popular stopping and meeting place for local, county 
and State ofificials, it being a sort of "Half-way House" be- 
tween the county-seat and the upper parts of the county. Hen- 
ry Jamison died on June 29, 1776, and the license was trans- 


ferred to his widow, ^lary Jamison, on September 15, 1767, 
and she continued as the popular hostess until ten years later. 

In the fall of 1767 Mrs. Jamison petitioned the court for 
the sale of her husband's real estate, and herself became the 
purchaser, through the medium of John Gregg, then a resi- 
dent of New Jersey, who ofificiated as the "'Straw man," tak- 
ing the title from the widow as administratrix and transfer- 
ring it back to her as femme sole. 

In the winter of 1772 the jolly landlady took unto herself a 
new mate in the person of one, John Bogart, presumably a son 
or grandson of Guysbert Bogart, Sr., of Solebury township, a 
"Knickerbocker" who had migrated from the Dutch settlement 
upon the Raritan to Solebury about 1740, and in 1742 purchased 
of the Canbys a large tract of land along the Buckingham 
line, at Lahaska. Jacob Bogart, Esq., was one of the justices 
who recommended the granting of the license to Jamison in 1763, 
and Guysbert Bogart was an innkeeper at "iforks of Dellawar" 
(Easton) in 1750. 

It was as "Bogart's tavern" that the inn was known during 
the early part of the Revolution, the license having been issued 
in his name in 1773 and successively until 1777. 

Under date of Aug. 15, 1773, a distinguished traveler enters 
in his diary: "House of Jamison's neat and clean, dinner indiffer- 
ent, claret verv bad." 

The first meeting of the "Bucks County Committee of Safety," 
after its full organization by representatives from each township, 
was held at Bogart's tavern, on July 21, 1775, at which the field 
officers of the "associated companies" of the county were selected. 
This was one of the most important meetings ever held in the 
county, as it was the first organized movement toward arming for 
the conflict with the mother country. Then it was that the lead- 
ers realized that pacific protests were unavailable. It represented 
the parting-of-the-ways between the non-combatants and those 
who had determined to enforce their rights bv force of arms if 
necessary. Heretofore, a number of person? who had been selec- 
ted to represent their townships in the committee, "being of the 
People called Quakers and others, alleging scruples of conscience 
relative to the business necessarily transacted by the committee 
desired to be released from further attendance." Among those 


who retired at this meeting were Jacob Strawn, of Haycock; John 
Wilkinson, of Wrightstown ; Thomas Foulke, of Richland ; Jona- 
than Ingham, of Solebury ; John Chapman, of Upper Makefield ; 
Joseph Watson, of Buckingham, and Thomas Jenks, of Middle- 
town, Quakers, and Abraham Stout, of Rockhill, a Mennonite. 
Their places were directed to be filled by election prior to the next 
meeting of the committee on August 21st. At the following meet- 
ing John Lacey, later the distinguished general, was returned in 
place of \\^ilkinson ; John Coryell, of Solebury, in place of Ingham, 
and William Carver, of Buckingham, in place of Joseph Watson. 
The treasurer reported having received donations for the peo- 
ple of Boston amounting to £75, 4s., 4d., and had forwarded 
the same, producing the receipt of John Adams, one of the "Com- 
mittee of the Town of Boston." for that amount. Complaint 
was made against several persons for remarks derogatory of the 
Continental Congress and the committee and the offenders were 
examined by special committees, and the following is a sample 
of the refutation they signed which is entered in full upon the 
minutes of the committee : 

"Whereas, I have spoken injuriously of the distressed People of the 
Town of Boston and disrespectfully of the measures prosecuting for the 
redress of American grievances, I do hereby declare that I am heartily 
sorry for what I have done, voluntarily renouncing mj' former principles 
and promise for the future to render my conduct incxceptable to my 
Countrymen by strictly adhering to the measures of Congress." 

(Signed) Thomas Meredith." 

Thomas Smith, of Upper Makefield, was alleged to have said 

"Measures of Congress had already enslaved America and done more 
damage than all the Acts of Parliament were intended to lay upon us, 
and the whole revolt was nothing but a scheme of hot-headed Presbyter- 
ians * * * that the devil was at the bottom of the whole of it * * * 
that taking up arms was the most scandalous thing a man could be guilty 
of and more heinous than a hundred of the grossest offences against the 

A resolution was adopted denouncing him and declarini^ that 
"he be con.^idered as an enemy of therightsnf British America and that all 
persons break oft' every kind of dealing with him until he shall make proper 
satisfaction to the Committee for his conduct." 

Smith appeared at the next meeting, Sept. 11, 1775, and expres- 
sed his sorrow for imprudent expressions and promised such 


support as was consistent with the principles of Friends. 

The meetings of the committee were held at Bogarts each 
month almost continuously during the years 1775 and 1776 and 
the minutes of their proceedings give abundant proof of the zeal 
and patriotism of the members. 

Bogart's tavern, was not only the headquarters of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, but of many of the associated companies of 
this section of the county, and the old roadside inn has no doubt 
witnessed the evolutions of many an awkward squad of raw re- 
cruits, training for service in the defence of their country. A 
tragic incident that occurred at one of these trainings is related 
by one of our local historians. A training was in progress at 
the public house of John Bogart on Aug. 14, 1775, when Robert 
Poque (Polk) and John Shannon two embryo patriots from the 
neighboring township of Warwick, repaired to the house of Wil- 
liam Ely, now the home of Albert S. Paxson, to borrow a gun to 
use in the muster then going on, and having obtained the gun 
Shannon in giving an exhibition of the exercise of training, acci- 
dently discharged the firearm, the contents striking Polk in the 
throat, killing him instantly. The Polks, the name then variously 
spelled "Poque," "Poak," "Poke," were at that date large land 
owners near Hartsville, and had emigrated from Carrickfergus, 
Ireland, in 1725, and were without doubt of the same lineage as 
President James K. Polk, one of the emigrant brothers bearing 
the same given name as the ancestor of the President having re- 
moved from Bucks county to the South about 1740. The inn 
has not been without frequent glimpses of the main branch of the 
Continental army under the great Commander-in-chief himself. 
The movements of Washington and his army up and down the 
York road to and from the Delaware are too much a matter of 
history to need treatment here. 

Gen. Gieene, when charged by Washington with the care and 
safety of the boats on the river in December, \']'](), when our 
country was threatened with an invasion by the British troops 
from New Jersey, evidently had his headquarters for a time at 
Bogart's as he writes from there under date of December 10, 
1776, to General Ewing to send sixteen Durham boats and four 
fiats down to McKonkey's ferry. 

The Bogarts seem to have been verv zealous in the cause of 


independence, perhaps a little over zealous, in reporting to the 
committee irrelevant and irresponsible remarks, made over a 
convivial cup at the bar, as in at least one case reported by Mrs. 
Bogart the committee decided that the "matter spoken and the 
speaker were both too insignificant for the notice of this commit- 

There is little doubt that certain members of the society of 
Friends, the dominant class in this community, who only sought 
to avoid taking up arms for reasons of religious conviction, suffer- 
ed considerable injustice at the hands of a class of men suddenly 
elevated to authority and actuated as much by the spirit of jeal- 
ousy as of patriotism. 

The P'ogarts disposed of the "Tavern and Plantation" to 
William Bennett, of Wrightstown, in April, 1777, to whom the 
license was issued in that year, and continuously until 1794, when 
he rented the tavern property to Robert Meldrum, who continued 
as landlord until 1797. 

On April i, 1797, Bennett conveyed the tavern and fifteen acres 
comprising the present lot on the south side of the York road 
to Josiah Addis. The York road at that date swerved to the 
right in front of the hotel, leaving "Lundy's line," and wound 
in a long loop around the "Pond," striking its present route again 
near its intersection with Broadhurst's lane. Bennett conveyed 
that part of the tract lying across the York road, now occupied 
by Frank Day's hall, shops. &c., to Jonathan Large, and when the 
turnpike was laid out, practically on Lundy's line, the line of the 
land remained unchanged. 

The title and license of the tavern changed again in the spring 
of 1805 wdien Josiah Addis conveyed it to Cornelius Van Horn 
and John Marple. The license was issued to Van Horn, and he 
purchased ]\Iarple's interest in the real estate in 1809, and con- 
tinued as proprietor until his death, in February 18 14. His ex- 
ecutors conveyed the property on April i, 1814, to ex-sheriff 
Elisha Wilkinson, who remained the owner until his death in Feb- 
ruary. 1846. 

Col. Wilkinson, as he was familiarly known, was a son of John 
Wilkinson before referred to and had already had several years 
experience as an innkeeper. He came to Buckingham from New- 
town in 1805, having purchased the tavern property, now known 

bogart's inn, an old hostelry 105 

as "The Bush," which he kept until after his election as slieriff 
in 1809. He sold it in 181 1. He removed to the Centreville tav- 
ern in the spring of 1814, and remained there for a period of 22 
years. In the spring of 1836 he rented the tavern to Samuel 
B. Willett, who kept it for the next two years and was succeeded 
by Isaac McCarty, in 1838, he by Samuel Thatcher, who was the 
tenant at the date of Col. Wilkinson's death in 1846. The tavern 
was sold by the administrator of Wilkinson in 1856 to James 
Vansant, who probably never occupied it, and dying about 1848 
devised it to Edward Vansant, who held the license until 1852, 
when he sold the property to Casper Yeager of Philadelphia. The 
latter kept the hotel imtil July, 1856, when he conveyed it to 
Francis B. Davis, who sold it the following year to William Cor- 
son, who, after six years occupancy, conveyed it to the Righters, 
who still hold the title and conduct the hotel. 

This, in brief, is the official history of the ancient hostelry, now 
nearly 140 years old. Its appearance to-day is greatly ch?.nged 
from that of 100 years ago, it having been entirely remodeled 
by the present owners in 1870. Though the original walls remain, 
the long sloping roof was replaced by a mansard-roof, and the 
kitchen end next the barn was raised to the level of the main 
building. While under the administration of Sam.uel B. Willett, 
Edward Hicks was employed to paint an elaborate sign repre- 
senting Penn treating with the Indians which was erected upon a 
pole in front of the tavern, where it remained for many years, 
and during which period the inn was called "The Sign of Penn's 
Treaty." Later it was known as "The Sign of Gen. Washington." 

Under the administration of Col. Wilkinson the tavern became 
widely known to the sporting fraternity, as the Colonel was a 
great horse fancier and breeder. He introduced into the neigh- 
borhood a very fine breed of Arabian horses. Soon after moving 
to the tavern he purchased a tract of land across the York road, 
then covered with timber, and laid out a quarter-mile track, 
where his blooded colts were trained to run and trot. Samuel 
Thatcher, a Jerseyman, who later became the landlord, was for 
several years his trainer. Col. Wilkinson was a patron of the 
turf for many years, and many of his racers won prizes at Long 
Island and elsewhere. 

The old stone house across the road, where George Hughes 

io6 bogart's inn, an old hostelry 

kept the tavern in 1752, and for which he sought to obtain a hcense 
in 1763, was pulled down in the forties. It was built of rough 
stone, pointed, and contained three rooms and hallway on the 
lirst floor. It stood practically on the same site as the present 
Hughesian farm-house. Old residents say that it looked at 
least 100 years old in 1830, and it was probably the residence of 
Matthew Hughes, the father of George, long before 1752, and 
was probably occupied by both father and son at that date. Mat- 
thew Hughes died in 1766, at a very advanced age, and devised 
all his land south of the York road, comprising the Charles Wil- 
liams and Hughesian farms, except 50 acres at the south corner, 
to his son George. He had previously conveyed to George (1763) 
100 acres, including the site of the inn. George Hughes died 
in 1795, and by will dated in 1783, devised the "Stone house in 
which I live and the meadow adjoining down to the big spring and 
from there to the York road, making 50 acres in all," to the mother 
of Amos Austin Hughes for life, then to Amos Austin Hughes 
with all the rest of the plantation. He, however, made him a deed 
for it in his life time, dated February 24, 1790. 

At the death of Amos Austin Hughes, his housekeeper, Mary 
Paxson, was left a life tenancy in the farm, and Thomas Broad- 
hurst, her brother-in-law, removed there. Some years later a 
story and a half addition was built to the end next the Durham 
road, which was occupied by his daughter, Rachel Broadhurst, 
as a store. 

Wrightstown Settlers. 

(Wrightstown Meeting, October i, 1901.) 

Less than three hundred years ago the country about Wrights- 
town was in a natural state, a wilderness as uncultivated as its 
only occupants, the Indians, the untamed beasts and birds that 
found refuge and subsistence from nature's stores. There was 
no white settler north of Newtown until 1684, when John and 
Jane Chapman, from Yorkshire, England, with their three chil- 
dren, arrived near the close of the 12th month, which at that 
day was called February, and not December, as it has been 
called since the new style of computing time as prescribed by 
an Act of Parliament in 1757, came into use. They were Friends 
seeking religious liberty in the new country, and had purchased 
500 acres of land before leaving England, upon a section of 
which now stands the hamlet of Wrightstown, the meeting-house 
and the graveyard. John Chapman presented four acres of 
land to the meeting after it was established for its use. Until 
they could build a log house this worthy family lived in a cave 
in the woods, situated on what came to be the road from Wrights- 
town to Penn's Park. In this cave twin sons were born and were 
named Abraham and Joseph. They were always close adher- 
ents to the religious faith of their parents. They had no neigh- 
bors but Indians, with whom they always maintained friendly 

The hardships that this pioneer family must have endured can 
scarcely be realized in this day of ease and luxury. John Chap- 
man died in 1694, at the age of 70 years, having lived only ten 
years in this country. He was buried in the old graveyard at 
Logtown (Penn's Park), the first burial-ground owned by 
Wrightstown Friends. This old yard is no more. The wall 
that surrounded it has long since been removed and over the 
dust of the first white settlers of this township, John and Jane 
Chapman, the plowman now turns the sod. But memory of the 
good pair lives on. Their work is written in the historv of the 


county and in the records of the meeting they so tirelessly served. 
That they were sometimes ahiiost destitute of necessities is 
shown from the fact that the Quarterly Aleeting appointed a com- 
niittee to buy a cow to loan to John Chapman, which was done 
at a cost of £4; th'vs occurred in 1694, the last year of his life. 
Although the owner of 500 acres of land, until ii was under culti- 
vation and markets within reach, it neither put money in his pock- 
et nor milk in his cellar. The descendants of this family of 
Chapmans at one time owned a large proportion of the land of 
Wrightstown township, and were staunch members of the soci- 
ety of Friends. The last member of the Wrightstown Monthly 
Meeting by the name of Chapman wa'S Martha, who in 1884 pre- 
sented the plot of ground to the Bucks County Historical Society 
on which, in 1890, it erected a monument in memory of the cele- 
brated great walk of 1737. Martha was an elder of the meeting 
for many years, and died in 1888, at the advanced age of 92 years, 
beloved and respected by all. 

Within two years after the arrival of the Chapman family at 
Wrightstown, William Smith came to share wi'Ji them the work 
of making the wilderness blossom as a rose. Thomas "Croasdale, 
John Penquite, William Lacey, Phineas Pemberton and others 
with their families followed. They were all zealous Friends. 
Their first meeting for worship was held at the house of John 
Chapman by authority of Middletown Monthly Meeting, held 4th- 
mo., 4th, 1686, and was to be held on First days once a month. 
Until the Monthly and Quarterly Meetings were established at 
Wrightstown in 1734, those devout Christians would walk to Falls 
or Middletown to be found in their places and assist in worship 
and discipline. 

Notwithstanding so much of their time and not a little of then- 
money were devoted to their religious requirements, yet they stead- 
ily increased in basket and in store. They had sought the right- 
eousness of God first and reaped the promised reward. Theri- 
was no need for a sherifif or other officer to collect debts and 
maintain order among the early Quakers. They had a law of jus- 
tice and equity within themselves. Though there was no writ- 
ten discipline, yet there was no lack of vigilance among Friends 
in keeping their membership in the straight and narrow way. 

One of the first concerns that weighed on the minds of Friends 


was the attendance at meeting. As early as 1686 the Quarterly 
Meetings recommended the Monthly Meetings to "take care that 
none who make professions of the truth and walk not accordingly, 
but fall into looseness and negligence in coming to meeting, may 
not be slightly paseed by, but that due notice of such things be 
taken when they happen, and endeavors be used to regain them 
to their former diligence and duty to Godward." 

Non-attendance and drowsiness when assembled were sub- 
jects of deep concern to the early Friends. The Yearly Meeting 
cautioned Friends "to labor with such as are neglectful in attend- 
ing meeting for divine worship and admonish such as are sub- 
ject to drowsiness when met on these solemn occasions."' 

The minutes of Wrightstown show that the Friends of this 
meeting were not lacking in vigilance in these particulars. Those 
who evidenced a "slackness in attending meetings" were treat- 
ed with and disowned unless an improvement was promised 
and manifested. 

The Yearly Meetings, notably of 1763 and 1771, sent out 
searching minutes to the effect that it was a wilful neglect to 
forsake the attendance of religious meetings, and manifest in- 
gratitude to Divine Being, contrary to the practice and example 
of the primitive believers in Christ and our Christian testimony, 
and it went upon record as the sense of the Yearly Meeting that 
such persons "who are insensible of their religious duty disunit 
themselves from Christian fellowship with Friends." 

Could the old Friends of Wrightstown, who believed so firmly 
in the testimonies they preached and practiced, look down from 
their spiritual homes and see how the attendance of the meeting 
they loved is now neglected, would they not reckon us as like unto 
"the lost sheep of the house of Israel," which Jesus sent forth 
his apostles to preach repentance to. 

The proper education of the children was a weighty concern 
of Friends in the olden time. The pious education of our youth 
was frequently urged by the Yearly Meeting, as a necessity. 
It was advised that schools be established and exemplary teachers 
be employed and committees of solid Friends be chosen to dili- 
gently attend to them and see that the requirements of Friends be 
carried out. Several Friends feeling the importance of this mat- 
ter left money by will, in sums varying from five to fifty pounds 


to be placed at interest until a fund could be raised sufficient to 
build a house and open a free school for Friends' children and 
others whose parents could not afford to educate them. This 
fund did not increase to a size sufficient to open a school until 
]847. It then had accumulated until there was $7,782.86 
available for this purpose. By that time some of the 
virtue of the bequests was lost from the fact that the 
free common school system had been established by the State, 
and was in successful operation. Many Friends preferred to 
send to the schools nearest home, they being deemed equal in 
all particulars to Friends' schools. 

The school-building erected at that time is still in use. There 
is no record of the building of the first school-house at Wrights- 
town. At the time when some bequests were made there was 
a large stone school-house standing near the meeting-house which 
was alluded to by some of the donors in their wills. From the 
Monthly Meeting records of '1815 and 1816 it appears the old 
school-house was taken down by direction of the meeting and 
the material divided between two others, one of them two miles 
above Wrightstown at the junction of the Philadelphia and New 
Hope roads, and the other three-fourths of a mile below at the 
junction of the Newtown and Alakefield roads, both in the town- 
ship and under the care of committees of Friends. These were 
not free schools, but the cost was moderate and Friends paid for 
the tuition of such of the members as could not conveniently do 
so. Several Friends' children were being educated in this way 
in those schools most of the time. The liberality of the ancient 
Friends of Wrightstown was unbounded. In 1789 the large 
meeting-house, now in use, was built at a cost of £790; the money 
was raised by subscriptions among the members who were numer- 
ous at that day. In 1722 they assisted Shrewsbury Friends to 
build a convenient meeting-house. In 1804 they forwarded 
Wrightstown "s quota of £4,000 which the Yearly Meeting pro- 
posed to raise to erect a Friends' boarding-school at Westtown. 
In 1837 they donated $200 to assist in building the meeting-house 
at Doylestown. Several subscription papers for raising money 
for different purposes would be in the hands of the committees 
at the same time. Some of them for Friends, who had lost by 
fire, some for those in necessitous circumstances, or wherever 


there was a need, loving hands were ready to help. Money was 
sent to John Hanson, a Friend of the eastern part of New Eng- 
land, whose wife, four small children and servant woman were 
carried away captive by the Indians, and all save one of his chil- 
dren redeemed at a charge too heavy for the said John to bear. 
These are a few of the many instances of their liberality. There 
was no rivalry in dress among them, no expensive society func- 
tions to sap their substance, and Friends cheerfully distributed 
a portion of the means their moderate style of living afforded in 
helpfulness to others. 

In the middle of the i8th century the troublous war was loom- 
ing up in the distance. In 1759 it was declared that assisting 
or furnishing the army with wagons was inconsistent with their 
principles, and Friends should be dealt with for the same. It 
was advised by the Yearly Meeting in 1774, and the Yearly Meet- 
ing's advice was law to the Friends, 

"That Friends keep as much as possible from the people in their 
public consultations as snares and dangers may arise from meetings of 
that kind. It has been thought safest and most prudent for Friends to 
forebear joining in any public subscription for the supply of the people 
of Boston, but when we do it that it be done among ourselves, as we 
may then be satisfied it Is appropriated as we wish for." Again in 1775 
it was advised "that Friends in their respective meetings may speedily 
and earnestly labor for the reclaiming of those professing the faith 
among us who have deviated from our ancient testimony against wa'-, 
and where such brotherly labor is so slighted and disregarded that by 
persisting in their violation they manifest that they are not convinced of 
our own christian principles, or are actuated by a spirit of temper in op- 
position thereto, it is our duty to testify our disunion with them." 
In 1776 the Yearly Meeting minutes contained the following: 
"It now appearing that the powers and authority exercised at this 
time over the several provinces within the compass of our Yearly Meeting 
are founded and supported in the spirit of wars and fightings, we find it 
necessary to give our sense and judgment that if any making profession 
with us do accept of or continue in public office of any kind, eithier of 
profit or trust, under the present commotions and unsettled state of pub- 
lic affairs, such are acting therein contrary to the professions and prin- 
ciples we have ever maintained since we were a religious society, and we 
therefore think it necessary to advise and exhort our brethren against 
being concerned in electing any persons or being themselves elected to 
such places and stations. And, also, those who make religious profession 
with us and do either openly or by conivance pay any fine, penalty or 
tax in lieu of their personal services for carrying on the war under the 


prevailing commotions, or who do consent to and allow their children, 
apprentices or servants to act therein, do hereby violate our christian 
testimony, and it is affectionately desired that Friends may be careful 
to avoid engaging in any trade or business tending to promote war. and 
particularly from sharing or partaking of the spoils of war, by buying or 
sending prize goods of any kind." 

It was recommended to the Monthly Meetings to keep a record 
of all such suffering cases and send the accounts annually to the 
Quarterly Aleeting and from thence to the meeting for sufferings, 
that they may be laid before the Yearly Meeting when necessary. 
Great and arduous as was the task at that time, the Friends of 
Wrightstown faithfully endeavored to maintain the principle of 
peace upon which the society of Friends was founded. The 
behests of the Yearly Meeting were entered in their Monthly 
Meeting minutes and religiously observed. Among the earliest 
cases brought before the Monthly Meeting for discipline were 
those of Isaac Heston and John Lacey, Jr., for entering the mili- 
tary service. They were opened in the meeting 7th-mo. 7th, 1775 
and after many months of kindly treatment with them, they 
declining to make any acknowledgment of any sort, they were 

John Lacey came to be a general of considerable distinction in 
the Revolutionary War. He died in 1814, nearly 60 years of age. 
He endured many hardships in his chosen path, saw many revolt- 
ing sights of bloodshed and stiffering, had variances with his 
superior ofificers, helped to supply his men with strong drink and 
was entirely outside the quiet, peaceful ways of his God-fearing 
ancestors. It is a question whether he would not have lived 
longer and been happier had he continued in the footsteps of his 
fathers. At all events "Thou shalt not kill" had been ringing 
down the ages from Sinai, and Christianity was ushered in with 
the glad tidings of "Peace on earth and good will towards men." 
Our Quaker ancestors were thoroughly grounded in the belief that 
a true Christian cannot take up arms for the destruction of his 
fellow-men, and they were willing to risk their popularity in the 
world at large by fearlessly proclaiming their principles against 

At the Monthly Meetings during the Revolution, and for some 
time after, cases were brought to the meeting's notice of Friends 
who had in some wav encouraged the conflict. It might have 


been by training or by paying a fine to avoid the same, or by 
enlisting in the army or by serving as a member of some conven- 
tion in the Province, or in other ways advancing the fighting spirit. 
Fifty such cases were thus treated with, and thirty-three of them 
disowned. Thirteen of them were opened in one Monthly Meet- 
ing, loth-mo. 3d, 1 781, and with dauntless courage Friends treated 
with every one. 

That Friends were impartial in their deahngs with open viola- 
tors of their testimonies against war, no careful reader of hi'Story 
will deny. Many of them were young men, the flowers of the 
flock, but whether they were sons of preachers, sons of elders or 
sons of the most retiring members, all came under the meeting s 
loving care. If they showed any disposition of mind to make 
satisfaction to the meeting the case was deferred for month '^ and 
even years, in the hope that the erring one might be reclaimed. 

It was the most anxious and harassing time the Friends of 
Wrightstown ever experienced. Devoted to their religious be- 
liefs and detestation of wars and fightings which they sought ref- 
uge in this country to shun, on the one hand, and saving the 
young men, the beloved of their hearts, in their impulsive zeal 
from straying away from the peaceable teachings of Christ, on 
the other; stirred their souls with an anguish that we can scarcely 
realize in this era of weaker religious convictions. The meeting's 
minutes records a touching instance in the case of Thomas, Ross, 
Jr., who had paid a fine demanded of him for not assisting in the 
military exercises. The case had been before the meeting more 
than a year and a testimony had been prepared against him, which 
was read. After a considerable time had passed the pious old 
father expressed a desire to visit his son, which the meeting ap- 
proved, and delayed proceeding for another month. At the next 
meeting Thomas Ross reported that he had taken an opportunity 
of discoursing with his son concerning what he was under deal- 
ings for, but not in so full a measure as he could have wished. 
The case was therefore continued another month, but young 
Thomas was intractable, neither the father nor the meeting 
availed, and the testimony previously prepared was signed and 

The Friends of that day have sometime6 been called Tories, be- 
cause they discountenanced the war; but it is an unjust charge. 


It was taking up arms that they opposed. The society was 
founded on non-resistant principles, and consistently stuck to 
them while the fight was going on. It made no difference to 
them whether a Friend espoused the cause of the King or of 
the Colony, they could not assist in warfare and remain a member 
of society. They had never given countenance to anything that 
had a tendency to defraud the King of his customs and dues. 
They put themselves on record as not willing to be instrumental 
in the setting up or tearing down of any government, and they 
stood loyally to their declaration against paying military fines and 
taxes. The early Friend was a man of peace and he was just as 
much so in time of war as at any other time. 

We do not find this so true during the War of the Rebellion, or 
during the late war for aggrandizement. No one could tell by 
reading the minutes of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting in the six- 
ties that there was a great civil conflict going on that was stirring 
the country to its depths. 

Such of us as were living at that day know that many Friends 
engaged in the struggle, and were never subjects of the meeting's 
admonitions or care. There are soldiers buried in Wrights- 
town Friends' graveyard and their graves are decorated with 
flowers and flags on Memorial day, and there are none to condemn. 
The truth is, the latter day Quaker is not as fully inbued with 
his principles as the ancient Friend. Wrightstown has no Friend 
in the Phillippine war that we know of, but there are members 
who voted to reinstate in place and power the promulgators and 
supporters of this unholy strife, and pay their taxes for the same 
uncomplainingly, and yet our answers to the query still reads 
that we are careful to maintain our testimonies against war. 

The old minutes of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting show that 
its members were alive to the subject of treating the negroes as 
human beings, and many of them were among the first advocates 
of abolishing the slave trade. 

William Penn. the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, was a 
slave-holder, as were many others, but there is no record that I 
have found that there were any among the early settlers of 
Wrightstown who held slaves. 

The cause of temperance and sobriety was taken up at an early 
date. One of the first efforts of this meeting towards abating 


the evils of the drink habit was the advice to cease handing out 
Hquors at vendues to encourage lively bidding. From the intro- 
duction of reform in the cause of temperance in the year 1729, 
when the Yearly Meeting recommended that "strong liquors be 
served but once at funerals and only to those that came from a 
distance." Friends, as they saw the way, strengthened and re- 
newed their testimonies against the drink habit. There is only 
one point they have not yet warned their members against by 
discipline, and that is sustaining the liquor license system by the 

The Friends of Wrightstown, however, are seeing for them- 
selves the inconsistency of condemning the traffic by word and 
making it legal by vote ; in disowning members for their diseased 
appetites for rum, while they place the tempter before them by 
supporting the license system. The larger part of the regular 
attenders of the Wrightstown Monthly Meeting have gone ahead 
of the discipline and washed their hands of any complicity in the 
expensive and demoralizing traffic. In 1810 there were two dis- 
tillers and one retailer of spirituous liquors members of this meet- 
ing. There are none now. 

I cannot close this abbreviated sketch of the early Quaker set- 
tlers of Wrightstown without a glimpse of some of the preachers 
who were widely known and respected in their day 

Ann Parsons, daughter of John Chapman, who settled with her 
parents when a child in the cave at Wrightstown, was among the 
first. She appeared in the ministry in her youthful days and 
continued faithfully until her death lO-mo. 9th, 1732, being 57 
years of age. On her death bed she left valuable advice to young 
Friends and others which her brother, Abraham Chapman, one 
of the twins, took in writing and it, in part, is entered in the 
meeting's minutes. Among other things she said : 

"It has often wounded my spirit to see those that have made 
profession of the truth and some of them children of good parents, 
to take undue liberty, taking pleasure in vanity and folly, neg- 
lecting that which would be to their everlasting peace." 

She had traveled in gospel service several times through Nev/ 
England, the Jerseys, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, and 
through England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. We can scarcely 
conceive the deprivations and exposures she must have endured 


in her journeyings through these then only partially settled Colo- 
nies, and across the seas, when slow sailing vessels, horse-back 
or on foot were the only means of conveyance. 

Agnes Penquite was a divinely favored Friend, and was in 
the ministry above 70 years, to the general satisfaction of Friends. 
She came here from Europe and brought a certificate dated 2nd- 
mo. 6th, 1686. She died iith-mo. 20th, 1758, being upwards 
of 100 years old. She attended meeting until a few years before 
her death. She was engaged in the ministry the longest term of 
•years of any we have upon record in this meeting. 

A beautiful testimony is upon record of the life and service of 
Lebulun Heston. He was called to public services at 27 years 
of age. and continued until his death in the troublous war times 
of 1776. In his last illness he said: "If the world would have 
lived in love and unity one with another, it appears to me that no 
good thing would have been withholden from us."' He expressed 
his satisfaction in the dutiful deportment of his children towards 
him as a parent, and gave them salutary advice, exhorting them 
not to give their minds too much to temporal things nor seek 
worldly enjoyments, but learn to get wisdom and understanding 
which would make them shine as stars in the firmament. He 
had traveled extensively in the ministry. In the year 1773, ac- 
companied by his nephew, John Lacey, who afterwards left 
Friends for the military service, he paid a religious visit to some 
of the Indian tribes living to the westward of this Province and 
brought back to the meeting a belt which they had given him, with 
a copy of a speech made at the close of a meeting for worship by 
an Indian chief called Captain White Eyes. It is headed New- 
comerstown, on the river Menskinggum. 7th-mo. 20th, 1773, 

"We are glad and rejoiced in our hearts to see our brothers, the 
Quakers, standing and speaking before us, and what you have said we 
believe to be right, and we heartily join in with it. Since our Savior came 
a light into the world there has been a great stir amongst the people about 
religion. Some are for one way and some for another. We have had 
offers of religion many times, but would not accept of it till we had seen 
our brothers, the Quakers, and heard what they would say to us. And 
now you have come and opened the road, and we have heard what you 
have said and we feel the grace that was in your hearts conveyed to us. 
We think that as we two brothers, the Quakers and the Delawares, were 
brought up together as the children of one man, and that it is our Savior's 
will that we should be of one religion. Now you have come and opened 


the road we expect to see the way from town to town quite over to the 
great King over the water. Then our King will know that the Quakers and 
Delawares are as one man, and make one religion. We are poor and 
weak and not able to judge for ourselves and when we think of our poor 
children it makes us sorry. We hope you will instruct us in the right 
way, both in things of this life, as well as the life to come. Now what 
we have said we hope to be strengthened to abide by." 

They then delivered the belt to Lebulun Heston. In the latter 
part of the i8th century Lebulun Heston, Jr., was also an esteem- 
ed minister and useful member of Wrightstown Meeting. 

Thomas Ross was an acceptable minister upward of 50 years. 
He was born in the county of Tyrone, Ireland, and came to this 
country when about 20 years of age. Was a member of the Epis- 
copal church and lover of gayety. Soon after his arrival on these 
shores he became convinced of the truth of the principles pro- 
fessed by Friends and came to be a conspicuous example of plain- 
ness, temperance, frugality and industry, being unwilling to eat 
the bread of idleness. He traveled considerably in the ministry and 
died 2nd-mo. 13th, 1786, at the house of Lindley Murray, Hol- 
gate, England, at the age of 78 years. He was interred in Friends' 
burying-grounds of that city. 

Many more interesting things might be said of these and other 
Godly men and women whose ministrations and examples were 
cementing influences in the society at Wrightstown. They are 
not forgotten. Truly they rest from their labors, and their 
works do follow them. There is little or no land in this section 
of the county but has some history connected with it of our Quak- 
er ancestors. The blood of the old settlers is flowing in mv 
veins and I value my birthright in the religious society that opened 
the way and strengthened them to lay the foundation of religious 
liberty in the State, as a priceless possession. 

If there is one thing more than another that I should like to 
keep alive and perpetuate it is the honest and industrious, the 
humble-minded and devotional ways of our forefathers. I feel 
sometimes that the successors of those self-denying, consecrated 
people of the earlier days, have lost a large measure of the zeal and 
steadfastness to convictions of truth that actuated them. May 
there be an awakening, an inward illumination to show us the 
way they found, that led to peace and prosperity for themselves, 
and good to society at large. 

The German Element in Bucks County. 

(Doylestowu Meeting, January 21, 1902.) 

Of the numerous peoples that have contributed to the heter- 
ogeneous population of Pennsylvania, four important classes were 
interested in the early settlement of Bucks county. These were 
the English, the Germans, the Scotch-Irish and the Welsh. Of 
those four the English were the first to settle, and as is well 
known, they have, more than any other element, been instrumental 
in giving character to the institutions and the administration of the 
government of the county. 

Closely following this first element came a second, namely, the 
Germans, and these vied with the English in the early history 
of the county, for the occupancy of the soil. And, while they 
were not, owing largely to their retiring disposition, found in 
the front in the affairs of the county, they nevertheless left a 
permanent and not unimportant impress upon its history, and 
their descendants of to-day are performing a large share in the 
making of its current history. 

Pennsylvania was a favorite Colony with the Germans. Hav- 
ing been persecuted in their Fatherland for a century and a half, 
they were eager for a share in Penn's "holy experiment." In 
1725, fifty thousand had come to the Colony. They came from 
Switzerland and Holland, from Swabia, Alsace and Saxony, but 
mostly from the Palatinate. Germantown was for a long time 
the home of these early settlers. Later immigrants began to 
strike out into the wilderness. A wave of German emigration 
swept up the Perkiomen valley, in Montgomery county, and 
spread out over the counties of Bucks, Montgomery, Lehigh, 
Berks, Northampton and Carbon. 

The "great township of Milford," comprising in addition to 
the present township of Milford, in Bucks county, now divided 
into Upper Milford and Lower Milford, in Lehigh county, appears 


to have been the most thickly settled portion of territory during the 
first years of this emigration. The Germans settling firmly in the 
northwestern corner of the county, principally INIilford and the 
contiguous portions of the adjacent counties, they laid the founda- 
tion for a career as a distinct class in the history of the county. As 
previously indicated, they did not remain confined to this particu- 
lar locality, but spread out, and took up soil in other portions. 
They made rapid strides dovv^nward through the county until 1750, 
when their rapid advance was checked. They had, by this time, 
reached the line of Plumstead and New Britain. Since that time 
the downward march has been less rapid, but each decade has no- 
ticed some advance. The results of this have been that in many 
portions of the upper and middle townships the English settle- 
ments have been almost entirely supplanted. Richland was origi- 
nally settled by English Friends, but in a short time the Germans 
were in the majority, and Richland to-day is decidedly a German 
township. Ouakertown, the original Quaker settlement, is prob- 
ably to-day seven-eighths German. 

The early Germans were farmers, and usually purchased large 
tracts of the best farm lands available. These they tilled with 
the utmost care and diligence, and the farms of the northern 
middle parts of the county are among the finest to be found any- 
where in the State. A historian of the county of a decade or more 
ago observed of the township of Milford that "Dairying and 
grazing receive much attention here. Everybody is employed and 
nobody is in need of work. The result of patient, untiring indus- 
try is seen in the substantial appearance of the farm buildings, 
and the general air of comfort which seems to pervade the com- 

Although settling in colonies in the early years was a character- 
istic there was not much of a tendency until recently toward con- 
centration in towns. Old villages are scattered over the northern 
portion of the county, but they mostly have a small population. 
Of late years, however, such towns as Ouakertown, Sellersville, 
Perkasie and Telford have had a remarkable growth. While 
the drift toward the cities has been less in this section of the 
county than in others, nevertheless the farming interests have been 
affected by it. The result of this, together with the increased 
tendency toward concentration in towns of the county, has been 


to leave some of the farms of the section uncultivated and 
uncared for. 

Most of the early Germans spoke the Pennsylvania German, 
a dialect akin to a dialect used in South Germany to this day.* 
This dialect of German, from which the Pennsylvania German is 
said to originate, is claimed by an authority on the language. Rev. 
Dr. A. R. Home, to be as old as the High German. The lan- 
guage is still in many sections tenaciously adhered to. However, 
the majority of the descendants are not slow in adopting the more 
practical English for most purposes, while still cherishing the 
language of their elders, and probably using it frequently socially 
and in business intercourse. 

Having left the Fatherland largely with a view of gaining 
religious liberty, it was but natural that the establishment of their 
faith should be one of the first things to claim the attention of 
the new settlers. The religious denominations most strongly 
represented by these early settlers were the Lutherans, German 
Reformed and Mennonite. One of the first acts of the Mil ford 
pioneers was to establish a church. The church founded was 
the Swamp church, and its place of worship was situated just 
across the ]Milford township line, in Lehigh county. It was at 
first used by both the Lutherans and the Reformed. In 1738 it 
fell exclusively to the Reformed church, the Lutherans with- 
drawing and establishing a church near Spinnerstown, in Bucks 

Probably the first Lutheran church in Bucks county was at 
Tohickon, in Bedminster township. This congregation was for 
some time served by the venerable Rev. Henry IMuhlenburg. The 
earliest Reformed pastor was probably Rev. Riesz, whose pastor- 
ate began in 1749. One of the oldest, if not the oldest, of the 
Mennonite congregations of the county was the Swamp congre- 
gation, of Milford. Of the exact time of the founding of it we 
are not aware, but we know that in 1727 there were regular 
preaching services conducted by one Valentine Clemmcr. As 
Clemmer is known to have settled in ]\Iilford in 1717, it may be 
presumed that the organization of a congregation soon followed. 
The first house of worship of the Milford Mennonites, erected in 

* See " Story of the Pennsylvania Germans," page 102 et seq., bj' Wm. Beidelman, for 
history of Pennsylvania German, a dialect of South Germany. 


1735, Stood about half-way between the present West Swamp and 
East Swamp churches. 

The practice of uniting in the erection of a house of worship 
is pecuhar to two denominations largely represented among the 
Germans ; namely, the Lutherans and the Reformed. Some- 
times, however, the Mennonites also had a snare, and Christ 
church, in Springtown, Springfield township, was at one time 
jointly held by Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites and Presby- 
terians. As was generally the case with the early settlers, the 
Germans soon after their arrival, made provision for the educa- 
tion of their children. Usually the early schools were established 
at places of worship. Frequently the school-house came first and 
served the double purpose of school and church. We know that 
when a house-of-worship was erected, in 1771, where the present 
East Swamp Mennonite church stands, a school-house was built 
in connection with it. 

Likewise, in 1819, the new house of worship, erected where the 
present West Swamp church stands, served the double purpcTse 
of church and school. These schools were generally pay schools, 
and in them the three "R's" were taught. Instruction in the cate- 
chism, the doctrines of the church, and singing were generally 
required. In school affairs, at that early day, the clergy took a 
leading part. In singing they were themselves often very pro- 
ficient, and to this may be attributed the hearty church singing 
that was characteristic of those days. 

A leader among the Mennonites of ^STilford during the period 
extending from the '40's through four or five decades, was John 
H. Oberholtzer, a bishop of that denomination. Though making 
his cictive life tell in many ways, it is simply to his pioneer work 
in religious journalism among the Germans, especially those of 
his own denomination, to which I wish to refer in this paper. 
In 1852 he began to publish at Milford Square a paper called the 
"Religioeser Botschaftes." It is interesting to notice the heroism 
displayed by this man of God in his efforts to provide his people 
with religious reading matter. He purchased a press with his 
own hard earned money and set it up in his locksmith shop. After 
learning how to set type, he undertook to publish his contemplated 
paper. He was author, editor, compositor and printer. He 
not infrequently w'orked whole nights in the printing oflice. 

122 STONE impleme;nts 

The modes of life of the early Germans were simple. They 
cared nothing for ornamentation. They had the stern realities of 
life constantly before themselves and so there was little room for 
anything that was not intensely practical. The qualities for which 
they have always been known are integrity, sobriety, industry, 
and frugality. To these qualities their descendants may justly 
claim to have fallen heir. 

Stone Implements. 


(Doylestown Meeting, Januarj- 21, 1902.) 

Over the wide expanse of our land — and I may add, of almost 
every land — year after year the plow throws up an apparently 
endless variety of bits of rock. Here, in your own Bucks county, 
along with boulders and fragments of such, the observant 
farmer notes stones of strange form, usually so symmetrical that 
their artificial origin cannot be doubted. It is to the meaning and 
purpose of these that I invite your attention. 

Perhaps the most frequent of all such finds are those known 
as Indian arrow-heads, rather flat triangular bits, varying from 
half an inch to two and a half inches in length. When larger 
than this they are classed as spear-heads, for their weight would 
have seriously impeded the flight of an arrow. 

I used to wonder that these pretty symmetrical points could be 
culled so abundantly from the fields when there was apparently 
no probability that the locality had been a village or a battle- 
field. Even in the latter case, the small urchin would have found 
many of these lost objects and have tried his luck with them till 
at last they were broken. A remark of that immortal genius, 
Frank Hamilton Gushing, offers a probable explanation. I wish 
I could give it in the words he used during one of those memor- 
able lectures, when he entertained his audience for two hours by 
the charm of his personality and the wonder of his message — re- 
plete with the lore of the ages. In substance it was this : As a 
man becomes skillful and wise with the experience of age, so the 
spirit of a knife is wiser and more skillful with the passage of 
the years, and the ancient arrow goes more truly to its mark, 


for has it not had the experience of many flights? Thus, while a 
young arrow may learn to shoot better and better, one which goes 
wide of its mark is deemed not only inapt but unfriendly. It 
seems quite possible that, in accordance with thi-s reasoning, a 
youthful arrow which refused to fiy true was not sought for, but 
abandoned to its fate, viz : preservation in a glass-case. 

The memory of a people who lack a written literature is com- 
paratively short-lived, and the stone arrow-point is now a medi- 
cine-stone or amulet to our steel-age American Indians. Tied to 
the scalp-lock of the Camanche warrior, or knotted into the fringe 
of the medicine-bag, it is rapidly assuming a supernatural origin. 

Like all the other stone implements the arrow-point is character- 
istic of the stone-age, although the use of many of them survived 
into the succeeding period, and crops out sporadically even in the 
iron-age in isolated localities. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that when thi early students 
of the prehistoric history of man had gathered many curious facts, 
they cast about them for some one thing which might serve as a 
measure of the advance made by the race, and they chose as this 
character the "cutting edge." This it is which has always deter- 
mined the conquest of one people by another more advanced ; the 
superiority of its cutting edge more than the quality of its valour. 
This it is which has forwarded civilization in the development of 
the arts and the appliances of every day life. First, the chipped - 
stone, then the polished stone tool, battered and ground into shape, 
then copper treated at first like any other fragment of rock and 
pounded into suitable form before that wonderful discovery was 
made, quite by accident, I doubt not, that thie beautiful tawny rock 
would melt and flow\ Later came the harder, keener bronze, then 
iron, and last, steel, the present epoch. But it is only of the earli- 
est of these divisions that I wish to speak to-day, the stone-age 

Here, in America, we are unable to draw those fine distinctions 
between the old and the new stone-age, for both classes of im- 
plements were in use in the hands of the same workman, and Prof. 
W. H. Holmes, in that exhaustive monograph on "The Stone 
Implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake Tidewater Province of 
America," has shown that forms, identical with the paeolithic im- 
plements of Europe, are rejectmenta thrown aside for some im- 


perfection, at various stages of manufacture. Still another noted 
American archaeologist has not hesitated to claim a greater age for 
the polished tools than for those which are simply chipped, on 
the ground that the former is the easier process. European sci- 
entists, however, have divided each of the two main classes into 
several smaller periods, determined by the form of the flake, but 
no such distinction is possible in this country, and the wide distri- 
bution of all the varieties precludes even the probability that cer- 
tain tribes were wedded to a given style, while other tribes 
monopolized another type. 

It is common to see these prehistoric "finds" spoken of as 
flints by the European writers, a designation which arose because 
the first objects of this description noted were of that substance 
and flint from the chalk beds of England and France was one of 
the most frequent materials employed in the manufacture of 
stone tools. Nevertheless, wherever a rock of suitable fineness 
of grain and convenient fracture occurred in such a position that 
it could be worked with no more complex agencies than fire and 
water and stone, there the man of the stone-age resorted for his 
weapons, chipping out blanks to be carried home to the village and 
that they might not weather and become unfit for use, buried until 
such time as he should find it convenient to shape them into arrow- 
points, spear-heads, knives, etc. Such is the meaning of those 
quarry-sites, strewn with broken boulders, rejects and battered 
hammer-stones ; such the purpose of the caches of "turtlebacks" 
unearthed from time to time. 

Comparatively simple as the problems which lie before the 
American archaeologist seem to be. the classification into groups 
according to use, is by no means without its pitfalls. Like the 
latchkey and hairpin of the modern man and woman, a single 
tool had many and varied functions. Consider the common ar- 
row-point, it may be stemmed or not, barbed or not, sharp or 
blunt, symmetrical or lopsided, but still it is universally recog- 
nized as an arrow-head ; yet it may never have served as such. 
C. C. Willoughby has recently called to notice the fact that flakes 
of typical arrow-head form have been found hafted as knives in 
the houses of clift'-dwellers. One remarkable example, a double- 
bladed dagger.ii^ inches long, must have proved a formidable 
weapon in a hand-to-hand encounter. Thus, in drawing the line 


between the knife and the arrow-point or spear-head, it is always 
necessary to remember that the former is not invariably as sym- 
metrical as or more rudely finished than the latter and that these 
latter may have served the purpose of both. On the other hand it 
is impossible to say just where the accidental flake ends and the 
knife and scraper begin. Any chance fragment, selected from a 
workshop-site, may have served in these capacities and the transi- 
tion is so gradual that the only safe plan in the majority of cases 
is to reject all those cruder forms which do not by this association 
when found, or by unmistakable signs of wear, prove that thev 
have been so used. 

Of close kinship to the arrow-point, in fact often its change- 
ling self, is the drill, perforator or borer. By one of these names 
are classed the slender, slightly tapering points rising from a more 
or less heavy base. They are frequently made from broken 

I mentioned above the hammer-stones found upon quarry-sites. 
Such were mostly ordinary, elongated boulders, with a constriction 
near their middle, either natural or pecked in for the purpose of 
hafting them in scythe handles. Their battered condition usually 
proclaimed their use, but both the groove and the bruising may 
arise from natural causes. Such hammer-stones verge danger- 
ously near upon the sinker, with which fishnets and weirs were 
held in place, and the circumstances of the find must be invoked 
here also to determine the usage. Any chance boulder of suitable 
weight and form, a discarded axe or maul or mace-head could be 
made to serve this end, and I think it extremely doubtful that 
primitive man as a rule expended much time and labor upon an 
object which when in use was concealed beneath the water. Nev- 
ertheless, weighty ovoid objects of perfect symmetry have been 
placed in this category ; these may have served at times as weights 
for fell-traps, etc., but it is highly probable that heavy as they are 
they were worn as ornaments by the men of the tribe, upon more 
or less ceremonial occasions. There seems to be no limit to the 
amount of discomfort man will undergo in order to be beautified. 
The Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, possesses a 
necklace of stone beads upwards of three-quarters of an inch in 
diameter, whose breast ornament is an egg-shapped pendant some 
four inches long. It would, however, be rash to conclude that 


all pendant-shapod stones were solely ornaments. Many of the 
lighter ones may have been used as loom-weights in one of the 
primitive weaving processes. 

To return again to the hammer-stone, (for the lines of affinity 
radiate in so many directions that were they tabulated they would 
look like formula diagrams of the Swedish chemists) there is 
another t)'pe usually known as the hand-hammer, a more or less 
irregular discoid stone, bearing a shallow depression pecked in 
near the centre of one or both flat surfaces. They are believed 
to be so modeled that the hand of the workman might retain a 
firmer grip upon them. Many though not all of these hand- 
hammers or "tool-stones" are considerably battered upon the edge, 
and when broken the fracture is through the depression. This 
characteristic fracture, which follows the line of least resistance, 
and the fact that many such stones show no signs of use upon 
their edges, while others are far too weighty to have been readily 
wielded, led W. J. Knowles to advance the theory that they were 
"anvil-stones." or "rests for the core or piece of flint while being 
operated on." I have never made the experiment, but I am strong- 
ly of the opinion that this would interfere with the cleavage of 
the flint in question, producing a more general shattering of the 
stone. The whole process of flaking, as we know it, is aimed to 
reduce the amount of vibration in the prospective implement, while 
concentrating the force of the shock upon a given point. That 
such hand-hammers, alias anvil-stones, have served indiscriminate- 
ly as hammer and anvil for the cracking of nuts and bones, the 
breakage of the shells of edible mollusks, etc., is highly probable. 
They pass by imperceptible degrees into the paint-pot, in or 
upon which the pigments for personal decoration were ground, 
and, on the other hand, when symmetrical, bear a striking likeness 
to the gamin-stones or discoidals, which are the pride of the 
archaeological collector. Beautifully polished, usually double con- 
caved, with flat or convex rims, it is difficult to believe that these 
have seen much service in the ancient ceremonial game of chunke. 

Let me pass on with the mere mention of the stone-mortars and 
pestles for the grinding of maize, of mullers, rubbing-stones and 
tool-sharpeners, etc.. to that implement so characteristic of the 
stone-age. the celt, so called because of a mistaken notion that it 
constituted the chief weapon of the ancient inhabitants of Britain. 

STONE impi,e;me;nts 127 

This object of remarkable form, widely distributed over both hem- 
ispheres, is by turns chisel and grooveless-axe, according to wheth- 
er or not it is hafted, and it grades into the adze, which is chiefly 
distinguished by a more flattened face. There is little doubt that 
from this simple tool were developed the pierced or socketed-axe 
of Europe and the grooved-axe of the New World. While mainly 
occurring in the areas indicated, each has representatives in the 
domain of the other. 

I must ask you to handle this venerable relic with reverence and 
awe, for it is the thunderbolt of the lofty Zeus, the ever-return- 
ing Miolnir of mighty Thor. Do you wish one for your collec- 
tion? Mark carefully whom the lightning strikes and wait patient- 
ly. It will not speed the discovery if you dig for it, fOr the bolt 
has struck seven fathoms deep into the soil. Everytime the thun- 
der rolls, slowly it moves upward — a fathom a year — and at 
the end of seven long years you may find it upon, the surface. 
Then guard it carefully for it possesses more than one magic 
virtue; and should you carry it with you to Ireland, keep it in 
an iron case that the fays may not filch it, for with such they 
shoot man and beast. When the lightning gleams and the thunder 
crashes, run your finger three times around the hole, and lifting 
it high in air, cast it against the door, thus will the wrathful god- 
of-storm see that you too wield the thunderbolt and he will not 
strike a comrade. When I look at the youthful vigor of your 
honored president I remember that there are many thunderstones 
in the collection of this Historical Society, and I am not surprised, 
for their proximity brings strength and youth, and the war god of 
the skies grants many favors to so valiant a warrior. No fear of 
rheumatism, for the touch of the thunder-axe will cure it, not 
even a "stitch in the side," for a little powder rubbed from this 
and drunk in a glass of water will dispel it, at least if you are not 
an unbeliever in its wondrous efiicacy. 

One other group I have purposely left till the last, a series 
with a remarkable life history, the events of which I would gladly 
lay before you did time permit. I refer to the "bannerstone." 
Mr. Gushing made a study of this artefact in its diverse forms, 
useful and ornamental. The results of that study have not yet 
been published save in the labels and drawings of a museum series. 
If I understand his meaning as thus expressed. I am not wholly 


at one with his conchision. but this is not the time nor the place 
to discuss the point at issue. In the court of the ancient pile 
dwellers off the coast of Florida. ]Mr. Gushing found a double- 
bladed war-club, entirely of wood, which he believed to be the 
prototype of the double-bladed stone war-axe of the mainland. 
Somewhere in the course of its illustrious descent it ceased to be 
a practical weapon and became a symbol of the warrior class, a 
badge of honor. To the hollow stem of this ceremonial war-axe, 
the calumet or peace-pipe traces its descent ; so the dust clouds 
of the battle blend in the smoke of the camp-fire, and that 
strange bent of the human mind to make of opposites a unity is 

I have sketched this story in the baldest and barest outline in 
the hope that it may interest some of you to seek a wider knowl- 
edge of the subject. Study these tools and it is possible to 
reconstruct the status of a vanished people. Here are the evi- 
dences of hunting, of trapping, of fishing, of the dressmg of 
skins and the weaving of mats and coarse cloth, of the manufacture 
of weapons and the tilling of fields. (T have omitted the mention 
of agricultural implements, but such there were though of the 
simplest sort.) Here, too, are to be found the silent records of 
war f.nd peace, of extended trade, of games and the solemn rites 
of religious ceremonials. All this and more can be discerned if 
we but look long and lovingly enough upon these bits of stone. 

The Eastburn Family. 

(Doj-lestown Meeting, January 21, 1902.) 

The first person of the name of Eastburn that I can find any 
record of, is John Eastburn who brought a certificate to Middle- 
town Monthly Meeting from the parish of Bingley, county of 
York, England, dated Fifth-month 31st, 1684. He was a single 
man and a laborer. 

I find in the recorder's ofiice at Doylestown, Book 2, page 14, 
the record of a deed from Hugh Marsh to John Eastburn, dated 
Second-month 14th, 1693, in which it is set forth that Hugh Marsh 
(husbandman) and Sarah Marsh, widow, and mother of said 
Hugh Marsh, sold to John Eastburn (laborer) a certain piece 
or parcel of land, lying in the township of Southampton, formerly 
said to be the county of Philadelphia, and laid out for 300 acres, 
being part of a tract of land granted and confirmed unto Robert 
Marsh, father of Hugh Marsh, by a patent from William Penn 
dated Fifth-month i6th, 1684, the consideration for which was 
£40 or $200. The witnesses to the deed were Nicholas Walm, 
Shadrack Malloy, John Stackhouse and Phineas Pemberton. John 
Eastburn had then been living in this country about nine years and 
probably had made money enough to purchase 300 acres of land. 

John Eastburn married Margaret Jones, of Philadelphia, 
Second-month 5th, 1694, and was ready to commence farming on 
his own account. The Colonial Records, Vol. 2, page 182, make 
mention of him as follows : 

"At a council held at Philadelphia Twelfth-month 21st, 1704, John East- 
burn, of Bucks county, petitioned Hon. John Evans, Lieutenant Governor, 
and Edward Shippen, Samuel Carpenter, Thomas Story, Griffith Owen, 
William Trent, Richard Hill and James Logan, Commissioners, to restrain 
and stop the levjang of a certain execution obtained against him, and issued 
by the court of said county, upon the petitioner's horses, cattle and winter 
provisions, etc., by which he would be reduced to the greatest necessities. 
After hearing the case it was ordered that the sheriff of Bucks county be 
summoned to answer to the board for a breach of his duty, etc." 


From records of births and deaths, I have obtained the follow- 
ing in regard to the children of John and Margaret Eastburn : 
Elizabeth Eastburn, born First-month i6th, 1695 ; John Eastburn, 
born Sixth-month 22d, 1697; Peter Eastburn, born First-month 
5th, 1699; Thomas Eastburn, born Ninth-month 22d, 1700. John 
Eastburn and Margaret, his wife, probably died before the year 
1740. the will of Margaret Eastburn being recorded in Philadel- 
phia in the year 1740. 

In deed book No. 7, pages 269 to 271, are recorded re- 
lease-deeds, showing how the original 300 acres of John Eastburn 
were divided between his sons, and also giving the names of 
other children. The first is a deed made by Thomas Eastburn et. 
al. to John Eastburn. dated May 24. 1746. 

This deed among other things sets forth that Tliomas Eastburn 
of Southampton, yeoman, and Sarah, his wife; Richard Studdam, 
of Philadelphia, tailor, and Mary, his wife ; and Thomas Walton, 
of the Manor of Moreland, in the county of Philadelphia, and 
Elizabeth, his wife (which Thomas Eastburn, Mary Studdam and 
Elizabeth Walton are the son and daughters of John Eastburn, 
the elder, late of the township of Southampton, and Margaret, 
his wife, both deceased) of the one part; and John Eastburn, of 
Southampton aforesaid, clockmaker, eldest son of the aforemen- 
tioned John Eastburn, the elder, and Margaret, his wife, conveyed 
200 acres of the original 300 acres to said John Eastburn, the old- 
est son. The survey of the land describes it as adjoining lands of 
Isabel Cutler, John Naylor, Peter Groome, John Swift, Thomas 
Herding, and land now in the tenure of Charles Biles. Then 
follows the release-deed from John Eastburn and the aforemen- 
tioned sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, to the younger brother, Thom- 
as Eastburn, for the remaining 100 acres. Thomas Eastburn did 
not live long after this; he died intestate. April 25th, 1748, Sarah 
Eastburn, widow, then of Bensalem; filed letters of administration 
with Henry Walmsley and William Ridge, both of Bensalem, as 
bondsmen. In endeavoring to locate this 300 acres of John East- 
burn, I was informed by Charles G. Knight that it was near the 
land formerly owned and occupied by his father, the late Jonathan 
Knight, of Southampton, and near the Buck hotel. 

The deed of John Eastburn. Jr., recorded in Book 10, page 
255. to Jonathan Knight, of Southampton, for 102 acres of the 

the; eastburn family 131 

original 300 acres of John Eastburn, the elder, contains the fol- 
lowing recital : 

"Whereas, John Eastburn. by his last will, dated Eighth-month 12th, 
1 716, bequeathed said 300 acres of land to his wife, Margaret Eastburn, 
and Margaret Eastburn by her last will, recorded in Philadelphia in 1740, 
bequeaths 200 acres of said land to her son, John, and 100 acres to her son, 
Thomas Eastburn." 

The deed of John Eastburn, Jr., to Jonathan Knight is dated 
April 17, 1761. The amount of land conveyed was 102 acres. 
Consideration £350. 

Robert and Sarah Eastburn came from England to Philadel- 
phia, bringing with them a certificate from Brigham Monthly 
Meeting, near Leeds, Yorkshire, England, dated Twelfth-month 
6th, 1713, which included their minor children and was accepted 
by Philadelphia Monthly Meeting. The names of their children 
were not given in the certificate, but have been obtained from the 
wills of Robert Eastburn, and the record of marriages of Abington 
Monthly Meeting. They did not remain long in Philadelphia, re- 
moving their certificate to Abington Second-month 26th, 1714. 
They remained in Abington 14 years, removing to Philadelphia 
Fourth-month 24th, 1728. 

The children of Robert and Sarah Eastburn were : Esther, John, 
Benjamin, Samuel, Robert, Jr., Sarah and Elizabeth Eastburn, 
all but the last named being born in England before 1713. They 
married as follows : Esther Eastburn married Jonathan Livezey 
in 1717; John Eastburn married Grace Colston in 1721 ; 
Benjamin Eastburn married Ann Thomas in 1722; Samuel 
Eastburn married Elizabeth Gillingham in 1728; Robert Eastburn, 
Jr., married Agnes Jones in 1733; Sarah Eastburn married Hugh 
Thomas in 1734; Elizabeth Eastburn married David Clark in 1737. 
Robert Eastburn's will was dated Eleventh-month ist, 1752, and 
was probated Tenth-month 13th, 1755. 

Benjamin Eastburn was born in England probably in 1700. He 
came with his parents to Pennsylvania in 1713, and married Ann 
Thomas, of Abington, Ninth-month, 1722. Benjamin Eastburn 
and wife, Ann, removed their certificate from Abington to Rad- 
nor Monthly Meeting Fifth-month, 26th, 1725. They lived at 
Radnor nearly ten years, removing to Philadelphia Tenth-month 
I2th, 1734. 


Benjamin Eastburn was appointed surveyor general of the 
Province of Pennsylvania by the Proprietaries, and was commis- 
sioned October 29, 1733, he served in this office eight years, dying 
in 1741. He was the surveyor at the time of the great "walking- 
purchase" from the Indians in 1737. The History of Bucks 
County by General Davis in describing the start of this walk, 
says : 

"The prominent figures of the company, besides the chosen pedestrians 
of the Proprietors, Edward Marshall, James Yeates and Solomon Jennings, 
were Sheriff Timothy Smith, Benjamin Eastburn and his two deputies, 
Nicholas Scull, John Chapman and the nephew of James Steel, who were 
to run the line to the Delaware river. The start was made at sunrise 
from the chestnut tree near Wrightstown meeting-house, on September 
19, 1737, and ended the next day at 2 o'clock p. m., on the north side of 
Pocano or Broad Mountain. Alexander Brown and Enoch Pearson, both 
mounted, were the watch carriers. The distance walked was 68 miles." 

Benjamin Eastburn was surveyor at the time of running the 
boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland, which is de- 
scribed in the Pennsylvania Archives, \'ol. i, pages 611 to 615. 
from which I make a few extracts : 

"Whereas, by a commission bearing date the 5th day of December last, 
under the great seal of the Province of Pennsylvania, you, Lawrence 
Growden, and Richard Peters, Esquires, were authorized and empowered 
as Commissioners, and you, Benjamin Eastburn, as surveyor, to join Col. 
Levi Gale and Samuel Chamberlain, appointed by the Governor of Mary- 
land, tOi run the lines directed by his Majesty's order in council the 25th 
day of May, 1738, to be the provisional and temporary limits between the 
two provinces of Pennsylvania and Maryland, etc. Given under my hand 
and the great seal of the Province of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia. May 
I, 1739, and the twelfth year of his Majesty's reign. 

"GEORGE THOMAS, Governor. 

"Report of Commissioners and Surveyor: To Hon. George Thomas, 
Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province of Penn- 
sylvania and counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, on Delaware 
(now State of Delaware). Report of Lawrence Growden and Richard 
Peters, commissioners, and Benjamin Eastburn, surveyor, appointed by 
your said commission, bearing date May i. 1739: The said commissioners 
and surveyor do humbly report that in pursuance of said minute the sur- 
veyors on the part of Pennsylvania, marking that hickory tree the place 
of beginning, did on Tuesday the 8th day of May, run a due west line to- 
wards the river (Patowmeck) with the same instruments, and variation cf 
5 degrees 20 minutes, with which the line on the east side of the Su.tsque- 
hannah river, in conjunction with the Maryland Commissioners, was run, 
and causing trees on or near the line to be marked and blazed in the same 


manner as was observed in that line. The surveyors proceeded from day to 
day and extended the line to the top of the most western hill or range 
of hills, called the Kit-toch-tinny hills (Blue Mountains), and distant from 
the place of beginning 88 statute miles. And as this hill is one of the 
boundaries of the lands purchased by our Honorable Proprietaries from 
the Indians, and as no persons are to be permitted to settle beyond that 
range of hills, we judged the line to be run far enough to settle the juris- 
diction of the two provinces, and to answer all the purposes of our com- 
mission, and therefore ordered the surveyors to end there, and several 
trees to be marked with the initial letters of our Honorable Proprietaries, 
as is usual at the close of boundary lines. Signed by Lawrence Growden, 
Richard Peters, Commissioners, and Benjamin Eastburn, Surveyor, IMay 
28. 1739." 

The distance of the first survey from the borders of New Castle 
county was 25 miles to the Susquehanna river, making altogether 
113 miles. Supplemented to this report the commissioners add 
that "Benjamin Eastburn hath behaved with so much skill and 
prudence that we are in great hopes this hne will be abundantly 
to your satisfaction and to the Proprietaries. We will write 
further particulars of the line from Nottingham." The terminus 
of the line was in Cumberland county where the Blue mountains 
enter Maryland. 

Benjamin Eastburn died iiitestate leaving no children. Some 
of the descendants of Robert and Sarah Eastburn are now liying 
at Bridgeport, Pa., near Norristown, from whom has been obtained 
a copy of the Eastburn coat of arms. It is now in the possession 
of A'mos Eastburn, of Philadelphia. On the shield are pictures 
of dragons, surrounded on each side by cornucopias. Those who 
are acquainted with heraldry and have seen it say that it must 
have been bestowed upon the family during the reign of the Plan- 
tagenet Kings, beginning with Henry II in 1164 and ending 1485. 
with the accession to the throne of Henry VII, Henry Tudor. 
Earl of Richmond. 

Benjamin Eastburn died in 1741. The bond of Ann Eastburn, 
widow and administratrix, was entered September 8, 1741. The 
inventory of the goods and chattels taken Sept. 21, 1741, contains 
among other things, a reflecting telescope, surveying compass, etc. 
Legacies, consisting of household goods, were left to nieces in 
the Thomas family. 

That Benjamin Eastburn, the surveyor general, was a brother 
of Samuel Eastburn, who removed his certificate from Abington 


to Buckingham in 1729. and was the first of the name to own and 
settle upon land in Solebury in 1734, is proven by an old letter, 
now in the possession of Hetty Ann (Eastburn) Williams, of 
Buckingham. It reads as follows : 

Philadelphia. 5th -mo. 30, I737- 
"Dear Brother : With salutations of love to thyself and wife and chil- 
dren, these are in behalf of sister Betty (Elizabeth), to desire thy com- 
pany with thy wife, at her marriage on the nth of next month (June), 
being next Fifth-day come a week. We are generally in health and 
hope thou with thy family are in the enjoyment of the same blessing. My 
business at present will not allow me to enlarge at this time. Thy affec- 
tionate brother. 


This letter is an excellent specimen of penmanship, is in a 
good state of preservation and was directed to "Samuel Eastburn, 
Solebury, Bucks Co., Penna." The marriage referred to in 
this letter was that of Elizabeth Eastburn and D&vid Clark, June 
II. 1737, which was about three months before the survey of 
the "walking purchase." 

Robert Eastburn, Jr., Captain of Pennsylvania militia in the 
French and Indian war, 1756 to 1758, was born in England in the 
year 1710, and came to Pennsylvania with his parents in 1713. 
He was married to Agnes Jones, of Germantown, at Abington 
meeting in the year 1733. This member of the Eastburn family 
does not appear to have retained his membership in the society 
of Friends. 

In the Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 3, pages 480 to 489, Captain 
Robert Eastburn is mentioned in a letter of Levi Frump to Gov- 
ernor Denny, dated Fort Augusta, July 19, 1758, in which he 
says that General Forbes has ordered Captain Robert Eastburn 
and Captain Paul Jackson and their subaltern.N with 35 men each, 
to march and join him at Raystown. A postscript to this letter 
states that Captain Eastburn's detachment was ready to march on 
the hostile Indians about 30 miles from Fort Augusta, (which was 
somewhere on the Susquehanna). Other letters were written 
from Carlisle, Shippensburg, Fort Johnson, etc. Great difificulty 
was experienced in employing "battoemen" to take the troops 
across the river. The scene of this war was mainly west of the 
Susquehanna river, at a time when the subject of our sketch 
was about 48 years old. 

the; eastburn family 135 

The children of Robert Eastburn, Jr., and Agnes, his wife, were 
Sarah, Hannah, Thomas, Robert, John and Joseph. Joseph East- 
burn, the youngest child, was born August ii, 1748. He became 
a Presbyterian minister and founded the first Mariners' church in 
Philadelphia in 1818. In his book, "Memoirs of Rev. Joseph 
Eastburn," he says that his father was taken captive by the Ind- 
ians, March, 1756, and taken by them to Canada, where he was 
kept a prisoner until November, 1757. While a prisoner he lived 
in great hardship and suffering, not having sufficient clothing. In 
the preface to his memoirs, Rev. Joseph Eastburn says that his 
father having been a prisoner among the Indians brought his 
circumstances too low to afford his son more than a common 
English education. The Rev. Joseph Eastburn died January 30, 
1828. Of the other children of Robert Eastburn, Jr., the 
daughter, Sarah, died in 1818, aged 83 years; Hannah died in 
1773; Thomas died in 1802; Robert died in 1815, and John 
died in 1816. 

The certificate of membership of Agnes Eastburn, wife of 
Robert Eastburn, Jr., was removed from Abington Monthly Meet- 
ing to Philadelphia in the year 1733, which fact establishes their 
residence in that city. 

Robert Eastburn Jr., again appears in the annals of the Revo- 
lution. He was then an old man, not fit for military duty, being 
66 years old. In the Colonial Records, Vol. 10, page 633, is re- 
corded that the Committee of Safety of Philadelphia, July 5, 1776, 
resolved that "Robert Eastburn be employed to collect linen 
from the good ladies of the city, as much as they can spare, 
for lint and bandages for wounded soldiers." Again, on page 
761. October 21, 1776, it was "Resolved that Captain Francis 
Guerney be appointed to receive from Robert Eastburn all monies 
now in his hands for salt sold by him by order of this Council. 
Signed, David Rittenhouse. President of Council." 

Robert Eastburn was further directed to deliver to Carpenter 
Wharton, Esq. 500 bushels of salt, he paying at the rate of 15 
shillings a bushel for the same. On November 9, 1776, Robert 
Eastburn was directed by order of Council to deliver to the 
inhabitants of the city and county of Philadelphia 300 bushels of 
salt ; to each housekeeper not more than half a bushel. Again 
on December 16, 1776, Robert Eastburn was directed to deliver 


to James Elder, "one wagon load of salt for the use of the militia 
in Cumberland county. Signed, David Rittenhouse, President." 
From this it appears that Robert Eastburn had charge of the salt 
supply of Philadelphia in the days of 1776. 

Robert Eastburn, Jr., died in the year 1778, aged 68 years. His 
wife, Agnes, died September 2"], 1784, aged 71 years. 

Esther Eastburn was the oldest daughter of Robert Eastburn. 
She married Jonathan Livezey, of Lower Dublin, in the year 
1717. They had eight children, whose names and dates of 
birth have been obtained from the Abington records as follows : 

Jonathan, born Twelfth-month 8th, 1719; Joseph, born First- 
month 23d, 1722; Sarah, born Tenth-month 12th, 1724; Benjamin, 
born Fifth-month 31st, 1727; -Mary, born First-month 21st, 
1730; Esther, born Seventh-month 14th. 1732; Martha, born 
Sixth-month 15th, 1735; Nathan, born Fourth-month nth, 1739. 

Jonathan Livezey, the elder, son of Thomas Livezey, who came 
to Pennsylvania with William Penn, died Ninth-month 23rd, 
1698, and was buried at Oxford, near Tacony bridge. Jonathan 
Livezey, who married Esther Eastburn, died Eleventh-month 14th, 
1789, aged 69 years. 

The descendant of Samuel Eastburn, who married Elizabeth 
Gillingham at Oxford meeting" in 1728. who brought certiii- 
cate to Buckingham meeting in 1729, and settled in Solebury 
and became a land owner in 1734, has been considered in the 
early settlers of Solebury. 

From information already obtained I regard it as settled that 
John Eastburn who came to Southampton 1684, and Robert East- 
burn, who came to Philadelphia in 1713, were brothers. John 
Eastburn was a young man ; was here ten years before he bought 
land, and was married, while Robert Eastburn was married in 
England and brought with him a wife and six minor children 
in 1713, so that the dates of their respective marriages were not 
far apart. 

An examination of the release-deeds made in 1746, in which 
the original 300 acres of land of John Eastburn were divided 
between his sons, John and Thomas (200 acres to the former and 
100 acres to the latter) further shows that he had two daughters — 
Mary, who had married Richard Studdam, of Philadelphia, and 

the; eastburn family 137 

Elizabeth, who had married Thomas Walton, of the Manor of 

The last will of Robert Eastburn, made in 1755, after leaving 
legacies to his children, made the following additional bequests : 
"To my brother's son, John Eastburn, my clock and clock-case, 
and to Elizabeth Walton, sister of the aforesaid John Eastburn, 
the sum of £5." The present being the seventh generation from 
the brothers John and Robert Eastburn, makes their descendants, 
in the present generation, seventh cousins. 

The descendants of John Eastburn, of Abington, who married 
Grace, daughter of William Coulton, of Whitpain township. First- 
month 1 6th, 1 72 1, have been ascertained from his will, dated July 
28. 1772; probated September 19, 1772, and recorded in Philadel- 
phia book P, page 302, as follows : 

"I, John Eastburn, of Upper Merion, Philadelphia county, etc. To 
my grandson. Benjamin Eastburn, son of my son, Samuel Eastburn, the 
plantation and tract of land I now live on, containing 200 acres of land ; 
he to pay his brother, John Eastburn, £100, and also^ to pay his grand- 
mother £18 yearly : keep her a ccw. give her choice of room in the house, 
find her firewood, etc. To my son, Robert Eastburn, the sum of £50. To 
my son, Joseph Eastburn, the ground rents of my lots in the city of Phila- 
delphia, on Sixth and Seventh streets, the income thereof for his main- 
tenance, etc. To my son, Benjamin Eastburn, the sum of £50. To my 
daughter, Mary Brooks, £100. To my daughter, Sarah Miller, £6 a year 
during her life. To my daughter, Rachel Coats, £10 a year during her 
life. To my granddaughter, Mary Norman, £100. To my granddaughter, 
Sarah Ellis, £50. To my granddaughter, Hannah Shoemaker, £50. To 
my grandson, Jesse Roberts, £300. To my granddaughter, Elizabeth East- 
burn, daughter of my son, Robert Eastburn, £50. To my loving wife, 
Grace Eastburn, £200. To my three grandsons, Nathan Brooks, Samuel 
Roberts and Benjamin Coats, £10 each. To my three grandsons, John. 
Jonathan and Samuel, sons of my son, Robert Eastburn, £ro each. To 
my two grandsons, John and Robinson Eastburn, sons of my son. Benjamin 
Eastburn. £10 each." 

The executors of this will were grandsons, David Norman, 
Benjamin Eastburn and Jesse Roberts. The witnesses were 
Jonathan Roberts and Lindsay Coats. 

The will of John Eastburn, of the Manor of Moreland, Phila- 
delphia county. Pa., is dated November 30, 1774: probated Feb- 
ruary 18, 1775, and recorded in Philadelphia in Book 2, page 
109. It bequeathes : 


"To Margaret Akinswiner, daughter of my brother, Thomas Eastburn, 
i30. To my brother, John Eastburn, £25. (Evidently a mistake here in 
the name of this brother). To my cousin, Mary Roberts' children. £15 
each. To my sister. Mary Studdam, £50. To my sister, Elizabeth Wal- 
ton, £30. To Margaret Purnell, £25. To Mary Alldridge, of Byberry, 
£25. To my esteemed friends, Thomas Townsend, of Byberry, and John 
Townsend. of Bensalem, all the residue of my estate for the use of the 
people called Quakers, in unity with the meeting at Bj'berry, which shall 
be applied to charitable purposes for members of that meeting." 

The executors were Thomas Townsend and John Townsend. 
There is no wife or children of the testator mentioned in this will. 
The probability is he never married. 

The Warminster Harts. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 21, 1902.) 

Among the Quaker immigrants who came to Pennsylvania in 
1682 and settled under the mild rule of William Penn was John 
Hart, of Whitney, Oxfordshire. England. He was the son of 
Christian and Mary Hart, and was born November 16, 165 1. 
Whitney was the seat of a Roman town, noted for its manufacture 
of blankets, and situated tmder the shadow of Blenheim. The 
family consisted of three sons and one daughter, Robert, Joseph, 
John and Mary. Of Robert and Joseph little is known. The 
former is said to have settled in London, married, raised a family 
and probably died there. The latter, Joseph, migrated to the 
island of Jamaica, went into business and died unmarried, but 
whether on the island or in England is not known. The sister, 
Mary, accompanied her brother, John, to America and died un- 

John Hart evidently joined the society of Friends early, as his 
name appears on the Whitney meeting records in 1675, and is 
signed to the minutes of the Whitney Monthly, "ye 8th of iith- 
month, 1676." The name was spelled at that time "Heart." 
When William Penn comtemplated founding a colony under the 
grant of territory from Charles H, John Hart resolved to accom- 
pany him and seek his fortune in the new world. In view of 
immigrating he purchased of Penn 1,000 acres of land to be located 


in the new colony after his arrival. The deed was executed at 
Worminghurst, county Sussex, England, October 11, 1681 ; con- 
sideration — "five shillings of lawful money of England." Just 
what time John Hart and his sister, Mary, sailed from England 
and arrived in the Delaware is not known, but we have evidence 
that approximates their time of leaving. I have in my posses- 
sion, (obtained a number of years ago,) the certificate of the 
clerk of the monthly meeting of Whitney, stating that John Hart's 
name does not appear on the record there after ist-month 2d, 

1682. It is family tradition that John Hart and his sister arrived 
about two months in advance of Penn, who reached his new Colo- 
ny about the last of October. 

On John Hart's arrival he loc.ated 500 acres on the Poquessing. 
anciently called the Poetquessink, in Byberry township. Phila- 
delphia county, and the same quantity (500 acres) in Warminster 
township, Bucks county ; the present village of Ivyland is built 
on part of it. The Byberry tract was laid off by virtue of a war- 
rant from Thomas Holme, Surveyor General of the Province, 
dated September i, 1681, and that in Warminster by virtue of 
a warrant "from ye Proprietary and Governor, dated ye 31st of 
ye 5th-mo. last, issued at Philadelphia, this 25th of ye 7th-month, 
1684." In addition, John Hart was allowed 20 acres in town lots, 
which were laid out in one of the liberties of Philadelphia, no 
trace of which has been found in the recorder's ofiice. 

John Hart took a prominent part in the affairs of the Colony 
from his arrival. He was elected a member of the first Assembly 
from the county of Philadelphia, and took his seat at the first 
session of that body, which met March 12, 1683, and his name 
is attached to the first charter of government, dated February 25, 

1683, which Penn granted the colonists. He was also a member 
of the Assembly in 1684, and probably longer. About the time 
John Hart settled in Byberry, came William and Aurelia Rush 
with three sons and three daughters, and Mr. Hart took the 
daughter Susannah to wife in the summer or fall of 1683. John, 
the father of William Rush, commanded a troop of horse in Crom- 
well's army ; the distinguished Dr. James Rush, of Revolutionary 
fame, was his lineal descendant, and the watch and sword of 
Captain John Rush fell to his possession. I believe William Rush 
and family and John Hart and sister came over in the same 


vessel, as Hart and Susannah Rush were engaged to be married 
before saihng, of which I have evidence that cannot be disputed, 
and it is altogether reasonable to suppose they would come to 
the new world together. 

As to John Hart and Susannah Rush being engaged to be 
married prior to their coming to America, in 1682, I offer the 
following documentary testimony in support of it. 

Subsequent to my visit to England, 1878, including a very enjoy- 
able visit to Whitney, the home of my ancestors, I had some cor- 
respondence with a gentleman there, who sent me extracts from 
that Monthly Meeting, embracing the following: 

"At ye monthly meeting of ye 9th, nth-month, 1681. where were present: 
Tho. Minchin, Thos. Leary, Ed. Franklin, Giles Titmaish, Jos. Richards, 
Hen. Franklin, Rich. Scudder, Jo. Silman, Ed. Walter, Jo. Flexney : John 
Hart, of Whitney, did then declare his intention of marriage with one 
Susana Rush, of London, and he desired a certificate from our meeting 
concerning his clearance from all other women in this respect ; therefore 
we do order and appoint Thomas Seavy only to enquire and to inform our 
next meeting and certifie us whether he be cleared or not." 

"At ye monthly meeting ye 13th, i2th-month. 1681, where was present 
Thos. Minchin, Tho. Harris, Jo. Harris, Alex. Harris, Ed. Franklin, 
Fran. Dring, Jo. Hill, Jo. Clark, Rob. Clark, Jos. Richard, Ed. Carter, 
Richard Scudder : it was ordered, etc., etc.," and then a certificate was 
"granted to John Hart in order to accomplish his marriage." 

We have already noted that John Hart occupied a prominent 
place in politics, in organizing the government of the Colony, and 
he was no less prominent in the meeting. He at once took a 
leading- part with the society of Friends and was one of their 
foremost preachers. The first meeting of Friends, in Byberry, 
for religious worship, was held at John Hart's home ; then 
changed to Giles Knight's, but the Monthly Meeting ordered it 
removed back to John Hart's. Burials were made on John Hart's 
land as early as 1683, and in 1786. A century later, John Hart's 
grandson bequeathed this lot of one acre to the township of 
Byberry as a burial place for its inhabitants forever. The Month- 
ly Meetings were frequently held at John Hart's in 1683 to 1686 
and he was clerk of the ^Monthly Meeting in 1687. In February, 
1688, the German Quakers, at their meeting in Germantown, 
adopted a declaration on the stibject of slavery, to the Monthly 
Meeting, on which John Hart made the following report : 


"At our Monthly Meeting at Dublin, ye 30th 2d-month, 1688, we have in- 
spected ye matter above mentioned and considered of it, we find it so 
weighty that we think it not expedient for us to meddle with it here, but 
do rather commit to ye consideration of ye quarterly meeting; ye tenor 
of it being related to ye truth. 

"On behalf of ye Monthly Meeting. 

(Signed) "JOHN HART." 

John Hart maintained his activity and usefulness in the society 
of Friends until the unfortunate George Keith schism of 1691 
rent it asunder^ As Mr. Hart was one of their ablest ministers, 
his los'S was severely felt. He took sides with Keith and carried 
with him the greater part of his connections in the Province, in- 
cluding the families of Rush and Collet. The breach became so 
wide by 1692, ten of the leading Friends of London, including 
William Penn, addressed a letter to John Hart and other leading 
Keithians, in which they gave to those who had gone off with 
Keith "much brotherly advice." In 1697 John Hart embraced 
the principles of the Baptist religion, the ordinance of baptism 
being administered by Thomas Rutter. He joined the Pennypack 
Baptist church in 1702, and his preaching at John Swift's house, 
in Southampton, laid the foundation of the Southampton Eapiist 

A note in Proud's History of Pennsylvania states: "Some of 
the principal persons, who adhered to Keith and were of rank, 
character and reputation in these provinces, and divers of them 
great preachers and much followed, were Thomas Budd, GeiDrge 
Hutchinson, Robert Turner, Francis Rawles, John Har^. , CTIiarles 
Reade, etc." 

Some time between 1693 and 1698 John Hart snld his real 
estate in Byberry and removed with his family to Warminster 
township, where he spent the remainder of his life, and died there 
in September, 1714, in his 63d year. His widow probably re- 
turned to Byberry and died among her kindred at Poetquessink, 
February 27, 1725. He was the father of five children of whom 
four survived him, John, Thomas, Josiah and ]\Iary, the latter 
dying 1721 unmarried. The oldest son, John Hart, and his 
descendants are the only offspring of John Hart, Sr., of whom 
we have knowledge. 

While John Hart the second did not occupy as important a 



place in public estimation as his father, he held several posts of 
honor. He was justice of the peace for many years and commis- 
sioned hig-h sheriff in 1738, '39, '43, '44, '48, '49 and coroner in 
1 74 1 and '42. He was one of the constituent members of the 
Southampton Baptist church, when organized in 1746, and of the 
56 names signed to the church covenant are those of John Hart 
and Eleanor, his wife ; his sons Joseph and Oliver, and his 
daughter-in-law, Elizabeth, the wife of his son, Joseph, all 
became members. John Hart's wife was Eleanor Crispin, a 
daughter of Silas and Hester Crispin, and a granddaughter of both 
William Crispin, (Penn's first surveyor general of Pennsylvania, 
but who did not live to get here,) and Thomas Holme, his suc- 
cessor in the same office. William Crispin, who was a cap- 
tain under Cromwell, and an officer in Admiral Penn's fleet, 
was a first cousin of William Penn, their mothers being sisters, 
daughters of John Jasper, a Rotterdam merchant. In 1750 John 
Hart erected a handsome family mansion near the middle of his 
Warminster tract, which is still { 1902 ) standing, occupied and in 
good condition. The walls are of stone, pointed, and in the 
double west gable is a date stone with the year and initials, J. E. H. 
Joseph and Eleanor Hart, 1750. 

We now come to the next generation of the Harts, the children 
of John Hart the second and Eleanor Crispin, reaching through 
the Revolutionary period, and to the close of the century. They 
had ten children: John, Susannah, William, Joseph, Silas, Lucre- 
tia, Oliver, Edith, Seth and Olive. Of these Joseph, born Septem- 
ber I, 1715. and Oliver, born July 5, 1723, died December 31, 
1795, made their mark. At the death of his father, Joseph took 
possession of the Warminster homestead and assumed the position 
belonging to the head of the family as the eldest son. At the age 
of 25 he married his cousin, Elizabeth Collet, of Byberry, the 
granddaughter of Jeremiah Collet, who came to America with 
Penn and was a member of the first Colonial Council of 1683. 
Joseph Hart was active and useful in church and colonial 
affairs. He entered public life in 1749, as high sheriff of the 
county, which he held several years, and was also justice of the 
peace and judge of the common pleas and quarter ses- 
sions. He was one of the founders of the Union Li- 


brary at Hatboro^ 1755;. ^^^ ^ member of the Library 
Company to his death. Beside Mr. Hart, the most active in this 
work were Joseph Longstreth, the Rev. Charles Beatty, Joshua 
Potts and John Lukens, all neighbors and close friends. Having 
a taste for military affairs Joseph Hart was ensign of a company 
of Bucks County Associators, and in 1755 was commissioned cap- 
tain at the defeat of Braddock, when the militia were embodied 
for the defence of the Province. 

Joseph Hart's most valuable services were rendered during the 
war for independence, 1776-83; was one of the first in the 
Colony and county to take sides against the mother country, and, 
in point of zeal and fidelity, had no superior. He was chairman of 
the "Bucks County Committee of Safety," a delegate to the Car- 
penter's Hall convention and a member of the committee that re- 
commended a "Congress of Deputies." When steps were taken in 
1776 to establish a State government for Pennsylvania Joseph 
Hart was chosen one of the delegates from Bucks to the conven- 
tion, of which he was vice president. He was twice chairman in 
committee of the whole, and reported the resolution prescribing 
the qualification of voters. When the Continental Congress, 1776, 
established a "Flying Camp" of 10,000 men, Joseph Hart was 
commissioned colonel and placed in command of the battalion of 
400 men, the quota from Bucks county, which served in New 
Jersey until sometime in December. On the 19th Washington 
ordered Colonel Hart's battalion to march to Philadelphia and re- 
port to General Putnam. In 1777 Colonel Hart was elected a 
member of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, in 
1780 was appointed register and lieutenant of the county, and in 
1784 one of the judges of the court of common pleas, which he 
held until his death. 

Colonel Hart has now run his life of activity and usefulness, 
and was buried in the family burying-ground at Southampton. 
His wife had died on the 19th of the same month and was buried 
at the same place. On the tombstone that marks their last rest- 
ing place is inscribed the following: 

"Here lie the remains of Joseph Hart, Esquire, who departed this life 
the 25th day of February, 1788, aged 72 years; also the lemains of Eliza- 
beth, his wife, who departed this life the 19th of February, 1788, aged 74 
years. In their death they were not much divided. His long and useful 


life was almost wholly devoted to the public service of his country, while 
the lives of both were eminent for piety and virtue." 

From what we learn of Colonel Joseph Hart he was one of 
the most prominent citizens of eastern Pennsylvania, especially 
during the trying Revolutionary period, and his descendants have 
just cause to be proud of their ancestor. Many years ago I 
interviewed Safety INIaghee, a neighbor and friend, who died at 
the age of almost one hundred years, who said : 

"I knew Colonel Joseph Hart. He was active through the Revolution 
from the beginning; for a number of years he was so much engaged in 
public affairs he employed an overseer to manage his plantation, which 
was unusual at that day. When he rode out he always went armed. He 
furnished a large quantity of provisions to the army. I was with him 
in his last illness, and on his death bed he was cheerful. When he died 
I went to Hopewell, New Jersey, to inform his brother, Oliver, of his 
death, who came over to the funeral and I think preached the sermon. He 
was considered a pretty stern character. At that time it was the custom 
to serve out liquor to the guests at a funeral. When they arrived some one 
was ready with the bottle and glasses to give them something to drink. 
At Colonel Hart's funeral I carried the liquor around and treated the 
people as they arrived." 

Joseph Hart was the father of six children, all sons : William, 
John. Silas, Josiah, Joseph the second, the first Joseph dying in in- 
fancy, and William the eldest dying in 1760 at the age of nineteen, 
unmarried. John married Rebecca, the daughter of David and 
Margaret Rees, of the Crooked Billet, September 13, 1767. Silas 
married Mary Daniels, Lower Dublin, Philadelphia, and Josiah 
Hart married Nancy Watts, daughter of Arthur Watts, South- 
ampton. John Hart, the second son of Colonel Joseph, born 
November 29. 1743, and died June 5, 1786, attained .>onic local 
prominence. He was deputy recorder in 1779 and treasurer. 
1779-81. While he held the latter office, October 22, I7S[. it was 
robbed of a considerable sum of public money by the Doan^ and 
their confederates, who made their escape, but some of them were 
afterward caught. The affair caused much excitement. Some of 
the money was at the house in the room where the children slept, 
and when the robbers entered they began crying. One of the 
Doans said: "Don't be afraid, children, we will not hurt you, we 
are only going to take the money up to the office to your father." 
One of the children, Mrs. Elizabeth Hough, told me when a boy 
that a pillow case was stripped from her bed to put the money in. 


She thought one of the robbers had her father's great coat on 
and wore it up to the office, so that the people whom they met 
would believe it was the treasurer himself. John Hart died at 
Newtown, this county. 

Oliver Hart, fifth son and seventh child of John and Eleanor 
Hart, was born at the family mansion, Warminster, July 5, 1723. 
He became as prominent as his brother, Joseph, but on a different 
line of usefulness — he entered the church. Brought up on his 
father's plantation-, he pursued his studies in the intervals of 
labor and afterward attended the classical school at the Southamp- 
ton Baptist meeting-house, where a number of prominent men 
were pupils, including Judge John Ross. This was a period of 
great religious activity when Whitefield, the Tennants, Edwards 
and other distinguished divines were stirring up the people to 
their lost condition. At eighteen Mr. Hart was baptized and 
joined the Southampton Baptist church, soon becoming a useful 
and active member. In the old church book I find this record of 
December 20, 1746: "Isaac Eaton and Oliver Hart were called 
by the church to be on trial for the work of the ministry," and 
"to exercise at the meetings of preparation, or in private meetings 
that might for that purpose be appointed." Mr. Hart preached 
in public for the first time at Southampton, Sunday, February 
21, 1748, while the Rev. Joshua Potts "had the measles and per- 
formed to satisfaction." On April i6th, the church gave him a 
full call to preach in any place. He was married February 28, 
1748. to Sarah Brese. of Bensalem. 

In the fall of 1749 the destiny of Oliver Hart was suddenly 
changed. The First Baptist church of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, being in want of a pastor, some of the members wrote to 
Rev. Jenkins Jones, of Philadelphia, for a supply. Mr. Hart was 
recommended and sent down on trial. He reached Charleston in 
December. His first sermon made such an impression on his aud- 
ience that he was invited to take full charge, which he accepted 
February i6th ; Benedict, in his history of the Baptist's, says of this 
event : "His ardent piety and active philanthropy, his discrimina- 
ting mind and persuasive address raised him high in the esteem of 
the public, and gave him a distinguished claim to the affections 
of his brethren." 

Mr. Hart labored in the Christian ministry in Charleston 30 


years, and his efforts were crowned with great success. He 
found the church weak and distracted, he left it wealthy and 
influential. His preaching attracted great attention, the College 
of Rhode Island acknowledging it by conferring on him the de- 
gree of Master of Arts. His influence, as a Christian minister, 
was widespread and the labors so increased that an assistant was 
called to his aid. Mr. Hart's wife died in 1772, leaving four chil- 
dren living, and in 18 months he married Mrs. Anne Maria Grim- 
ball, a member of an influential South Carohna family. The 
breaking out of the Revolution found Mr. Hart laboring in his 
church, but when the tocsin of war sounded it filled him with the 
same patriotic ardor as it did the members of his family in the 
North. South Carolina immediately called his services into requi- 
sition. In the summer of 1775 the Provincial Congress sent a 
commission into the western counties of the State to endeavor to 
settle the disputes between the people and unite them against the 
claims of Great Britain ; those chosen for the delicate mission 
were Hon. William Drayton and the Reverends Oliver Hart and 
William Tennent. It was attended with great fatigue and great 
personal danger, and the Congress gave its thanks for their im- 
portant services. Mr. Hart maintained his activity until the 
British captured Charleston, when he was obliged to flee the State 
and came to Bucks county, where his family soon joined him. 
The enemy left nothing but the wall of his church standing, and 
most of his personal effects were destroyed, including his valuable 
books and papers, among them a large volume of poems, princi- 
pally of his own composition. Mr. Hart did not return to Charles- 
ton, but accepted a call to Hopewell, N. J-, where he passed the 
remainder of his life, dying there December 31, 1795, in his 73d 
year, and was buried at Southampton. A number of eulogies 
were pronounced on his virtues and abilities, one by Dr. William 
Rogers, professor of English and Belles-Lettres in the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

The widow of the Rev. Oliver Hart remained at Hopewell, N, 
J., until the spring of 1796, when she returned to South Carolina 
with her young son, where she died October 5. 181 3, in her 73d 
year. Oliver Hart was the father of ten children, eight by his 
first wife and two by the second. Of these children but four 
survived their father, all dying in infancy except one daughter, 


who married and lived to the age of 32. They intermarried with 
the famihes of Screven, Brockenton, Merrell and Clark, all of the 
South, and their descendants are to be found from the Potomac 
to the Gulf of Mexico and the Red river. 

The descendants of John Hart, the elder, are very numerous, 
numbering many thousands ; they can be found in many sections 
of the Union and in every walk of life. The outbreak of the 
Civil War developed in them the martial spirit of their ancestors. 
They were on both sides of our stupendous family quarrel, and 
were faithful to duty as they understood it. Ten young men, all 
cousins and playmates when boys, and born and reared within a 
mile of the family mansion in Warminster, and descended from 
Colonel Joseph Hart, of the Revolution, entered the Union army, 
most of them serving three years and more, Major James H. 
Hart, who fell at almost the last shot fired at Five Forks, being 
one of this patriotic group. 

Biographical Notice of Rev. Douglas Kellogg Turner. 

(Warminster Meeting, May 27, 1902.) 

The birthplace of the Rev. Mr. Turner was Stockbridge, Massa- 
chusetts ; a place so charming in its scenery that it has been called 

"Eden." Monument Moun- 
tain and Rose Hill lie in this 
same zone of beauty, while 
Ice Glen on Little ^Mountain 
adds its charm. 

Mrs. Sigourney wrote of 
the Stockbridge pond : 

"High set among the breezy hills 
Where spotless marble glows, 

It takes the tribute of the rills 
Distill'd by mountain snows." 

Among elms and maples 
and blossoming apple-trees 
and quiet streets our depart- 
ed friends first saw the light. 
The English novelist, G. P. 
R. James, selected this spot 
as a home, saying that he 

REV. D. K. TURNER. , , , , 

had never seen elsewhere 
such a lovely combination of landscape. 

Miss Electa F. Jones has written a volume on the history of 
Stockbridge, which was first an Indian mission, where the noble 
missionary, John Sergeant, did a Christ-like work, which Great 
Britain aided, influenced by the Apostolic Eliot. 

A conch shell served for a church bell. The Indians, with 
wandering feet, passed on to New York State, Ohio, Green Bay, 
Wisconsin, and later to Lake Winnebago, Minnesota. On a bluff 
overlooking a meadow, enclosed in a green hedge, the red-men 
and the pale-faces rest together in a cemetery. 

Stockbridge has a worthy Revolutionary history. The great 


divine and scholar, President Jonathan Edwards, of Princeton 
College, was once the minister of this parish in Berkshire county, 
and a monument commemorates him. Stockbridge, about a cen- 
tury ago, had an improvement association to plant trees and 
flowers and its influence has spread over this land. But what a 
spiritual stream has gone out from the place which the Fields 
and the Byingtons and the Indian missionary, Samuel Kirkland, 
have blessed with their presence. 

Amid these grand mountains and lakes and grander men, in 
this spot filled with memories of classic American times the Rev. 
Mr. Turner was born on December 17, 1823. He was a descen- 
dant of Elder Brewster, and the son of Bela and Mary Nash 
Turner. In 1630, Nathaniel Turner came from England with 
Governor Lathrop to Salem, Massachusetts ; he afterward moved 
to Lynn, and later to New Haven, of which city he was a foun- 
der. Bela, the father of Douglas Kellogg, went to Stockbridge 
when he was eight years old, with his own father Jabez. Bela 
died in Hartford. 

Our "son of Berkshire" went to Yale College to pursue his 
studies, where he seemed to have a right by primogeniture., 

Battle's History of Bucks county tells us that Captain Nathaniel 
Turner was a sea captain before emigrating to America. In New 
Haven colony he was a captain of military affairs. He had been 
active in the Indian Pequot War of 1636-37. He held all the 
offices of New Haven colony, and owned much land in that sec- 
tion. Before his emigration to America he had earned a reputation 
as a captain in the army, of Holland. He was a member of the 
General Court of Boston. His daughter married the English emi- 
grant, Thomas Yale, and her son was Elihu Yale. 

In 1658, Thomas Yale went back to England, and Elibu never 
returned to America. He became Governor of Fort St. George, 
in Madras, India, and after returning to England, became Gov- 
ernor of the East India company, and a Fellow of the Royal 
Society. His gifts in books and money to Yale College are said 
to have amounted to £500, but the help at that time was ex- 
ceedingly valuable; the college began in 1701. 

When Mr. Turner entered Yale College in 1839. at the early 
age of 15 years, the celebrated mathematical writer, Rev. Dr. 
Jeremiah Day was president. His son. Sherman Day, wrote an 


historical work on Pennsylvania, published in 1843, called "His- 
torical Collections of Pennsylvania." 

Mr. Turner labored to improve his mind in the old brick 
factory-like buildings which used to stand in the "City-of-the- 
elms," in which beautiful trees now guard the new and more 
costly architectural halls of learning. 

About that time I note that the Rev. Dr. Francis Wharton, 
Professor in Kenyon College. Ohio, and in Cambridge Episcopal 
Theological School and Columbia University, Charles Astor 
Bristed, Hamilton Lamphere Smith. Professor in Kenyon and 
Hobart Colleges, and the late distinguished Professor of His- 
tory and English Literature in the University of Pennsylvania and 
Charles Janeway Stille, were students in Yale College. Some 
of them may have been his friends, and pleasant college asso- 
ciations sometimes continue through life. 

Rev. Turner's father was a mechanic : he moved from Stock- 
bridge to Hartford, and was steward of the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum, one of the noted and historic institutions of that de- 
lightful city. The instruction of the unfortunate deaf and dumb 
had interested England and France. Dr. F. M. Cogswell, of 
Hartford, had a daughter named Alice, who became deaf, and 
he investigated the need of such an asylum for others, and sent 
the Rev. T. H. Gallaudet to England and Paris for information. 
Laurent Clerc, a distinguished pupil of the Abbe Sicard. returned 
with him, and in 1817 the Hartford Asylum opened with seven 
scholars, increasing to thirty-three in a year. Congress donated 
land to its aid. The Rev. Dr. Thomas Gallaudet, the son of the 
founder of this asylum, has done a great work in the Episcopal 
church in New York in overseeing the religious instruction of 
this afflicted portion of our community, and his brother. Dr. E. 
M. Gallaudet, who was my college classmate at Trinity College, 
is at the head of the institution at Washington. The New 
York institution, chartered on the very day that Hartford opened, 
is on a fine elevated site, overlooking the Hudson, in Fort Wash- 
ington, New York city; while the Mount Airy (Philadelphia) 
school, with its fine and ample buildings, is well known. Thus 
Christian people strive, in a human way. to imitate the divine 
work of the Master. 

In the Hartford institution Mr. Turner lived, having entered 


Hartford, as his sister, Mrs. Cornelia D. Lathrop, of Traverse 
City, Michigan, writes me, when eleven years old. The lad's 
uncle, the Rev. William W. Turner, had for years been an in- 
structor there and later became the principal. 

Mr. Turner's father united with the "Center church," under 
the Rev. Dr. Joel Hawes. I well remember seeing this influential 
Congregational divine in my college days. His large church 
stood on Main street. Douglas, with two elder sisters, became 
members of that church. The boy but fourteen or fifteen — 
the sister thinks fourteen — becoming an example of early Chris- 
tian devotion. The foolish proverb about sowing wild oats did 
not apply here. Good farmers would be thought insane if they 
sowed wild oats, and he had none to sow. He sowed good seed 
and reaped an excellent harvest. 

He was studious and conscientious as a boy ; and the good boy 
was the father of the future good man. The Hartford Grammar 
School was the place in which he fitted himself for college. 
He had a good standing at Yale, delivering the salutatory 
oration, the second honor of the class. 

The collegian made use of his newly acquired learning in 
teaching in the Hartford Grammar School a year ; and then re- 
paired to Andover, Massachusetts, to continue his studies in 
theology, "The Queen of the Sciences," in that ancient and hon- 
ored seat of sacred learning. The Rev. Leonard Woods, an 
author of note, was then president. The pleasant village of An- 
dover derives its name from an English market town, and the 
Anglo-Saxon word was Andeafaran, meaning the ferry over the 
river Ande. The Phillips Academy and the Abbott Female 
Academy are also located in this literary town. 

In Andover Seminary I marked the following students in years 
that might have touched his course, Rensellaer Chanceford Rob- 
bins, D. D., Professor of Languages in Middleburg College, Ver- 
mont, when I was a student there, this fine scholar was once the 
librarian of Andover Seminary, and he edited Xenophon's Mem- 
orabilia of Socrates, with his own notes ; the Rev. Darius Rich- 
mond Brewer, who died as rector of Christ Church, Westerly, 
Rhode Island, in 1881 ; and the noted clergyman and author, 
the Rev. Dr. Edward A. Washburn, once rector of St. lohn's 


Church, Hartford, but at his death in 1881, rector of Calvary 
Church, New York. 

Mr. Turner spent a year in Andover, and then returned to 
New Haven, entering Yale Theological School in 1846. He was 
licensed to preach by the Hampden East Association of Massa- 

In 1846 he came to Hartsville, Bucks county, to teach a private 
school, following the example of many sons of New England, 
who have moved southward on a like errand. He taught a year 
and a half, and occasionally preached in the Neshaminy church 
of Warwick, to which he was later called to be its pastor and 
was transferred from the East Hampden Congregational Asso- 
ciation to the Fourth Presbytery of Philadelphia; he therefore 
resigned his school to accept the call and was installed as pastor 
in 1848, which position he faithfully held until 1873, a period of 
25 years, which speaks well for both pastor and people in these 
days of change. He was charitable and beloved by his rural flock, 
was highly respected and influential in the neighborhood, laboring 
for the good of the whole community. 

He was trustee and treasurer of the Bucks County Bible So- 
ciety, of which the devoted Dr. Charles R. King, of happy mem- 
ory, was president. He was also a member of the Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, and the Presbyterian Historical Society 
of Philadelphia, of which he was secretary from 1883 to 1893. 
He was also one of the most active and influential members of 
the Bucks County Historical Society, was one of its charter mem- 
bers February 23, 1885, and served on the board of directors 
continuously until his decease. 

The book of biographies of leading citizens of Bucks county, 
from which I have gleaned, gives the following notes of his do- 
mestic Hfe: "On May 14, 1856, he was joined in wedlock with 
Rachel H. Darrah, a daughter of Robert and Catharine (Gait) 
Darrah; she was called Home August 13, 1863. He formed a 
second marital union May 28, 1868, with a sister of his former 
wife, Rebecca Darrah, who has proved a true help-meet to 
her worthy husband." I may add that she has kindly aided my 
work in this narrative. 

Mr. Turner's life is sketched in "Who's Who in America." 
edited by John W. Leonard. Mr. Turner's father moved from 


Hartford to Jackson, Michigan, and became a dealer in wool. 
There he died, March 30, 1879. His wife was Mary Nash ; she 
died November 3, 1863. The family were George, Mary, Eliza, 
Douglas Kellogg, Susan, Cornelia, now Mrs. George H. Lathrop, 
Sarah and Walter Henry, who died in childhood, as did Susan. 

Mr. Turner was a man of strong feelings and decided charac- 
ter, but, by the grace of God, he kept himself under constant 
control. The still water ran deep, and in quiet confidence lay 
his strength. He was very painstaking in hunting up historic 
matter, and making it trustworthy. He loved country life, 
where he saw God in His works. He was wrapped up in his 
books, and was a constant student. He was gentle' among his 
parishioners and took an interest in them as a father in his family, 
or a shepherd in his flock. 

Judge Harnian Yerkes, whose boyhood was spent near Harts- 
ville, wrote thus to Mrs. Turner of her husband : 

"I regarded him as the purest character of a man in all my broad ac- 
quaintance, and I can conceive of no greater triumph in the battle of life 
than to have lived as he lived for the good of his fellow men. and to die 
as he died, honored and loved by all who knew him, without an enemy. 
The death of such a man in any community produces a profound impres- 
sion of loss, as necessarily such a life must have had great influence for 

Mr. Turner died, after a brief illness, on March 8, 1902, and 
was buried on the 12th. The funeral services were held in the 
Neshaminy Presbyterian church of Warwick. The Rev. W. K. 
Preston, the present pastor, the Rev. S. G. Boardman, the Rev. 
Dr. William L. Ledwith and the Rev. Richard Montgomery made 
addresses ; the Rev. J. B. Krewson, of Forestville, and the Rev. 
William B. McCollum. pastor of the Hartsville Presbyterian 
church, ofifered prayers. A large congregation was present. 

A memorial service was held in the church on the third Sunday 
after his death by the Sunday school, led by G. W. Rubinkam, 
in which addresses were made in regard to him as a pastor, 
Sunday school superintendent, neighbor and true friend by dif- 
ferent members of the congregation. 

The Presbyterian Historical Society of Philadelphia passed a 
minute honoring their former librarian and secretary; and the 
corresponding secretary, the Rev. Dr. Samuel T. Lowrie, ex- 


pressed his high personal regard for his clerical neighbor, as 
he was once pastor at Abington. 

Thus was rightly honored one who was, on his father's side, 
descended, in the tenth generation from the famed Elder William 
Brewster, of the Mayflower Pilgrims. Bradford says of the 
Elder: "He was wise and discreet and well-spoken, having a 
grave and deliberate utterance, of a very cheerful spirit, of an 
humble and modest mind." Does not this well describe his descen- 
dant, Mr. Turner, who belonged to the society of the Mayflower's 
descendants ? 

Mr. Turner was a fine linguist, reading French, German, Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew, and perusing the Greek Testament daily, that 
he might drink fresh draughts from the source of Divine In- 

His great work was the "History of Neshaminy Presbyterian 
Church, of Warwick," which is really the history of the neighbor- 
hood. I wish that every parish had such a chronicler. 

Your president. General Davis, knew the value of that natural 
thinker, Mr. Turner, and called from him a marvelous collection 
of articles for the Bucks County Historical Society. You loved 
to hear him, and when he rose, in quiet and dignified self-pos- 
session, you knew that every sentence would instruct you ; but 
you did not realize that those essays, polished as marble statues, 
sometimes cost him months of willing toil in consulting libraries. 
I wish that all the essays of the Bucks County Historical Society 
could appear in printed volumes. 

And now this noble work is done, this man of active brain, 
firm-set mouth and quiet humor, is no more seen or heard in the 
country village where God's providence led his youthful steps. 

The other day I visited his Hartsville home. There was his 
empty study and the vacant chair at the table where for years 
he had handled his much loved books, and he was missed at the 
family meal. The road where he so often walked or rode on 
errands of mercv is there ; the hills which his eye had looked on. 
clad in sparkling snow or covered with their raiment of "living 
green" in the summer sunlight were there; but where was the 
sacred teacher who loved them so well ? 

I walked with his friend and mine, the Rev. Mr. Boardman, 


along the beautiful Little Neshaminy, which like Milton's de- 
scription, reminds one of 

"Siloa's brook that flows. 
Fast bv the oracle of God," 

as its living waters run by the old church, where Whitefield's 
eloquent Christian words seem still to echo from 1739, when 1,000 
persons heard his voice in the churchyard. We visit the ceme- 
tery, and find in God's acre, where Tennent. of Log College fame, 
and the Rev. Dr. James P. Wilson, Sr., of holy memory, and 
many of Mr. Turner's former parishioners, and their ancestors 
sleep. His own resurrection can be with the cry, "Lord, here 
am L and the spiritual children whom Thou hast given me." The 
heart of the pastor is now in the peace that "passeth all un- 
derstanding," deeper than that he found in these encircling hills 
and snow-white clouds, and refreshing earthly breezes, scented 
with the fragrance of the clover. 

"The Wisdom of Solomon," our All Saints' Day lesson, de- 
clares that "the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God," 
though "in the sight of the unwise they seemed to die." Our 
query is answered, the Christian pastor lives with God in Christ, 
and may we as the Collect for All Saints' day reads : pray God 
for "grace so to follow Thy blessed Saints in all virtuous and 
godly living, that we may come to those unspeakable joys which 
Thou hast prepared for those who unfeignedly love Thee, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

And so, my friend and my father's friend, I lay this tribute of 
love on thy new-made grave, hoping that my soul may be with 
thine in God's everlasting kingdom. 

The Wynkoop Family. 

(Warminster Meeting, Ma\' 27, 1902.) 

In giving the origin of old families most writers commence 
"Once on a time two brothers came over from the old country and 
settled," etc. So the Wynkoop family dates back 'to 1639 and 
1642, when Peter and Cornelius Wynkoop came to this country 
from Utrecht, Holland, and settled near where the city of Albany, 
N. Y., now stands. 

Like many other old families we boast of our coat-of-arms, 
yet the crest is the only part which savors of heraldry. The 
name appears to be a contraction of Wynkooper, which in the 
Dutch language signifies wine-merchant or wine-bearer. 

When in Holland in 1889, my wife and I spent part of a day 
in Utrecht, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the family 
name is still in use there. We found the "koop" as a termina- 
tion to several names such as "Vanderkoop," etc., but none with 
full name of Wynkoop or Wynkooper. 

It is not my purpose to write a genealogy of the family, for 
our records embrace 867 names, extending down from 1642 
through ten generations, but shall select a few persons who 
from time to time figured prominently among the early settlers 
and later on in the development of our country, either in legis- 
lative, judicial, religious or in military life. 

We are glad to be able to say no one of our ancestry was ever 
hung, or convicted of any serious crime. Among the earliest 
names were Peter, Abraham, David, Deborah and Daniel, show- 
ing a reverence for the Bible and sacred records. The favorite 
names as carried down were Peter, 20 times; Nicholas. 40; Cor- 
nelius, 29: William, 28: Henry, 29; Catharine, 41 ; John, 39: and 
Alary, 31. We find honorable mention of several in the early 
history of New York State, but in 1717 Gerrit or Gerardus, 
moved with his family to the township of ]\Ioreland, now Mont- 
gomery county, Pennsylvania ; he was an elder of the church of 
North and Southampton in our county in 1744-5, and his de- 


scendants now own and occupy land in Northampton township, 
which has been in continuous possession of some of the family 
ever since. 

We can point with pardonable pride to a long line of elders and 
ministers running through eight generations, who have been close- 
ly identified with the religious element of o'.ir country as officers 
in the local churches where they worshiped. Among them were 
Rev. Silvester Wynkoop, pastor of the Dutch Reformed church 
at Catskill, 1817, and of whom a fellow minister wrote "the 
memory of Dominie Wynkoop was cherished with love and 
respect by the entire community ;" Rev. Richard Wynkoop, pastor 
of the Presbyterian church, at Yorktown, West Chester county, N. 
Y., 1827-1834; Rev. Jefferson Wynkoop, pastor of the Dutch 
Reformed church at Hempstead, N. Y., 1825-1836, filling several 
other succeseful pastorates after these dates ; Rev. Stephen Rose, 
son of David Wynkoop, who represented Bucks county in the 
Legislature six or seven years, was pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian church at Wilmington, Del., 1838-1858, and who in 
1833-4 explored the western coast of Africa on behalf of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions, and Rev. Theodore S. 
Wynkoop, who was pastor of the Second Presbyterian church 
at Huntingdon, L. I., in 1864; subsequently he went as a mis- 
sionary to India, returned to this country for his health, was 
elected pastor of a Presbyterian church in Washington, D. C. 
and is now again in India. 

Henry, son of David Wynkoop, lived and died in Bucks county. 
He served as ruling elder in Thompson Memorial Church of 
Solebury for 52 years, and was known only to be beloved by all 
who knew him. His son, Henry, Jr.. married Emily G. Nippes, 
a daughter of Anna Kenderdine and Henry Nippes. and Anna, 
daughter of said Henry, Jr., married Lieut. George Marvell, so 
the Bucks county branch of our family is to some extent re- 
lated to the Kenderdine family, of whom we hear so favorably 

Ellen, a daughter of Henry, Sr., was recently married to 
Samuel T. Buckman,. of Newtown. Two of her sisters, Louisa 
Ann and Harriet, married and are still living in the suburbs 
of Philadelphia. There are many other honored names of elders 
and deacons who were identified with Presbyterian and Dutch 


Reformed churches, but time forbids a personal mention in this 

We find among them several honored members of the bar and 
judges on the bench. Cornelius C. was an attorney at law in 
1795, practicing in the courts of New York City. Gerardus 
was for 19 successive years a member of the House of General 
Assembly of Pennsylvania and for a series of years its speaker; 
he died in 1813. Dirk or Derick was a member of the committee 
of safety, and of the second Provincial Congress which met at 
New York November 14, 1775 ; he was appointed a judge of the 
Common Pleas of Ulster county, N. Y., in 1777; was a member of 
the New York Assembly 1 780-1 ; and in 1788 a member of 
the State convention to which was submitted the Federal Con- 

Henry, son of Nicholas Wynkoop, was an ofificer in the Revolu- 
tionary army, and at one time an associate judge of the Common 
Pleas of Bucks county. He greatly distinguished himself by the 
active and determined part he took in favor of our struggle for 
independence. He served as a member of the First Provincial 
Conference of Pennsylvania which convened in Carpenter's Hall, 
Philadelphia, on June 18, 1776, and was elected a member of 
the First Congress, which assembled at New York, on March 4, 
1789. Judge Wynkoop's house was distinguished as the home 
of Col. Monroe — afterward President — during the time he was 
disabled by a wound received at the battle of Trenton. It was 
the letter of General Washington, addressed to bis friend Wyn- 
koop, that procured these hospitable quarters for Col. Monroe, 
and for whom kind attention from the family of Judge Wyn- 
koop, President Alonroe, as late as March 26, 1834, in a letter 
expressed the most lively gratitude "for the kindness received, 
during an interesting period of our Revolutionary War." 

Gen. Alexander Hamilton and Judge Wynkoop were members 
of the first Continental Congress. On one occasion while walk- 
ing on Chestnut street, Philadelphia, the General was urging 
very strongly the claims of a bill before the house, for which he 
desired to secure his friend's support. But the Judge desiring 
to avoid the discussion, because he was adverse to the measure, 
changed the subject by calling the General's attention to two very 
beautiful women who had just passed them. The conversation 


was not resumed; but forty-eight hours afterward Mrs. Wynkoop 
arrived quite unexpectedly, having traveled all night in conse- 
quence of a letter received from General Hamilton requesting 
her immediate presence, as her husband was in a very dangerous 
condition. The joke was well taken and caused great merriment 
to all concerned. 

At one time General Washington, who was in favor of styling 
the President, "His Mightiness," asked General Muhlenburg for 
his opinion concerning it ; General Muhlenburg replied : "H all 
the incumbents were to have the commanding size and presence 
of yourself, or of my friend Wynkoop here, the title might be 
appropriate, but if applied here to some lesser men it would pro- 
voke ridicule." The writer has in his parlor a chair used by the 
Judge in his lifetime; also his commission as president judge of 
the courts of Bucks county, dated Nov. i8, 1780. He died 
March 25, 1816. 

Many others might be named, but with mention of Richard, a 
son of Rev. Richard Wynkoop. we will turn to the military 
record of the family. He was born in 1829, educated at Rut- 
ger's College, afterwards studied law in New York City, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1852. He served for some time in the 
New York custom house, under Collectors Barney, Draper and 
Chester A. Arthur, afterwards President of the United States. 
He wrote during his leisure hours a genealogy of the Wynkoop 
family, to which the writer is indebted for many records in 
this paper, and also was the author of several poetic effusions. 

Besides those prominent in civil and religious life, the Wyn- 
koop family has ever been loyal to our flag, and many of them 
took up arms in their country's defense. We mention a few only. 
Adrian, son of Cornelius Wynkoop, was elected major of the 
First Regiment, Ulster county, N. Y., May i, 1776, and in 
October, 1776, was placed in command of 200 m.en to guard the 
passes of the Hudson. 

Cornelius D. was appointed major of the Third Regiment, 
same company, June 30, 1775, and promoted to lieut. col. of 
the same regiment August 2, 1775. He was made colonel April 
II, 1776, and received honorable mention in the archives of 
that day. 

Evert, a son of Cornelius. Jr.. was a captain in the old French 


war and died of camp fever in 1750. Jacobus, son of Cornelius 
Wynkoop, was elected captain of the 4th N. Y. Continental 
Regiment, August 15, 1775, and transferred to naval service on 
recommendation of Major General Schuyler, to take command of 
all the vessels on the lakes George and Champlain, near Ticon- 
deroga. He had the misfortune to offend Gen. Benedict Arnold 
by reporting to Gen. Gates instead of to him. and was ordered 
under arrest, but Gen. Schuyler had him reinstated and he retained 
his command until the evacuation of Ticonderoga. 

Francis Murray Wynkoop was born 1820 and on December 13, 
1857, while hunting birds to tempt the delicate appetite of his 
wife accidentally shot himself and died in half an hour. Dur- 
ing the Mexican War he enlisted as a private under Gov. Shunk's 
call for volunteers, was elected colonel of the regiment, was at 
the capture of Vera Cruz, in the battles of Cerro Gordo and 
Humantla. exhibiting great skill and bravery, and received hon- 
orable mention in the autobiography of Gen. Winfield S. Scott. 
Under President Pierce he was U. S. Marshall of the eastern 
district of Pennsylvania. The honored president of our society, 
Gen. W. W. H. Davis, fought by his side during the Mexican 
War, and will bear testimony to his soldierly ability. 

Edward H. Wynkoop, brother of Francis, was major of a 
Colorado regiment, performed perilous and efficient service against 
the rebels in New Mexico and against the Indians, and was one 
of the members of the original Pike's Peak expedition. 

Another of the Bucks county branch was John Estill Wynkoop, 
colonel of the 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry, who commanded a 
brigade at Cumberland, Md., in the Civil War of 1861-5. His 
brother, George, was lieutenant-colonel of the 98th Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry at Chancellorsville. where he was wounded and 
resigned in consequence. 

The writer of this paper served over three years in the war of 
1861-5. as private, sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant and 
captain : wa-s three times wounded, and at the time of his dis- 
charge was on the staff of Brig. Gen. Davies, Greggs Cavalry 
division, army of the Potomac, acting as assistant adjutant 

His brother, Thomas H.. was a member of Gen. W. W. H. 
Davis' 104th regiment, from Bucks county, and was killed in 
action June, 1862. The G. A. R. of Newtown was named in 

the; wynkoop family i6i 

his honor. A number of others of the name served honorably in 
the wars of our country, but space forbids further mention. 

Thomas L., father of the writer, always lived in Bucks coun- 
ty; three of his children still survive, Catharine, William and 
Samuel. He was for many years a prominent officer in the 
Presbyterian church at Newtown; he died in 1879. His brother, 
Gerardus, lived near Newtown during a long life and died in 1888. 
Four children still survive him, viz. : Susan B., widow of Elias 
E. Smith, M. D. ; Emeline, wife of William Patterson, of Doyles- 
town; Mary A., wife of Elijah Torbert, and Matilda, wife of 
John L. Janney. 

One sister, Anna Maria, married N. J. Rubinkam, of Harts- 
ville, and lived near Warminster, where we meet to-day. Two 
of her sons were educated for the ministry; one of whom died 
early in life, the other. Rev. N. I. Rubinkam, D. D., has been pas- 
tor of churches in Philadelphia, Jamestown, N. Y., and Chicago. 
Another son, Jesse, died recently of disease contracted in the 
war of 1861. His brother, G. W. Rubinkam, Esq., is to-day an 
active elder in the Presbyterian church of Neshaminy and favor- 
ably known throughout Bucks county. 

The temptation is great to continue these recollections, for there 
are many others equally deserving of mention as the few selected, 
but I must forbear. Hoping that my paper may not savor too 
strongly of egotism, but that much may be excused as pardonable 
pride of ancestry, I will close, knowing full well there are other 
families in our county, whose history not yet written is fully 
equal, if not more creditable, than our own. 

The Kenderdines of Bucks County. 

(Warminster Meeting, May 27, 1902.) 

It has been my experience when hstening to the reading of 
genealogies, before audiences of general character like this, to 
find that the interest is confined to thoje who are members of the 
family under treatment. The rest of the audiences simply tolerate 
the theme or impatiently wait until it is over. Worse than this 
the percentage of those interested in their own family history is 
small, by reason of general indifference, due mainly from an 
aversion to an inquisitive world having access to the birth records. 
This sensitiveness goes to the extent of refusing needed informa- 
tion, as any family historian can testify. In distinction from 
these obstructors the genealogist himself, although starting coldly 
upon his work, gathers enthusiasm as he proceeds, grows im- 
patient at the lack of interest manifested by his kindred, then, 
heedless of rebuffs when making personal inquiries, and of post- 
age stamps which though optimistically cast on the waters, never 
show up, he goes lonesomely and doggedly at his task, and with 
"\'irtue is its own reward" as his motto, runs down his quarry 
until the youngest innocent of the last generation is in the meshes 
of his family history. Two years' experience in the business al- 
luded to, justifies me in thus reasoning. Therefore when I was 
asked to write this history I hesitated and was then lost in my 
desire to please him who has been my friend for 45 years, the 
honored president of the Bucks County Historical Society. 

The lack of prominence of our family seemed to justify me 
in not wishing to thrust it in the face of the public. The rank 
of chief burgess of some minor borough, or of rural^ justice of 
the peace or school director, is as high as any of them got in 
political life ; in a religious way the stations of overseer and elder 
were reached ; while in military ways, although the main body 
were Friends, three of the name held commissions in the Union 
army, one of whom had a brilliant career in the army of the 
Southwest. But as in acting well one's part lies all the honor. 


the credit due the Kenderdines, men and women, must go toward 
that portion of them known as average humanity, for in their 
roles of farmer, mechanic and housekeeper they did themselves 
credit in these lines, which is better than being failures in high 
callings. They were useful in constructing saw- and grist-mills with 
rude tools out of rough materials ; clearing the wilderness that rich 
harvests might succeed, where giant trees and close thickets had 
been deeply rooted, and in housewifery, which showed forth 
fabrics of wool and linen whose samples, still in existence, were 
preserved for future generations, and carefully kept in well- 
groomed sitting-rooms and parlors where guests shivered amid 
frigid stateliness and wished themselves in the kitchen, where 
savory viands were being prepared for the coming supper. 

The Kenderdines came to America about 1700 from the town 
of Llanedlas, sometimes called Llanidloes, in Montgomeryshire, 
North Wales. It is wonderful what an amount of historical 
space is devoted to that particular county, there being thirty 
volumes of 400 pages each concerning it in the rooms of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, the results of annual literary 
gatherings in Montgomeryshire which are issued in the shape of 
neat volumes as fast as the material is collected. For all this, 
in the searches made for records I did not find our family name 
once mentioned, although I scanned tax lists, the records of jailed 
non-confonmists and lists of jurymen, which are given at length. 
I do not find the name around Llanedlas now, although there are 
several Kenderdines in the adjacent English county of Stafford. 
The strong probability is that the family which came here had 
moved to Llanedlas from Stafford, where they lived but a short 
time, and then came to America, leaving none of the name be- 
hind. Within my recollection there came a story of the last 
of the name having died out in the old country in the shape of a 
bachelor, who, of course, left a fabulous fortune, but the Welsh, 
who are canny and cautious, are not given to such fakes, so the 
thousands of pounds in the vaults of the bank of England were 
never sought for by our family. 

Thomas Kenderdine, the head of the American branch of 
the family, was born about 1650. He married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of John Robert, a blacksmith, before 1680. She died in 1710, 
while Thomas died three vears later. Both, as well as two of 


their children, were buried in what was known as the "John 
Hart burying-ground," but which is now the common grave-yard 
of Byberry township, through a transfer made by a grandson, 
John Hart, Jr., in 1790, to Byberry overseers of the poor. Friends 
had quit burying there after the erection of Byberry meeting- 
house, but the dead already there, many of them of prominence, 
like the Rushes, were left; with the result that their graves have 
become so overgrown with briars and large undergrowth that the 
friends of the deceased paupers it was intended for were asham- 
ed to give them sepulture at Harts, so that not a sod has been 
turned there since 1850. 

At the time of the coming of Thomas Kenderdine and Margaret 
Kenderdine to America they had five children, Jenkin, John, 
Richard, Thomas and Margaret ; two others, Mary and Joseph, 
were born in America. These were all living before 1702, ex- 
cept the last, as shown by John Robert's will. Two sons, Jenkin 
and John, for some cause did not emigrate with their parents, 
although John afterwards followed. Jenkin remained in Llaned- 
las, where he married and had a son, Thomas, v/ho was remem- 
bered in his uncle Richard's will to the amount of five pounds. 

Thomas, the emigrant, settled near the Red Lion inn, on a farm 
of 200 acres willed to him in 1702 by his father-in-law, John 
Robert. This farm, which I cannot locate, went after his death 
to his son, Thomas. I find no mention of Thomas Kenderdine, 
the elder, until 171 1, when he was made overseer of Abington 
meeting, which indicates that he joined Friends in Wales. Two 
years later he is mentioned in the minutes as having been the 
victim of harsh language from one Ellis Davis, but the latter 
making an acknowledgment, the trouble ended. As Ellis got 
into difficulty with another neighbor the same year, I am justified 
in saying that grandfather Thomas was clear of all blame. In 
straightening this last difiference, Thomas, as one of the overseers 
must have had a delicate task, which I trust he came out of in 
good shape. Ellis followed Thomas' sons to Horsham, where they 
lived neighbors and without further disagreements so far as 
meeting records show. The emigrant died in 1713, his son John 
died the next year, and daughter, Margaret, died a few days 
later. Margaret, Sr., had died in 1710, so in four years four of 
the family were in their graves on the wooded shores of the 


"Poetqtiessink." There is an arousing of sentiment at thoughts 
of these wilderness funerals, the gathering of quaint people at 
the meeting-house, the solemn words of the preacher, the sorrow 
of the near survivors, the sad procession passing through the 
primeval forest or recent clearing to the final resting place at 
John Hart's. 

So Thomas died, and in an unmarked grave he licth by the 
side of his nearest kin and neighbors, for though they "buried in 
rows," the quick taking of four of the early Kenderdines must 
have allowed proximate burial. The minute relating to his pass- 
ing away simply says : "Our Friend, Thomas Kenderdine. being 
dead, Friends of Abbington have chosen Rice Peters in his room 
as overseer." He is therefore no longer known In meeting annals, 
and passes out of history. He lived, he died, and was replaced ! 
'Twas always thus and ever shall be, and this is all I know about 

The second son of Thomas was Richard, who was born in 1680, 
and was living in 1702 in Chester, where his name is seen in a 
list of contributors toward the building of St. Paul's Episcopal 
church in that town. How he avoided disownment, under the 
circumstances, is not known, although he might not have been a 
member of Friends at the time, but an Episcopalian as were 
generations of Kenderdines before him. He was the most promi- 
nent of the name in meeting afifairs afterwards, being over- 
seer of Horsham until 1727, and holding many minor appoint- 
ments until his health failed in 1730. He was married to Sarah 
Evans, of North Wales, in 1714, and died in 1732. They had five 
children. The second of these, Sarah, married Enoch Morgan, 
and left descendants. 

The emigrant's third son, Thomas, came across the seas with 
his father at the age of eight. After his father's death he bought 
his Abington farm, but soon left it and moved to Horsham with 
his brothers, Richard and Joseph, and in partnership with the lat- 
ter, built what is now known as the Shay mill, on the Little 
Neshaminy. He also owned what is known as the "Maid Kender- 
dine's farm," also the farm on the Butler road below Prospect- 
ville, now owned by Thomas Fillman. He left three sons and 
four daughters. Joseph, the fourth son, owned, besides his in- 
terest in the mill, 500 acres in Horsham. He married Mary 


Jarrett in 1738. Her father, John Jarrett, gave her a Bible 
still in existence, and the oldest Bible I have found in the family ; 
on the flyleaf is inscribed, "Mary Kenderdine, Her Book, Given 
by her father, John Jarrett, and my desire is that the same may 
be for the use of her and the heirs of her Body forever." Joseph 
died in 1778, leaving one son and six daughters. Mary, the 
youngest daughter of the emigrant, married Jacob Dubree, of 
Philadelphia. They had but one son, Jacob, who died without 
heirs in 1774. Jacob was a slave-holder, but before his death he 
freed and made provision for all his slaves. He left a legacy to 
the William Penn Charter School. This closes the second gen- 

Until about 1772, the Kenderdines who came to this country 
in 1713, lived in Horsham with the exception of Mary just men- 
tioned. Their several homes in the first named year surrounded 
the plantation of Archibald McLean on three sides, with but one 
break in the link. There were ten of these holdings which gradually 
went out of the family until there is but one left in the name. 
There is but one voter of the name left in Horsham, although in 
1820 there were twelve. In 1820 the Kenderdines were in the 
greatest number of Horsham, there being 55 within a mile of 
Babylon, the family center, 21 of whom were of school-going 
age, while there were 20 more of the required age among the 
Morgans and Gordon cousins who lived nearby ; enough to make 
a good-sized school nowadays. I do not say these children 
went to school, only that they were of school-going 
age, as they were between six and twenty years. Parents 
believed, in those days, more in getting work out of the 
hands of their children than "book-larnin" into their heads, this 
however was probably from necessity ; for all that, the Ken- 
derdines and Morgans at Babylon school made up so large a 
proportion of the pupils that woe to the English or Scotch boys 
who made a tilt at their Welsh nationality by singing the song 
of the beef stealing Taffy, so aggravating and suggestive in its 
synonymity, which ran thus : 

"Taify was a Welshman ; Taffy was a thief ; 

Taffy came to my house and stole a piece of beef. 

I went to Taffy's house ; Taffy was in bed ; 

I up with a marrow bone and knocked him on the head." 

the: kenderdines of bucks county 167 

The Welsh were clannish and combative, and I warrant me, 
Quakers though they were, when the Scotch Gordons and Jar- 
retts and the English Pauls, though all were blood kin, sang 
the above lines in the tantalizing way of the school boy to the 
Welsh lads, their resentment oozed out through their finger 
tips. As a loyal Welshman I never felt kindly towards the 
author of Taffy. • 

The generation of Kenderdines, born before those mentioned, 
adding the related Morgans and Pauls, would also have formed 
a fair sized school, for there were 20 children of these families 
before 1800. 

The location of the eight Kenderdine farms and one lot around 
the 440 acre McLean farm was a singular circumstance, and looks 
as if the Kenderdines were trying to inaugurate v/hat was known 
during the Civil War as the "Anaconda Policy," to strangle 
that plantation. Starting at the southwest and taking them 
in their order, came the homes of John, Issachar and Joseph, 
brothers ; Thomas, Enoch, brothers ; Paul, Eli, John and Joseph, 
the last two being twins. On the northeast side was Babylon 
school-house, but a mile from the farthest home, the walk to 
which was therefore a short one for all. Babylon was the 
metropolis of the Kenderdine settlement, where were the school- 
house, store and blacksmith and wheelwright-sh.ops to supply 
the mental and physical wants of the little community. In winter 
time Babylon was the scene of the old-fashioned debating school. 
The school-house sheltering the rustic speakers, some of them 
were men of ability who in after years became prominent. 
The first to begin the disintegration of the family circle around 
the McLean plantation was Jacob Kenderdine, son of Thomas 
second, who moved to Philadelphia in 1785. The next was 
Joseph, who also settled in Philadelphia in 1829. Robert moved 
away in 1826, Chalkley in 1828, and John E. Kenderdine in 1833. 
As the old stock followed the course of nature toward Horsham 
burying-ground the younger moved off until there is but one fam- 
ily left in the township, where the Kenderdines once predomina- 
ted, and that one is on a rented farm. Of the mills one is totally 
obliterated, one was turned into a dwelling and the other, once the 
main neighborhood grist-mill, is leading a precarious existence, 
its mill-dams having been washed away. The stores and shops at 


Babylon have been leveled with the earth, as is the old school- 
house, though a new one has taken its place, but where the 
Kenderdine pupils once ruled the playground, not one of the name 
is now found. To us of the name this is pathetic, while to those 
outside it must arouse unpleasant interest. 

The descendants of the sturdy mill-wrights, millers and far- 
mers who bore the name of Kenderdine, and \Vho wielded the 
broad axe, tended grist-mill and saw-mill, guided the plow and 
subdued the forest of Horsham are now scattered to the winds. 
Horsham meeting, which had Kenderdines on its roll of mem- 
bership and where the name was frequently called out in con- 
nection with some trustee, church office, or in the line of religious 
visits, is now bare of the name, nor is there a Friend in all 
Montgomery county named Kenderdine ; they are scattered and 
live in California, New Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa 
and Illinois, in the Virginias, Delaware and Maryland, as well as 
among the other Eastern States. There were 5 persons bearing 
the family name in America in 1702, 19 in 1750, 50 descendants 
in 1800, 106 in 1850, and at the present time there are about 700. 
Up to and including the fifth generation the family name was 
held by half the descendants, numbering 90. At the same time 
there were 23 Gordons, the remainder being divided among 12 
other families. During the last century the name of Kenderdine 
has greatly fallen off proportionately, so that out of the 1,100 
descendants since 1 700, there have been but 270 Kenderdines born. 

Among the professions, I do not know of any of the name 
having been lawyers, and but one physician, although there have 
been several among the inter-marriages. There were eight Ken- 
derdines in the Union army during the Civil War, 3 holding 
commissions, a colonel, major and lieutenant, not a bad propor- 
tion in a peaceful sect, and considering the few of that name wliQ 
were of military age during that period. Of these one was killed 
and two were wounded. 

Of those who moved to a distance Armitage Kenderdine went to 
Illinois in 1826. He left several descendants. Hannah Kender- 
dine of the fourth generation married William Kerr, of Hunter- 
don, New Jersey, where there are also residing several families 
descended from the first Thomas of Llanedlass, Wales. Jacob Ken- 
derdine, also of the fourth generation, moved to Philadelphia in 


1785. and left descendants living in Philadelphia, Delaware and 

Of local interest was the removal of John E. Kenderdine from 
Horsham in 1833. He settled on the Delaware at the point near- 
est to Doylestown, thinking that would be of permanent impor- 
tance, as water communication was the one mainly in vogue, 
railroads being small factors 75 years ago. The lumber coming 
down the Lehigh and Delaware by raft and canal boats supplied 
the building wants of the people from the Delaware to near the 
Schuylkill, until the construction of the North Penn railroad 
and its Doylestown, Northeast Penn, and Newtown branches, 
when the territory to be supplied extended inland but a few 
miles westward from the Delaware and business greatly fell off. 

John E. Kenderdine found a village consisting of two or three 
dwelling houses, a hotel which occupied one-half of one of the 
dwelling houses, a grist- and saw-mill, the last in ruins from the 
lately constructed canal. The name of the settlement was "Hard 
Times," the town was called the "Camel," which counterfeited on 
a creaky sign, was suggestive of the loads the patrons could carry. 
The mills were made new, the tavern turned into a dwelling, a 
planing-mill, sash-factory, a second saw-mill and three new houses 
built and for twenty-five years, under the name of Lumberton, 
this riverside village flourished. Its lumber went 18 miles toward 
the Schuylkill, as did its work, while it sent kiln-dried corn- 
meal one year to Ireland and the West Indies. Dying in 1868 
John E. Kenderdine has left behind him three generations, mainly 
living in Bucks county.* 

John M. Kenderdine, of the sixth generation, is living in Fort 
Worth, Texas, where he has seven children. He was a soldier 
in the Civil War. 

Charles Starr Kenderdine, of the fourth generation, moved just 
before the war to Iowa, and afterwards to Kansas where he was 
at one time mayor of Topeka. Dying in 1894 he left several 
children, one of whom, Major Henry M. Kenderdine, had a 
brilliant war record in the army of the West. Charles S.. was 
also in the Union army. 

The Knights of Ambler; the Stouts. Cleavers, Brights and 
Amblers, in and about Norristown. are descendants of the 

* These mills at the time of publication of these papers (1909) are silent. 

The Hilltown Thomas Family. 

(Meeting in Wycombe Baptist Church, October 7, 1902.) 

The name of Thomas was very common among the Welsh 
speaking people of 200 years ago. The meaning of the name is 
"A Twin." Tom is the popular form of Thomas, and has been 
in vogue for many centuries. The Christian name, though not 
used generally before the Norman conquest, is now one of the 
commonest of baptismal appellatives and surnames. It has been 
an abundant source of nicknames, represented in our family 
nomenclature by Thomson, Thomerson, Thomason, and Thomp- 
son. Some of the Welsh Thomas families are of antiquity, though 
the surname is of comparatively recent assumption. 

The Thomas family was represented among the earliest arrivals 
in New England. Evan Thomas was a town officer in Boston, 
and John Thomas came to New England about 1643. Another 
John Thomas came to New England in the "Hopewell" in 1635. 
By a perusal of the life sketches of many prominent men bearing 
the family name it will be found that the Thomases have been 
actively and intimately associated with the civil, industrial and 
commercial afifairs of America. They have attained prominence 
in the field of science and medicine, while in statesmanship the 
family has produced men of thought and action. Some have 
attained eminence at the bar and in the administration of justice, 
while clergymen, educators and lecturers descended from the 
ancestral tree have occupied high places. As heroes in the Colo- 
nial, Revolutionary and later wars they have rendered to their 
country patriotic service, each of whom has added lustre to 
the name of Thomas. 

So much for the origin and characteristics of the family as a 
whole. In Bucks county there are several distinct and separate 
branches of the Thomas family. They are mostly of Welsh 
origin, but so far as I can learn these branches bear no relationship 
other than that they are descended from Welsh ancestry. 

My purpose, however, is to speak more particularly of one 

the; hii^IvTown thomas family 171 

branch of the Thomas family, whose emigrant ancestor settled 
in Bucks county nearly two centuries ago, and from whom has 
sprung a vast progeny, now scattered throughout the entire coun- 
try, with living descendants in almost every State of the Union. 
The name of this ancestor, of whom the writer is a descendant, 
was William Thomas. This pioneer was a native of Wales. He 
came to America in 1712. In his native country he was a preach- 
er and exercised his talents in the ancient Baptist church at 
Llanwenarth, organized in 1652. Because of severe religious 
persecution in the old country, Rev. William Thomas, with many 
others, was obliged to leave the land of his birth and seek relig- 
ious liberty in the new country beyond the sea. Prior to 1695 
these dissenters, including Baptists and Congregationalists, had 
no place of worship in the mother country, and they were com- 
pelled to meet in the most secluded spots among the mountains and 
in the valleys of Wales. Many of these spots in Wales are now 
historic as having been the refuge of those persecuted men and 
women who longed for religious liberty. After weary years 
of waiting this liberty was granted to an extent that the worship- 
ers were permitted to hold public service, and the church at 
Llanwenarth was dedicated. Rev. William Thomas was most 
likely present at the dedication. The walls of the original build- 
ing are still standing as a part of the present house of worship. 

William Thomas, the father of the family of whom I am about 
to speak, was a man of some means, or at least he possessed a 
competency sufficient to warrant his seeking a new home in 
America. He was a cooper by trade, and for some years after 
settlement in this country followed that business in connection 
with his calling as preacher of the Word. Remaining in Wales 
until the death of his parents, he embarked for America 
in the winter of 1712, landing in Philadelphia after a voyage of 
several weeks. It is related that when Elder Thomas and his 
family were ready to sail from Bristol, with their goods stored 
away in the sailing vessel, they decided to visit some relatives in the 
old country, intending to return before the time set for the vessel 
to sail. They returned at the time assigned for the sailing, but 
found to their great grief that the ship had departed, but was not 
yet out of sight. Mr. Thomas secured passage on a smaller 
craft and endeavored to overtake the ship, but all to no purpose. 


The vessel was lost sight of and the family left destitute. They 
took passage on the next vessel bound for America, arriving in 
Philadelphia on February 14, 171 2. They made inquiry concern- 
ing the vessel which contained all the valuables of the family, but 
learned to their chagrin that the master of the ship had absconded 
and the craft was in the possession of others. They even saw 
some of their clothing on the backs of persons who had purchased 
them of the dishonest master of the vessel, yet they were not able 
to recover anything. 

Thus reduced to poverty. Elder William Thomas and his young 
family, consisting of a wife and one son, were face to face with 
complete poverty. He was obliged to borrow money to pay for 
his passage across the water, so that when he commenced life on 
this side of the Atlantic he was absolutely penniless. 

With a determination to make the best of things, ]\Ir. Thomas 
sought a home at Radnor, Delaware county, where he carried on 
the coopering business for some years, and by dint of the most 
rigid economy managed to save a little money. Looking around 
for an opening where he could purchase some land and establish 
for himself a home, he came to Bucks county, and in 171 8 
purchased 440 acres in Hilltown township, bordering on the 
jMontgomery county line, near the present village of Hockertown. 
Here he built a house and made his home. This house stood until 
1812. Having attained a foothold in the new country, he made 
other purchases in the same neighborhood, the last tract having 
been secured in 1728. It was his aim to provide a farm for each 
of his seven children, and before the close of his life his wish 
was realized. The purchases comprised six tracts amounting to 
1258 acres, all in the township of Hilltown, for which the sum 
of £361 was paid. This land when Elder Thomas first set foot 
on it was an unbroken wilderness, requiring m.uch hard labor 
to clear and make fruitful. 

After his arrival in America Elder William Thomas deposited 
his membership with the ^Montgomery Baptist church, which 
was established in 1719. Living quite a distance from the mother 
church, the Elder set about to establish a house of worship nearer 
home. Accordingly he set apart a piece of ground from his 
extensive tract and prepared to build a meeting-house. With 
his own hands he labored to build the house, which was 


completed in 1737. In this little log house he preached for 
twenty years, or until 1757, and wherein his son John followed 
him in the ministry. 

In those days the Indians were somewhat troublesome at times. 
It is related that the Elder, fearing an attack at an unguarded 
moment, was accustomed to take with him to the meeting-house 
his gun and ammunition and deposit it at the base of the log 
pulpit, hewn from a gum tree. , 

This log house stood until the close of the Colonial period. In 
1771 it was removed and a larger building erected of stone, and 
this in turn has given way to the present neat structure known as 
the Lower Hilltown Baptist church. The body of the founder of 
the church lies in the graveyard near by, and the marble slab which 
covers it bears the following inscription : 

"In yonder meeting-house I spent my breath, 
Now silent, mould'ring here I lie in Death; 
These silent lips shall wake, and yon declare 
A dread amen to truths they published there." 

His wife, Ann, lies buried at his side, and his five sons and two 
daughters likewise are buried in the yard near by, as well as 
numerous descendants of the family down to the fifth and sixth 

The children of Rev. William Thomas were as follows : Thom- 
as, John, Ephraim, Manaseh, William, Jr., Ann, Gwentley. From 
these seven children, have sprung a vast number of men and 
women, located in nearly every State in the Union. Thomas, the 
oldest, was born in Wales. He was a member of the Montgomery 
Baptist church. He was twice married. His first wife was 
Margaret Bates, of Montgomery, and the second Mary Williams. 
Thirteen children were born to him — three by the first wife and 
ten by the second. Thomas became an extensive landholder in 
Hilltown. He inherited the old homestead, on wdiich he died 
in 1780. 

Rev. John Thomas, the second son of Elder William Thomas, 
succeeded his father in the ministry. He was born one year after 
the Elder's arrival in America. He preached for about 40 years in 
the church at Hilltown with conspicuous success in the building up 
of the congregation. His wife was Sarah James, of Radnor, by 
whom he had four children — Ann, Rebecca, Leah and Sarah. The 


salary or "living" of the pastor of the Montgomery and Hilltown 
Baptist churches at that time was equivalent to £40 a year. 

Ephraim, the third son, was born in 1719 and married Eleanor 
Bates. He also spent his life in Hilltown. He was a devout 
member of the Hilltown Baptist church, in which he was a ruling 
elder. He had ten children, and among his descendants are 
numbered the families of Morris, James, Milnor, Beck, Foster, 
Lewis, Griffith, Mathews, Mathias, Rowland, McEwen, Hough, 
Swartz, Foulke, Dungan, Hamilton, Riale, Lunn, Williams, 
Kutcheon and many others. 

Manaseh, the fourth son, was born in 1721. He married Eliz- 
abeth Evans. He too was a member of the Hilltown church, and 
spent his life on the old plantation inherited from his father. He 
died in 1802, in the 8ist year of his age. 

William, Jr.. was born in 1723 and married Abigail, daughter of 
Joseph Day. He too inherited a portion of the land owned by his 
father. He died in 1764, leaving three minor children. 

Ann, one of the daughters of William Thomas, was born in 
1719. She married Stephen Rowland, of Wales. She died with- 
out leaving any children. 

Gwentley, the other daughter, was born in 1716 and married 
Morris Morris. She was the ancestor of several distinguished 
descendants, among them being a member of Congress, prominent 
educators and members of the Legislature. The names of some of 
her descendants are Dungan, Mathias, Pugh, Kellar, Griffith, 
Phillips, Lloyd and Magill. 

It is a singular fact that while the descendants of Rev. William 
Thomas were once so numerous in Hilltown and other parts of 
Bucks county, very few are found in Hilltown to-day. Only a 
single male descendant bearing the family name is residing within 
Its limits. Many of them early in the last century moved to the 
Western country, and from them have sprung families who have 
never seen the ancestral homestead in Bucks county. 

Rev. Jefiferson Harrison Jones, of Alliance, Ohio, is a descend- 
ant of Leah Thomas, daughter of Rev. John Thomas. In June. 
1902 Mr. Jones was 89 years old and his voice is still heard in 
the pulpit. He began to preach when 14 years old, and was 
known as the "Boy Preacher." In August this year he married 
his 899th couple. He was regarded for years as the most elo- 

the; hilIvTown thomas famii^y 175 

quent preacher in Ohio. He was a close friend of the late 
President Garfield, and pronounced a touching eulogy at his 

Elias Thomas, Jr., grandson of Walter Thomas, who moved 
from Bucks county to Indiana in 1837, is a prosperous farmer in 
Jay county, in that State. He is a graduate of Liber College. 

Howard Malcolm Kutchin, a descendant of the family through 
Ephraim Thomas, was born at New Britain, Bucks county, in 
1842. He is the eldest son of Thomas T. Kutchin, a Baptist 
clergyman, once pastor of the New Britain church. Mr. Kutchin 
is a newspaper man by profession, having owned and edited 
several prominent papers in the West. He has been an active 
Republican all his life and has occupied several government posi- 
tions, including that of collector of internal revenue of Wisconsin 
and postmaster of San Diego, Cal. In 1887 he was appointed 
by President McKinley commissioner of fisheries of Alaska, and 
is now returning from his annual visit to that country in the 
interest of the United States Government. 

Judge Albert Duy Thomas, of Crawfordsville, Ind., is descended 
from the Thomas family of Hilltown through Ephraim Thomas. 
His father, Horatio J. Thomas, emigrated from Philadelphia in 
1836 and settled in Williamsport, that State. Judge Thomas is 
a graduate of the Law School of Michigan, and has practiced law 
in Indiana since 1866. He was elected judge of the common pleas 
and afterward judge of the circuit court. His name has been 
mentioned frequently in connection with the supreme bench. 
When first elected he was the youngest judge in Indiana. At 
this writing he is again the candidate of his party for judge of 
the circuit court. 

Captain Abel Thomas was descended from William Thomas 
through Thomas and Asa. He lived in Bucks and Montgomery 
counties. His father Asa was a soldier in the Revolutionary War 
and did service at the battle of the Brandywine. Abel Thomas 
was captain of several military organizations in Bucks county, 
and in Montgomery was elected to the office of county commission- 
er in 1838. Several of his children are still living. 

Asa Thomas, the great-grandfather of the writer of this paper, 
lived on the family tract in Hilltown all his life. When the war 
of the Revolution broke out he was among the first from Bucks 


county to respond to the call of his country. He was commis- 
sioned August 21, 1775, as a private, and on the same date Wil- 
liam Thomas and Jonah Thomas, of Hilltown, joined the Conti- 
nental army. Asa Thomas was 20 years old when mustered 
into the service. He was at the battle of the Brandywine in 
September. 1777. It is related that while engaged in guarding 
the ford of the Brandywine the order was issued for every man 
to get behind a tree, Indian fashion. In the retreat of the army 
Mr. Thomas stopped at a tavern along the roadside. Not deem- 
ing it safe to remain there, he went on to a private house, where 
he rested and received some refreshments at the hands of a good 
Quaker family. Looking back, Thomas saw the British soldiers 
entering the inn at which he had stopped. The good Quaker 
admonished him to flee quickly and hide behinJ a hedge in rear 
of his house. He promptly obeyed and thus retained his liberty. 
This Revolutionary soldier died in his 82d year and lies buried 
in the Lower Hilltown Baptist burying-ground. His wife sur- 
vived him some 15 years, dying in the 89th year of her age, April 
14, 1854. 

At the reunion of the descendants of Rev. William Thomas, 
at Chalfont. in August of this year (1902) there were descend- 
ants present from various States of the Union, and the writer is 
in possession of many letters from members of the family now 
scattered far and wide from ocean to ocean and from Canada to 
Mexico. Thus from this single emigrant ancestor, who sought 
civil and religious liberty in the new country nearly two centuries 
ago, has sprung this vast progeny, now numbering many thous- 

Revolutionary Events about Newtown. 

(Meeting in Wycombe Baptist Church, October 7, 1902.) 

There are but few persons, comparatively speaking, outside of 
students, investigators, novelists and the like, who, from choice, 
are familiar with or are even interested in the wealth of facts 
which may be found in those valuable series of State publications, 
commonly called the "Colonial Records" and "Pennsylvania Ar- 

It was a wise thought which suggested the preserving to us 
and our posterity, in this manner, this interesting collection of 
historic documents, correspondence, journals, military records, 
&c., which embody not only the annals of colonial and provincial 
times, but those of that intensely dramatic period which ended 
in the establishment of our national independence. 

Why should not these books be more frequently found in the 
libraries of our schools, and such use made of them in the course 
of study that would popularize the history of our State from its 
very beginning? In that way the love of country would be 
encouraged and its lessons impressed upon the young, while the 
deeds and bravery of its people from the formative period to 
its development as one of the free and independent common- 
wealths of the United States, would be familiar to the mind of 
every scholar in the land. 

From the publications to which I have referred and from other 
reliable authorities I will quote such references as relate to New- 
town and its vicinity in the Revolutionary decade. 

In Pennsylvania Archives, second series Vol. XV, page 343, 
et seq., will be found a portion of the minutes of the Committee 
of Bucks county, covering a period of about two years. A 
perusal will show with what patience the inhabitants of this 
county bore their share of the political abuses and tyrannous meas- 
ures which were imposed upon the country by unwise Provincial 
legislation, and the acts of Parliament enforced by the British 


Bucks county was among the first to voice her protest against 
these wrongs. Passing from protest to sterner measures a call 
was made for her inhabitants to meet at Newtown July 9, 1774, 
where many prominent people gathered, some of whom were 
destined to harder experiences than they ever dreamed of. Gil- 
bert Hicks presided, and William Walters was made clerk. Pas- 
sing over the explanation of the nature and purpose of their 
gathering, "the meeting proceeded to the Business thereof," and 
the "Resolves" of that first convention of the citizens in the cause 
of American liberty are now a matter of history, viz : 

"Resolved, That the inhabitants of this county have the same opinion of 
the dangerous tendency of the claims of the British Parliament to make 
laws, binding on the inhabitants of these Colonies in all cases whatsoever, 
without their consent, as other of our fellow American subjects have. 

Resolved, That it is the duty of every American, when oppressed by 
measures either of Ministry, Parliament, or any other power, tO' use every 
lawful endeavor to obtain relief, and to form and promote a plan of 
union between the parent country and colonies in which the claim of the 
parent country may be ascertained and the liberties of the colonies de- 
fined and secured, and no cause of contention in future may arise to dis- 
turb that harmony so necessary for the interests and happiness of both, 
and that this will be best done in a General Congress to be composed of 
delegates, to be appointed either by the respective Colony's Assembly, or 
by the members thereof in convention." 

John Kidd, Joseph Kirkbride, Joseph Hart, James Wallace, 
Henry Wynkoop, Samuel Foulke and John Wilkinson were ap- 
pointed a committee to meet with like committees from other 
counties of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, July 15, 1774. One 
of the resolutions of that Congress was to recommend the ap- 
pointment of committees in the several towns and counties "to 
observe the conduct of all persons, and recommending, a'so, to 
the voting freeholders of the county, a number of persons to be 
chosen for a new committee." 

At Newtown, December 15th, following the election, the gentle- 
men who were chosen to compose this important committee of 
observation, met. They were ; Joseph Galloway, John Kidd, 
Christian Minnick, John Bessonett, Joseph Kirkbride, Thomas 
Harvey, Thomas Jenks, Henry Kroesen, Joseph Hart, James 
Wallace, Richard Walker. John Wilkinson. Joshua Anderson, 
John Chapman. Joseph Watson. Benjamin Fell. John Kelly. David 
Wagner, Abraham Stout, Thomas Foulke. John Jamison, Jacob 


Strahn, James Chapman, Henry Wynkoop, Jacob Beitleman, 
Thomas Darrach, Robert Patterson and David Twining. 

This committee was to have gotten together again at Newtown, 
on December 29th, but "a great fall of snow" prevented attend- 
ance; the meeting was therefore postponed to January 16, 1775. 

Coincident with these proceedings at Newtown, similar action 
was taken in other counties, all tending to crystallize public senti- 
ment regarding the persecution which aimed to destroy their 
liberties, and to unite the people into organized opposition to coer- 
cion — that weapon of royal power now used by a military force 
to subdue the Colonies and make them mere slave-like, tribute- 
yielding dependencies of the crown. 

In Massachusetts, where British soldiers — sent to enforce the 
impositions of parliament — overran the Province, tlie people were 
paralyzed with the burdens they had to bear. A situation little 
short of starvation stared them in the face. Already martyrdom 
for liberty's sake was suffered by citizens who dared to stand 
steadfast in their rights under the English Constitution. That 
they did not die in vain, we all know, for the blood they shed 
served but to christen the infant Republic. 

Such news, echoing the impending doom, swept through the 
Colonies. The timid shrank and sought refuge behind the throne 
of Britain, while those whose kindred fought on foreign fields 
for principles such as these, rose, as by a common impulse, and 
"resolved" now to be free, peacefully if possible, but by force, 
if necessary. 

When the gentlemen of Bucks county met on January 16, 1775, 
Joseph Hart was elected chairman, and John Chapman, clerk. 
The third "resolve" adopted at that meeting was as follows : 

"That we hold it our bounden duty, both as Christians and as country- 
men, to contribute toward the relief and support of the poor inhabitants of 
the town of Boston, now suffering in the general cause of all the Colonies ; 
and we do hereby recommend the raising a sum of money for that pur- 
pose to every inhabitant or taxable in this county as soon as possible." 

It will be seen that Bucks was as prompt to respond to the calls 
for the relief of her distressed countrymen as she was to denounce 
the evils inflicted by the parent country. By the following Octo- 
ber, the sum of ii35 15s. 7d. had been collected for the sufferers 


by the Boston Port Act, and was forwarded by the treasurer, 
Henry Wynkoop. 

At this meeting it was voted that Joseph Hart, John Wilkinson, 
Henry Wynkoop, Joseph Watson and John Chapman, or any 
three of them, be a "Committee of Correspondence," and "that 
Henry Wynkoop be treasurer and receive such charitable dona- 
tions as may be collected in pursuance of the third resolve of 
this committee." 

The minutes of May 2. 1775, show "the alarming situation of 
public afifairs, rendering it necessary that something should be 
done toward warding off the oppressive measures now too 
manifestly carrying into execution against us." 

The alarming situation here referred to was the silent night 
march of the British troops to Lexington on April 19th, the 
ensuing conflict with "the embattled farmers" and the firing of 
that shot that was "heard 'round the world." Even now Ethan 
Allen and Benedict Arnold were before Ticonderoga, and Crown 
Point was soon to fall ! 

On May 8th the Committee of Correspondence met -at the 
house of Richard Leedom and appointed Messrs. Hart. Kidd, 
Wynkoop, Kirkbride and Wallace as delegates to attend the second 
Continental Congress to be convened in Carpenter's Hall two 
days later. Here they for the first time met George Washington, 
a representative from Mrginia, clad in the buff and blue regi- 
mentals in which he had seen service on the frontier and on 
Braddock's Field. He had ridden from his home prepared 
for war. He had forseen that the time was at hand when no 
man must halt between two opinions. 

The Provincial Convention which met at Philadelphia January 
23. 1 775- among other measures recommended the people to 
"form themselves into associations to improve themselves in the 
military art, that they might be rendered capable of affording 
their country that aid which its particular necessities may at 
any time require." So it came about that at a meeting of the 
committee held June 12th, the officers of the different associate 
companies were notified by Joseph Hart "to meet at the house of 
John Bogart on the 20th of July, to choose field officers, and such 
other purposes as shall be found necessary." John Bogart kept 


a tavern at Centreville, in Buckingham township, which was 
frequently the rendezvous of the committee after this time. 

While assembled at Bogart's the committee had to review sev- 
eral accusations brought against persons in the county for acts 
and expressions prejudicial to the cause of liberty, complaints 
arising out of rivalry in the formation of companies, and also to 
afford an opportunity for those holding views of non-resistance 
to retire from the board ; as witness the following advertisement 
which the committee instructed Henry Wynkoop to publish : 

"Whereas, Several persons who were chosen members of this committee 
in December last have hitherto- neglected to attend the same, and others 
who have attended have, from scruples of conscience, made application to 
be discharged, the committee therefore request that all those who do not 
propose attending for the future to advertise their respective townships 
with their determination, at the same time appointing some convenient 
time and place for the inhabitants to meet, and choose other suitable per- 
sons in their room, who are desired to meet the committee on Monday, 
the 21 st of August, at the home of John Bogart, in Buckingham township." 

When the committee met again at Bogart's, August 21st, these 
changes were found to have been made in the personnel of the 
committee : Jacob Strahan, of Haycock, and Abraham Stout, of 
Rockhill, who had declined to act ; Philip Pearson and Samuel 
Smith were chosen in their stead. John Wilkinson, Jonathan 
Ingham, Thomas Foulke and John Chapman, being Quakers, and 
having scruples of conscience were relieved from any further 
attendance; their places were taken by Benjamin Siegel, of Rich- 
,land, vice Foulke; James McNair, of Upper Makefield, vice Chap- 
man ; Joseph Sacket, of Wrightstown, vice Wilkinson ; Augustine 
Willet, of Middletown, vice Thomas Jenks ; John Coryell, of 
Solebury, vice Ingham, and William Carver, of Buckingham, vice 
Joseph Watson. 

This meeting was important also in the fact that the lists of all 
officers of the different districts were furnished the committee, 
with the names of associators and non-associators. (For full 
and complete list of associators and non-associators see Pennsyl- 
vania Archives, Second Series, Vol XIV, pages 143, 227.) 

Henry Wynkoop, writing from Bucks county, September 25th, 
to Col. Daniel Roberdeau, states that he has received the returns 
of the associators and non-associators for all but three town- 
ships, and one company lately raised ; "and the number stands : 


Associators, 1.688; non-associators, 1,613. I have received some 
of the association rules, but am afraid the signing will go heavily, 
chiefly arising from the Quakers and others who chuse it staying 
at home and doing nothing." Henry mentions that his "Cozin 
Gerardus Wynkoop" is the bearer of this despatch. 

In the minutes of this meeting, August 21st, it is noted also 
that Treasurer Wynkoop reported having received donations for 
the Boston sufferers to the amount of £75, 8s. 4d, which he had 
paid to John Adams, one of the convention from Boston. At a 
previous meeting a similar report had also been made that a 
sum for the same purpose had been raised, £51, 15s. 4d, and 
paid into the hands of Samuel Adams, "one of the delegates at 
Continental Congress for the Province of Massachusetts Bay." 

The following shows evidence of political disturbance at that 
time in the neighborhood of Newtown : 

"Sundry of the inhabitants of the township of Newtown offering to con- 
test the election held there, it was recommended to them and agreed by 
both parties to hold a new election of which the clerk is directed to 
notify the electors of that township previous to the next meeting." 

The committee met frequently now, alternating their sittings 
between Newtown and Bogert's tavern. j\Iuch of their time was 
taken up with the examination of persons who were considered 
to have made disrespectful remarks regarding the cause of the 
Colonies. One man in Upper Alakefield was charged with the 
following intemperate expression : "That the whole was nothing 
but a scheme of a parcel of hot-headed Presbyterians, and that 
he believed the devil was at the bottom of the whole ; that the 
taking up of arms was the most scandalous thing a man could 
be guilty of and more heinous than a hundred of the grossest 
offenses against the moral law, etc." 

"Resolves'" were taken against this man and he was forced, 
later, to publish his repentance. 

On December 26, 1775, the new committee chosen at the various 
township polling-places met. They were James McNair, Upper 
jNIakefield ; Josiah Brian, Springfield ; Samuel Smith, Rockhill ; 
John Lacey, Buckingham ; Henry Wynkoop, Northampton : Joseph 
Sacket, Wrightstown ; John Kidd and James Benezet, for Bcnsa- 
lem; John Coryell, Solebury ; Thomas Harvey and William Biles, 
The Falls ; Joseph Mcllvain and John Cox, of Bristol ; Samuel 


Yardley, Newtown ; Arthur Watts, Southampton ; Richard Walk- 
er, Warrington ; Joseph Hart, Warminster ; Adam Lowdesleger, 
Haycock; Robert Patterson, Tinicum, and James Wallace, War- 

The committee organized by appointing Joseph Hart chairman, 
and Henry Wynkoop, clerk and treasurer. Joseph Hart, James 
Wallace, Samuel Yardley, Arthur Watts and Henry Wynkoop 
were chosen a committee of correspondence for the ensuing year. 

On January 22, 1776, James Biddle and Joseph Wharton, 
members of the Provincial Committee of Safety, visited the Bucks 
county committee, at Newtown, for the purpose of inducing the 
manufacture of saltpetre among the inhabitants of Bucks county, 
"who are desirous of being useful to their country at this impor- 
tant and dangerous crisis of our affairs," and for this purpose 
the general committee offered to pay the expenses of the persons 
appointed by the Bucks county board, to and from Philadelphia, 
to witness the method of its manufacture. Messrs. Wallace, 
Kechline and Joseph Fenton, Jr., were selected to be instructed 
in the making of saltpetre. Wallace was afterward appointed an 
officer to receive the saltpetre "which shall be manufactured in 
the county." 

Durham, a new township being lately organized near North- 
ampton county, desired representation on the board, and it was 
ordered that the township choose a person for that purpose. 

When the committee met at Bogart's tavern February 27, 1776, 
a petition was presented asking the committee to extend the age 
limit of associators from 50 to 60 years, 

"As there are many able-bodied men between the ages of 50 and 60 
years, possessed of large estates, who are entirely exempt from military 
duty and expense, the tax upon non-associators is considered merely as 
an equivalent for personal services, and the associators have not com- 
pensation for their arms and accoutrements, not to mention the danger 
they will be exposed to when called into actual service, your Petitioners 
pray that an additional tax be laid upon the estates of non-associators 
proportionate to the expenses of the associators necessarily incurred for 
the general defense of property." 

They also asked that 

"The colonels draught from their battalions such number as shall from 
time to time be requisite, thereby affording an opportunity for those 
whose circumstances will not always admit their going, to get volunteers 


in their stead, and at tlie same time using sufficient force in every part of 
the country to quell any local insurrections." 

March 2"/, 17/6, a letter from the Provincial Committee of 
Safety, dated March 19th, was read, requesting that the asso- 
ciators in this county be properly equipped so a-s to be in con- 
dition to march at an hour's warning, and that a strict attention 
be paid to their arms and accoutrements, "as there is the greatest 
reason to apprehend that General Howe intend.:, to attack upon 
this province." 

General \\'ashington had written on March 17th, to Governor 
Cooke, from Cambridge : 

"I have the pleasure to inform you that this morning the ministerial 
troops evacuated the town of Boston without destroying it, and that we 
are now in full possession." 

All the arms held by the non-associators were ordered pur- 
chased by the committee and put into the hands of Henry Wyn- 
koop. Orders were issued to have the battalions in readiness 
if required to march immediately. 

April 24. 1776, the committee met at Bogart's and agreed to 
fine themselves is. 6d. each, "who shall not attend the meeting 
of the committee within the space of one hour after the time 
appointed for the meeting." Richard Walker was now chair- 
man, Joseph Hart having become the colonel of the Second 
Battalion ; Robert Shewell, lieutenant colonel ; James McMasters, 
1st major; Gilbert Rodman. 2d major; Joseph Shaw, standard 
bearer, and William Thompson, adjutant. 

At the meeting of May 22d, at Bogart's, we find Gilbert Hicks 
returned as a member from Middletown. He then lived at 
"Four-Lanes-End." later called Attleborough and now Lang- 
horne. An important item of business at that meeting was the 
action taken relative to the sending of delegates to meet deputies 
from other counties, at Philadelphia, "to agree upon and direct 
the mode of electing members for a provincial convention, to 
be held at such time and place as the said conference of com- 
mittees may appoint, for the express purpose of establishing a 
new form of government." At the next meeting, held at New- 
town June 10. 1776. it was decided "by a large majority," to send 
Joseph Hart, John Kidd, James Wallace. Benjamin Siegel and 
Henry Wynkoop as delegates to the convention. 


The minutes of the meeting held "July ye ist," at Bogart's, 
state that from information received, sundry persons had refused 
to surrender arms in their possession to the collectors. A resolu- 
tion was then adopted authorizing the collectors to call upon the 
militia to enforce the "resolves" regarding this matter. 

July loth resolutions were adopted embodying about 400 asso- 
ciators in this county, and making the following appointments : 
Joseph Hart, colonel ; John Folwell, William Roberts, William 
Hart, Valentine Opp and John Jamison, captains ; John Kroesen, 
Henry Darragh, Hugh Long, Philip Trumbower and Tennis 
Middlemart, ist lieutenants; Abram DuBois, James Shaw, Jacob 
Drake, Samuel Drake, Samuel Deane and John Irvine, 2d lieu- 
tenants ; William McKisseck, William Hines, Joseph Hart, Stoeffel 
Kellar and John ]\lcCammon, ensigns; John Johnson, adjutant; 
Joseph Benton, Jr., surgeon, and Alexander Benstead, quarter- 
master. With such the "flying-camp" was constituted. Gerrett 
Dungan was chosen to "cause all the firearms collected from non- 
associators in this county to be immediately rendered fit for use," 
and Matthew Bennett for the ist battalion, and Jared Irvine for 
the 2(1, 3d and 4th battalions, were to size the guns and mark 
the same on the breech-pin, or lower end of the barrel. 

Each battalion was to be furnished with two quarter-casks of 
powder. The collectors turned in 39 guns from Rockhill, 13 
from Bedminster and 2 from Haycock. 

Major James AIcMasters, John McKonkey and John Keith 
were appointed to collect firearms in Upper Makefield, vice 
James Torbert, Barnet Vanhorne and John Burleigh, who had 

At Bogart's, on the 29th of July, letters were read from 
General Roberdeau, urging the immediate march of the militia. 
The committee agreed to send the proportion for this county for 
the "flying-camp" and facilitate their immediate march. 

Complying with a recommendation of the General Committee of 
Safety, that judicious persons be selected to distribute to dis- 
tressed families, whose husbands were now in actual service, and 
to give them such allowance a«3 they shall think reasonable, etc., 
the committee appointed the following gentlemen : 

Benjamin Britten, Robert Patterson. Bristol borough and town- 
ship; John Kidd, Bensalem ; John Sampler, Buckingham ; William 


Biles, Falls; Abram Mack, Lower Makefield; Gabriel Vanhorn, 
Middletovvn ; Samuel Yardley, Newtown; Henry Kroesen, South- 
ampton ; Isaac Hough, Warminster ; Richard Walker, Warring- 
ton ; James Wallace, Warwick ; Joseph Sacket, Wrightstown ; 
Thomas Dyer, Plumstead ; Robert Darragh, Robert Maneely, 
Bedminster ; Alexander Finley, New Britain ; John Kelley, Tini- 
cum ; Daniel Jamison, Nockamixon ; James Chapman, Springfield ; 
Samuel Smith, Rockhill ; Thomas Foulke, Richland; Thomas 
Long, Durham ; Gilliam Cornell, Northampton ; James McNair, 
Upper Makefield ; John Coryell, Solebury ; Adam Louden:;leger, 
Haycock; Andrew Trumbower, Milford. 

In the record of that meeting appears the statement, that "as 
many members of this board are going with the militia into the 
Continental service, therefore. Resolved, that for the, future nine 
members constitute a board." Fifteen had been the number 

On August 12, 1776, the committee appointed Rev. Robert 
Keith chaplain of the "flying-camp" under the command of 
Colonel Hart. At a later meeting (of which there is some con- 
fusion as to its date,) various sub-committees reported upon mat- 
ters that had been referred to them at previous meetings of the 
board. These chiefly related to troubles incident to the collecting 
of arms, complaints of treasonable utterances by disaffected per- 
sons, etc. The minutes of this meeting abruptly terminate when 
about to record the "resolves,'' and leave us to speculate as to 
the cause. Enough has already been given to show that for the 
two years covered by these records, Newtown and Centreville 
were exceedingly interesting localities during, at least, the fore- 
part of the Revolutionary period ; and that which follows, while 
it is compiled from fragmentary notes, is none the less so, in 
that Newtown kept herself well before the public eye during 
the remainder of that critical era. 

As foreshadowed by the minutes of August 21, 1775, consid- 
erable opposition had been manifested by disaffected persons 
to the election of representatives, at the polls that year. This 
feeling became more intense at the election held October i. 
1776, at Newtown. Whatever may have been the direct cause, 
the disturbance became very serious, as the following correspon- 
dence may enable us to judge: 


Bucks Co., Neshamany, Oct. 2, 1776. 
To the Council— Gentlemen : Noe Doubt you have heard of an election 
ben held Yesterday by the torey party at Nuetown in this county, the 
Bearer, Capt. Sempell, I have sent to inform you of what he knows 
concerning the Afifear, as he was at the Election. 

Yr most Obed't Hu'ble Ser'nt. 


On October 3d the Council addressed the following instructions 
to Henry Wynkoop: 

"We are informed that some evil-minded persons, disaffected to the 
present government have attempted to prevent its establishment, by sup- 
porting the late Government under authority of the King of Great Brit- 
ain for which purpose they have proceeded to an election of representa- 
tives under the said authority, in contempt and defiance of the authority 
of the good people of this State. As such a measure, if carried into execu- 
tion, cannot fail to defeat this virtuous opposition to the tyranny of the 
King of Great Britain, it behooves us to take effectual measures to punish 
such contumacious offenders against this State. You are therefore desired 
to make inquiry concerning the said election and of the persons who are 
principally concerned therein, and communicate the same to this Board 
as soon as you conveniently can. 

By order of the Council." 

In the treasurer's reports for that year we find the sequel to 
this matter, in entries such as these — under dates of October 23d, 
24th and 25th, 

"The Council of Pennsylvania directs Mr. Nesbit, the treasurer, to pay 
Major McMaster £6, and charge the same to the State for expenses con- 
cerning the Bucks county election; Capt. John Jameson, £8. 15s. 10 d., and 
Capt. Thos. Wier £6 os. 4d., the expenses of their respective companies in 
going to Newtown to suppress the election there on October ist and 2d, 
and to disperse the people." 

The payments were made on the avouchment of Lieut. Col. 
William Baxter, who commanded the second battalion. 

That Bucks county soldiers of the Revolution had their share of 
service, with all its consequent hardships, there can be no ques- 
tion. In the campaign of 1776, they formed part of the Fifth 
Penna. regiment, under command of Col. Robert Magaw. This 
regiment was composed of the full companies of Captains Beatty, 
Benezet and Vansant. recruited in Bucks county ; Miller's, of 
Philadelphia county ; Stuart's, of Montgomery county ; Spohn's 
and Decker's, of Berks county ; and Richardson's, of Chester 
county. The regiment was not in the disastrous defeat 


of the American forces on Long Island, August 27th, as 
they were at the time stationed at Mount Washington in 
New York, but they joined the main army on the 29th, 
forming the rear-guard and covering-party of General Wash- 
ington's masterly evacuation of Brooklyn. The Fifth Pennsyl- 
vania regiment continued on the move till October i6th, when it 
was ordered to take post at Fort Was'hington, while the main 
army proceeded to White Plains. This regiment held the garrison 
until the fatal i6th of November, when through the traitorous 
perfidy of its adjutant, William Dement, General Howe invested 
the fort with 3,000 men, made an assault upon it and compelled 
surrender. The soldiers were confined in the Sugar House 
prison, on Liberty street. New York, whose horrors have often 
been told. Manv of them remained there for years. Among the 
list of captured were many from Bucks county. Those from 
Newtown were in Captain Vansant's company : Edward Hove- 
den, ensign ; Thomas Stevenson, sergeant ; John Sproul, corporal ; 
and John Eastwick, corporal. Lossing, in his "History of the 
Revolution," gives very pathetic accounts of the sufferings of 
these poor fellows in the following story of an eye witness : 

"In the suffocating heat of the summer of 1777, I srw every aperture 
of the strong walls filled with human heads, face above face, seeking a 
portion of the external air. In July, 1777, a jail-fever carried many of 
them off. They had no seats and their beds of straw were filled with 
vermin. The prisoners were marched out in companies of twenty to 
breathe the fresh air for half an hour, while those within divided 
themselves into parties of six each and alternately enjoyed the privilege 
of standing ten minutes at the windows. They might have exchanged 
this place for the comfortable quarters of a British soldier by enlisting 
in the King's service, but very few would thus yield their principles. 
They preferred to be among the dozen bodies which were daily carried 
out and cast into the ditches and morasses beyond the city limits." 

Among the orders of Lewis Nichola, Town-Major of Phila- 
delphia, December 8, 1776, is one commanding the Northern 
district to send a corporal, and the six town companies a man 
each ; these to parade before the court-house next day, to escort 
some English prisoners to Newtown. The guard returned by 
the i6th, and we find Major Nichola issuing an order requiring 
them to turn in their arms to him on the following morning. 

About this time Newtown became the base of supplies in 

re;volutionary events about newtown 189 

Washington's operations, which were intended to intercept the 
British advance into Pennsylvania. The British had already 
forced a retreat of the Continental army from the vicinity of 
Princeton and New Brunswick, and were pushing on toward 
Trenton and Philadelphia. By placing the river between them, 
however, and posting troops at all the ferries and fords along 
the whole front of Bucks county, and by securing the boats, Wash- 
ington succeeding in keeping the enemy on the east bank. 

On the 14th of December, General Washington moved up from 
Barclay's, opposite Trenton, to Keith's house, in Upper Make- 
field, where he established his headquarters "near the main body 
of my small army," he writes. From this date till Christmas 
day. Washington circulated between Keith's, Merrick's, and the 
camps of the troops, who were rapidly concentrating in the 
vicinity for the decisive stroke which the general was about to 
inflict upon the unsuspecting enemy. On the night of December 
25th. the Delaware was crossed at McKonkey's Ferry (now 
Taylorsville) amid floating ice. the bitter winds sweeping down 
the valley, chilling and benumbing with cold the 2,400 Conti- 
nentals and militia, but they were inspired by the confidence and 
example of their leader, one of the greatest generals of history. 
Marching promptly before dawn to Trenton, they struck the blow 
that glorified American arms and delayed the occupation of Phila- 
delphia for nearly twelve months more. Such, in brief, are the 
facts leading up to the 27th of December, when Washington, his 
stafif, his troops, and his trophies of war, entered Newtown, 
fresh from his victory at Trenton, bringing in his train nearly 
1. 000 prisoners, many cannon and large quantities of munitions of 
war. The Hessian captives filled the jail, the church, the inns 
and other places of security till removed to Lancaster soon after. 

For the next three days Newtown was in the midst of all the 
excitement incidental to the presence of the commander-in-chief 
and his conquering army. He made his headquarters in the house 
of John Harris, on the west side of the creek, recently the prop- 
erty of Alexander German. His official family, among whom 
were Generals Greene, Sullivan. St Clair, Gates, Stirling, Mercer, 
Stephens and others, lodging elsewhere about the village. The 
troop of Philadelphia Light Horse, under command of Capt. 
Samuel Morris, were in attendance upon headquarters, its mem- 


bers acting as bearers of dispatcher from Washington to his 

A present-day evidence of the honor Newtown paid her dis- 
tinguished, if transient residents, and symboHzing her patriotic 
ardor, may be found in the names of the principal streets of the 
borough, which are : Liberty, Congress, State, Penn, Washington, 
Jefferson, Sterling, Greene, Mercer, Sullivan and Court streets. 

For the first time since Washington took command of the army, 
he was now able to send a congratulatory address to Congress, 
"upon the success of an enterprise which I had formed against 
a detachment of the enemy lying at Trenton." 

General Washington left Newtown on December 30th in ad- 
vance of his troops, crossed the Delaware at McKonkey's ferry 
and marched with them to Trenton, where battle was given Lord 
Cornwallis January 2, 1787; following up the advantage gained 
there he routed the British at Princeton next day, and sent them 
retreating across New Jersey. In the meanwhile Lord Stirling, 
who had accompanied Washington in his successful expedition 
against the Hessians, and had taken a cold thereby, was now laid up 
at Newtown with rheumatism. He was however placed in com- 
mand of the post and watched the fords of upper Bucks county. 
He was there about two weeks and from his correspondence we 
learn that many prisoners captured at Princeton passed through 
Newtown enroute for Lancaster. 

Newtown, after these incidents, so far as we know, lapses into 
a quiescent state, but during June and July considerable corre- 
spondence is found relating to the preparation of the different 
classes of militia for marching, providing blankets and other 
clothing. In this connection the following note is interesting: 

New Town, Bucks Co., 3Jst July, 1777. 

Sir : According to my Directions from Col. Kirkbride I have sent by 
Samuel Rees, wagoner, 100 of the best and cleanest blankets of those 
collected in our county, the remainder, about 200, shall send (this morn- 
ing) to Thomas Jenks' Fulling, who says if the weather continues Dry 
he will compleat them in a week. At which time shall expect orders for 
the delivery of them. 


Directed to Timothy Matlack, Esq., Sec. Ex. Council. 

N. B. The Blankets were continued in the hands of Col. James Mc- 
Masters for the Militia of Billingsport. 


Henry Wynkoop, on the 23d of August appointed committees 
for the different townships for driving off stock. (The British were 
approaching Pennsylvania by sea from another direction.) Peter 
Leffertse and Abraham Johnson were selected for Newtown town- 
ship. The next day, Colonel Kirkbride writes President Wharton 
that he experiences difficulty in procuring substitutes in this 
county, "even for the extravagant sum of 60 dollars, which I have 
been forced to give for third class before I could get a man." 

The defeat at Brandywine spread consternation through the 
country. The Executive Council, in haste, sent orders to county 
lieutenants to order out the reserves ; Bucks county was ordered 
to send her 3d, 4th and 5th classes "with the utmost expedition 
to Swedesford" (a crossing of the Schuylkill river, now Norris- 
town, Pa.) ; "urge every man to turn out in this alarming occasion, 
particularly those who are not in the classes now called out, and 
promise them that if they now step forward to free their bleeding 
country of these Ravages they shall hereafter be considered as 
having taken their tour of duty, &c." 

General Washington, writing to President Wharton, on Sep- 
tember 13th, to thank him for his prompt action in mobilizing the 
militia, adds the information that he is having the passes up the 
river fortified under command of General Armstrong. At 
Swedesford, where General Howe was expected to pass, earth- 
works were thrown up to defend the ford. On the 14th the 
American army left its camp at Falls of Schuylkill, crossed the 
river at Matson's ford (now Conshohocken, Pa.), and maneu- 
vered to intercept the British, but they passed down through 
Valley Forge, crossed the river at Fatland ford, and marched tri- 
umphantly to Philadelphia. 

Notwithstanding the vigilance of the militia which encircled 
Philadelphia during the British occupation of the city, the patience 
of Generals Armstrong, Potter and Lacey was sorely tried by the 
raiding parties which penetrated their lines and laid heavy hands 
upon the persons and property of the neighboring counties, Bucks, 
especially, suffering. As an instance of the daring of the English 
soldiers and their Tory partisans, the following account is given 
by Col. Walter Stewart, commanding the 13th Pennsylvania 
regiment, who writes from his "Camp near Bustle Town" Feby. 
21, 1778, to President Wliarton, at Lancaster, that he is "much 


concerned to inform his Excellency that an express arrived in 
camp yesterday afternoon, with the disagreeable news of a party of 
light-horse belonging to the enemy, consisting of about 40, pushed 
up to Newtown, Bucks county, and took my Major, with a small 
party of men, prisoners, and all the clothing I had laid up there 
for my regiment." The captured officers were : Major Francis 
Murray, Lieutenant Henry Marsits, Ensign Joseph Cox. Murray 
was with his family at the time. Two thousand yards of cloth 
were also seized and carried off. Major Murray, who was one 
of Newtown's notable men, enlisted early in the service of his 
country. On an expedition to New York he was captured by the 
British, but was released on December 8, 1776, and later in the 
month was sent by Colonel Weedon to escort the Plessian prisoners 
from Newtown to Lancaster. On the 6th of February, following, 
he was commissioned as major by John Hancock, and attached 
to Colonel Stewart's regiment. Here he remained until captured 
by the British again, February 9, 1778; this time he was confined 
to Flatbush, Long Island, and was not released until 1780. 

Francis Murray, an Irishman by birth, was a keen man of 
affairs. He settled early at Newtown in business, and by his 
tact and shrewdness became both popular and wealthy. During 
his long residence in Bucks county he held various offices of trust 
and honor. After serving with distinction in the American army, 
he returned to Newtown, where he was paid off March 24, 1781, 
then ranking as lieutenant colonel. He was made county lieuten- 
ant in 1783, and in 1790, general of the militia. His residence 
and place of business were on Court street, in the house, until 
recently owned by George Brooks. General Murray, who was 
born about 1731, died in 1816, and was buried in the Presbyterian 
churchyard — a church with which, in his lifetime, he was promi- 
nently identified. A daughter of General Murray became the 
first wife of Dr. Phineas Jenks, and a grandson was Col. Francis 
Murray Wynkoop, a valorous soldier of the IMexican War. 

A notable event connecting Newtown again with Revolutionary 
affairs, occurred at the beginning of April, 1778, when commis- 
sioners from the two armies met there to arrange a satisfactory 
basis for the exchange of prisoners. For a lengthy account of 
this conference, reference may be had to "The Notes of Elias 


Boudinot, Esq.," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Bio- 
graphy, July, 1900, p. 291, et. seq. Briefly, the facts are these: 

"The exchange of civil and military prisoners of war was a 
matter which continued in a very unsatisfactory state until the 
appointment by Congress, in June, 1777, of Elias Boudinot, Esq., 
as Commissary General of Prisoners." The commission to ar- 
range a general cartel was chosen in 1778. Those on the British 
side were Col. Chas. O'Hara, Col. Humphrey Stephens and Capt. 
Richard Fitzpatrick, of the Coldstream, First and Third Regi- 
ments of Foot Guards, respectively. The American commission- 
ers were : Col. William Grayson, Lieut. Colonels Alexander Ham- 
ilton and Robert H. Harrison, of Washington's staff, and Elias 
Boudinot, Esq. The Americans set out from Valley Forge on 
the 31st of March, and proceeded to Germantown, where they 
met the British delegation at the Benezet mansion, near the Market 
Square. They held meetings here till the morning of April 6th, 
when they adjourned to meet at the inn of Amos Strickland, in 
Newtown — then called the Red Lion inn. The commission on 
each side were attended by an escort of twelve light dragoons ; the 
American troop was under command of Capt. Robert Smith, of 
Baylor's regiment. They remained at Newtown till the 12th of 
April, when, after vainly trying to reach an agreement, the confer- 
ence closed without having reached a definite understanding. 

On the loth of May, of that year, the officers of the Light 
Horse of Bucks county were commissioned. The roll of the 
troop, as it stood June 18, 1781, is as follows: Captain, Jacob 
Bennett ; Lieutenant, David Forst ; Corporal, John Shaw. 

Troopers : John Horner, Daniel Martin, William Ramsey, 
Nathaniel Burrows, Joseph Hart, Jr., John Roberts, Thomas 
Hughes, Joseph Sacket, Jr., Stacey Taylor, George Mitchell, Gab- 
riel Vansant, John Fell, Peter Roberts, John Torbert, William 
Bennett, John McCammon, John Shannon, Aaron Hagerman, 
James Liddon, Jesse Britton, Robert Mearns, Benjamin Yoe- 
man, Jacob Kintner, Robert Craige, John Armstrong, Thomas 
Wilson, William McKonkey. 

Early in the next year. Col. Thomas Proctor's regiment of 
artillery, whose term of enlistment had expired, were at Newtown : 
These numbered 96, and including Major James Parr, late of the 


Seventh Regiment (Pa.), and Lieut. Col. Francis. Murray, late 
of the Thirteenth Regiment (Pa.), were paid off by Messrs. Abm. 
DuBois and William Goforth, auditors of Bucks county, on 
March 24, 1781. 

John Hart, writing to President Reed, April 3d, complains 
that he finds it very difficult to get recruits at Newtown, owing 
to the presence of an artillery regiment there. Attempts at re- 
cruiting, were, however, kept up in that locality. We find that 
Capt. Abraham G. Claypoole, of the Third Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment, was sent to Newtown, by General St. Clair, on July 13, 
1781, to receive recruits. Finding no commissary, no provis- 
ions of quarters for himself, or any recruit that might be deliv- 
ered to him, he writes to the Council of his lack of accommodation, 
whereupon the Council, under date of July i8th, authorizes John 
Hart, Esq., to "contract with some person to supply them, at as 
reasonable rates as can be obtained, the payment to be made in 
specie, which this board will endeaver to comply with." 

In September the army had gone South, where, in conjunction 
with the French fleet, it began the operation which ended in the 
round-up of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the meantime 
the infamous Arnold had planned an expedition under the British 
flag against New England. For some reason apprehension was 
felt that the movements of the enemy at New York threatened 
another invasion of Pennsylvania. An alarm was sent out Sep- 
tember nth and 12th to all the county lieutenants to prepare at 
once to assemble their militia at Newtown. On the 28th the 
orders came to rendezvous at that point "with the utmost expe- 

The light-horse of Lancaster county, the battalions of the 2d 
and 3d classes of Northumberland, objecting on account of the 
defenseless condition of their frontier, three companies, armed and 
unarmed, from Berks county, a troop of horse, under Campbell, 
from Cumberland, two companies of artillery from Philadelphia 
and some militia, with the men of Chester and Bucks counties, 
turned out and were all encamped at Newtown by October nth, 
under the command of General Lacey. 

When Newtown folk saw the hungry legions gathering, they 
must have felt some serious misgivings, probably lessons from 


past experience, to have caused William McCalla, the commis- 
sioner of purchases for Bucks county, to write the Council at 
Philadelphia in this strain : "General Lacey and the Commissary 
of Issues at the Post of Newtown are Calling for Meat and other 
Supplys for the use of that post and it^ not in my Power to Sup- 
ply them Without I be furnished with money aj the people are 
Determined Not to Sell at Trust." 

As the enemy hacl failed to materialize, the scare was over by 
the 1 6th of October. General Lacey on that day paid off the 
troops and dismissed them. An amusing incident in connection 
with the disbandment of the post at Newtown, was the meeting 
of a company of Col. MacVeagh's Philadelphia county battalion. 
The day following their discharge, Capt. Bushkirk with Ensign 
Strine, at the head of his company, marching to the tune of "The 
Rogues' March," proceeded to the quarters of Commissary Gen- 
eral Crispin and demanded their canteens filled with whiskey, for 
each officer of the company, to use on his way home. On beincj 
refused they threatened to blow up the magazine. While the 
Commissary was defending this. Col. MacVeagh appeared upon 
the scene, paid the price for the rum out of his own pocket, and 
the men went their way rejoicing. Crispin demanded of General 
Lacey a courtmartial of these men, and refers him for witnesses 
to Capt. Craige, foragemaster, Lieut. Taylor, of the light-hopse 
of Bucks county, and Quartermaster Samuel Davis. 

Before concluding I desire to add a brief sketch of one whose 
zeal and devotion to the county in her critical period — as a citi- 
zen, soldier and judge — should stand in heroic measures upon 
the pages of her history. 

I refer to Henry Wynkoop who distinguished hiineelf in the 
stirring times, to which I have referred. He was of Holland 
ancestry ; a son of Nicholas and grandson of Gerardus or Gerit 
Wynkoop, an early resident of Bucks county. Henry Wynkoop 
soon became identified with the public affairs of his vicinity, and 
as time progressed was recognized as one of its most active and 
forceful citizens. Living in Northampton township at a time 
when strong and determined men were required to assist in the 
defense of the country, he was chosen to represent his township 
upon the committee of safety, and, as we have seen, served them 


from 1774 to 1776 — as clerk, treasurer, &c. His membership 
in both the PVovincial and Continental Congresses came as 1 
result of his personal grasp and the close touch he had upon 
public affairs. It brought him into intimate relation with most 
all of the prominent men of the day, among whom Washington, 
Hamilton, the Adamses, Monroe and others were reckoned his 
personal friends. After serving some time as a lieutenant in the 
Revolution (in 1777), he was appointed a justice of the common 
pleas of Bucks county, and of which he was later president judge, 
he was reappointed in 1784. In 1783 he had been selected as one 
of the judges of the high court of error and appeal of Pennsyl- 
vania, resigning lx)th positions when, after the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution, he was elected the first representative from 
Bucks county to the United States Congress, wdiich met at New 
York in 1789. At the close of his term, in 1791, he was again 
returned to the bench of Bucks county as its first associate judge. 

^Henry Wynkoop was widely known and honored. A man of 
high moral character and of profound religious convictions. His 
was one of those strong personalities that leave such impress upon 
the times in which they live, that its influence in the community 
never entirely loses its power for good. He died in 181 6 in the 
80th year of his age. 

Note. — April 21, 1737, Hennericks, son of Nicklass Wynkoop, 
was baptized in the Neshaminy church, by Rev. Cornelius \'an- 

Neshaminv Church Records. 


Judge Henry Wynkoop. 

(Meeting in Wycombe Baptist Church, October 7, 1902.) 

"It is in our Union that our salvation as a people depends. 
It is the arcanum of our strength, a blessing that we ought to 
prize as a gift from heaven." 

These were the words of Henry Wynkoop, addressed to the 
people of the county of Bucks at Newtown in 1777. To-day 
we are met to recount the deeds of the early patriots, foremost 
among whom was Henry Wynkoop, soldier, patriot, and jurist. 

He was born in Northampton township, Bucks county, Penn- 
sylvania, March 2, (old style), 1737. 

He was the only son of Nicholas Wynkoop and Ann Kuypers, 
his grandfather Gerardus, who had married Hilletje Fokker, hav- 
ing settled in this neighborhood in 1717. Gerardus (who was the 
third son of Cornelius Wynkoop and Maria Jans Langedyck 
and perhaps the grandson of Peter Wynkoop) was an elder in 
1744 of the church of North and South Hampton. He owned 
500 acres of land along the Neshaminy, two miles west of New- 
town, a portion of which is still occupied by his descendants and 
is said to have been in continuous possession of the family since 
it was purchased by this Gerardus in 171 7- 

Whether Henry Wynkoop was born in the little "white house" 
still standing, or in a log house long since torn down, is not now 
precisely known. He was baptized April 21, 1737, by Rev. 
Cornelius Van Santvoort, as shown by the church record of 
Neshaminy and Bensalem, the name appearing "Hennerickes." 

"Vredens Hoff," (Verdant Court) the home of the Wynkoops, 
is one of those "specimens of early colonial architecture, which 
every one admires and many try to imitate. Built by Nicholas 
W^ynkoop in 1739. it is surrounded by 153 acres of land and com- 
mands a magnificent view of the adjacent country, south, east, 
and west. The building is substantially built of stone, not only 
the exterior, but even the inside walls are of stone, and eighteen 
inches thick ; the house contains 19 large rooms, there being 
6 on the ground floor with a hall running through from south to 


north. In the kitchen door is a knothole "where the servants 
peeped at the clock." The place many years afterwards was sold 
by Jonathan Wynkoop to William Camm, whose descendants now 
own it. Near the house stands an ancient spring-house where 
the dairy-work was done, a blacksmith-<shop in a good state of 
preservation, a frame barn, and a stone stable. 

When on the verge of manhood, Henry lost his father, who was 
a farmer by occupation, and who died in 1759 at the age of 54, 
a man universally loved and respected, and whose tomb bears 
the loving tribute of his "weeping widow and bereaved son." 

Henry Wynkoop is said to have had a classical education. We 
know only that he prepared to enter Princeton College but which 
for some reason he did not enter. His long and useful life, was 
spent in his country's service extending from 1760, when a 
member of the Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania, until his 
death in 1816, during which time he was unwearied in his devo- 
tion to the public good. 

From early hfe the bent of his mind was toward politics ; a 
propensity which the state of the times, if it did not create, doubt- 
less very much strengthened. Public subjects must have occupied 
the thoughts and filled the conversation in the circles in which 
he then moved ; and the interesting questions arising at that 
time could not but seize on a mind like his, ardent, sanguine, and 

At the early age of 23 the citizens of Bucks county 
conferred upon him his first political distinction by elect- 
ing him a member of the legislature of the Province of 
Pennsylvania (then called the Provincial Assembly), in 
which he had no sooner appeared than he distinguished him- 
self by knowledge, capacity and promptitude. That his services 
were acceptable to the community is shown by the fact that in 
1 761 he was re-elected. He was a constant attendant on the 
deliberations of that body and bore an active part in its important 
measures. The same year he married Susannah Wanshaer, 
daughter of John Wanshaer and Christina Egberts, of Essex 
county, New Jersey. 

In 1762, while John Gregg was sheriff of Bucks county, we 
find Henry Wynkoop serving on the grand jury. In those early 


days some of the justices of the peace, who were laymen, not 
lawyers, were also appointed associate judges of the county courts. 

Having been appointed a justice of the peace in 1764, 
Henry Wynkoop, early in the following year, though barely 28 
years old, was also made an associate judge of the county courts. 
He was reappointed a justice of the peace in 1770 and again in 
1774, and his name also appears as associate judge in 1766, 1767, 
1771, and 1773. By this time the disputes between the Colonists 
and the mother country had assumed alarming proportions. In 
order to defend Canada and the Mississippi valley, which the 
British had acquired from the French in 1760, Parliament laid 
a tax on sugar and charged "stamp duties in the Colonies." 
While the Americans had no objections to supporting the army, 
they did object to being taxed by a body in which they were not 
represented. So odious was the stamp-act to the Colonists that 
they joined in signing written agreements to import no goods 
from England. The consequent repeal of the stamp-act, the 
taxing of other articles, the Boston riot, and the tea-party, the bill 
closing Boston harbor to shipping, and the meeting of the first 
Continental Congress are all matters of common knowledge. 

In these stirring events Henry Wynkoop took the keenest 
interest, and early decided to cast in his lot with the patriots. In 
the summer of 1774, when the whole country was aroused by the 
news that Boston was shut ofif from the world, a "Committee-of- 
safety" was chosen in Bucks county. This committee in turn 
chose Henry Wynkoop, John Kidd, Joseph Kirkbride, John Wil- 
kinson, and James Wallace, to attend a Provincial conference 
July 15, 1774. at Philadelphia. 

It is curious to note the change of language used by our 
forefathers prior to the Revolution. It began with a note of 
sadness, but as soon as the Colonists found that their rights were 
disregarded, their wrongs unredressed, and their liberties trampled 
upon, it changed to one of defiance. But there was no defiance 
in the first Provincial conference, for they resolved that "the in- 
habitants of this Province are liege subjects of his majesty King 
George III., to whom they and we owe, and will bear true and 
faithful allegiance," and deplored the idea of a separation from the 
mother country. But the second resolution sounds a warning 


note, to which George III. and his ministers should have paid 
heed, for the delegates to the conference resolve (if Congress 
approves) to join an association of non-importation of goods from 
Great Britain. They also drew up instructions for the delegates to 
the first Continental Congress, reciting in dignified and lofty 
language their wrongs and their fruitless appeal to Britain for 

Later in the year 1774 the people of Bucks county choee a "Com- 
mittee-of-observation," whose duty it was "attentively to observe 
the conduct of all persons" and ascertain whether or not they were 
favorable to the cause of liberty. The difference between the 
"Committee-of-safety" and the "Committees-of-observation, in- 
spection, and correspondence" was as follows : The former was 
a conservative body, generally organized under the direction of 
the Provincial legislatures ; while the latter was usually a radical 
body, chosen by the people. Among those who served on each of 
these committees was the ever-ready Henry Wynkoop, who enter- 
ed with all his heart into the cause of liberty, and whose ability 
and patriotism naturally drew upon him a large participation in 
the most important concerns. Wherever Wynkoop was, there 
was found a soul devoted to the cause, power to defend and main- 
tain it, and willingness to incur all its hazards. He was 
chosen by the people as one of the 28 members of the "Commit- 
tee-of-observation," "to observe the conduct of all persons, "which 
must have been a rather thankless and unpleasant task. This 
committee was to meet on December 29, 1774, but, being prevented 
by "a great fall of snow," did not come together until January 16, 
1775, at which time it was resolved: (i) that they highly ap- 
proved of the "pacific measure recommended by the Continental 
Congress for the redress of American grievances;"" (2) that they 
held themselves bound to keep the association of said Congress ; 
and (3) that they held it their duty to contribute towards the 
relief and support of the poor inhabitants of the town of Boston. 
Then they voted that Henry Wynkoop and four others be ap- 
pointed a "Committee-of-correspondence," and that Wynkoop be 
treasurer to receive donations for the relief of the Boston suffer- 

On May 8, 1775, being convinced that their application's for 


redress to Great Britain had been ''fruitless and vain," the com- 
mittee recommended the people of Bucks county to form them- 
selves into associations in their respective townships to improve 
themselves in the military art, that they may be capable of afford- 
ing their country that aid which its peculiar necessities may at 
any time require." 

Later in the year, Wynkoop, as treasurer of the "Committee- 
of-safety," reported the receipt and delivery to Samuel Adams 
of several sums of money aggregating over iioo, for the relief of 
Boston's needy inhabitants, whom the rigorous "Boston Port Act" 
had secluded from the world. About the same time he was made 
clerk and treasurer for the ensuing year. 

It was in one of the associated companies, above recommended 
by the "Committee-of-safety," that we find the name of Henry 
Wynkoop enrolled as a private, namely the Fourth Associated 
Company, First Battalion. The aged Henry Lott was captain, 
and Gerardus Wynkoop first-lieutenant. "Henry Wynkoop sub- 
sequently gained the title of major, though it is not believed that 
he ever held a commission," the records seem to show that he pre- 
ferred to serve his country in another way. 

Henry Wynkoop was a bold and fearless advocate, not only 
a decided, but an early friend of independence. While others 
yet doubted, he was resolved, while others hesitated he pressed 
forward. He was eminently fitted for the part he was to per- 
form. He possessed a bold spirit, which disregarded danger, and 
a sanguine reliance on the justice of the cause, and the virtues of 
the people, which led him to overlook all obstacles. His charac- 
ter, too, had been formed in troubled times. He had been rocked 
in the early storms of the controversy, and had acquired a de- 
cision and a hardihood proportioned to the need of the times. He 
not only loved the American cause devoutly, but had studied and 
understood it. It was all familiar to him. 

In a letter, dated September 25,1775, written to Colonel Daniel 
Roberdeau, Henry Wynkoop states that he has received a return of 
the "associators" and "non-associators" in certain townships of 
Bucks county. That the loyalists in that year were almost equal 
in number to the patriots, is shown by this return which places 
the number of associators at 1,688 and of non-associators at 1.613. 


But that was before Great Britain had resorted to sterner meas- 
ures, and before Richard Henry Lee had offered a resokition in 
Congress that these Colonies "are and of right ought to be free 
and independent States." In this letter Major Wynkoop says: 
"I have received some of the association rules, but am afraid 
that the signing will go heavy, chiefly arising from the Quakers 
and others, who chuse it staying at home and doing nothing," — a 
habit their posterity have not altogether outgrown. 

In the minutes of the "Bucks County Committee of Safety," for 
July 21, 1775, we read : — 

"John Lacey represented that Thos. Smith of Upper Makefield had 
uttered expressions derogatory to the Continental Congress and inimical 
to the liberties of America. The same being taken into consideration, 
Joseph Hart. Richard Walker, James Wallace and Henry Wynkoop, or 
any three of them, are appointed a sub-committee to examine into the 
said complaints and report to the next meeting." 

Early in the following year all the arms in the county were 
ordered to be collected and placed in Henry Wynkoop's hands. 

On June 18, 1776, the third Provincial conference met at- Car- 
penters' Hall, Philadelphia. The delegates "for the committee of 
Bucks County," according to the journal of the conference, were : 
Mr. James Wallace, Mr. Benjamin Segle, John Kidd, Esq., Col. 
Joseph Hart, Major Henry Wynkoop. 

The proceedings of this body had a very important effect on 
the history of our State. The delegates resolved that associators 
who were 21 years old, taxpayers and residents for one year, 
should have the franchise, and then, that "the present government 
of this province is not competent to the exigencies of our affairs." 
With a view to provide a suitable form of government, it was 
decided to call a Provincial convention. The judges appointed for 
Bucks county to decide the election of delegates to this proposed 
convention were James Wallace, Joseph Hart and Henry Wyn- 
koop. Although Wynkoop was connected with nearly every great 
event or important delegation from Bucks county about that time, 
he was hardly omnipresent, and, being clerk and treasurer of the 
Committee-of-safety and judge of election, he could not very well 
be chosen a member of the convention. This body, meeting in 
the State-house on July 15th, proceeded to promulgate the con- 


stitution of 1776 — Pennsylvania's first "Republican form of Gov- 

Before adjourning, the third Provincial conference, on June 
25, 1776, had issued a thrilling address to the associators of Penn- 
sylvania. After reciting the evils they had suffered at Great 
Britain's hands, and prophesying that the year 1776 would be 
a land mark in the history of the world as establishing liberty in 
one quarter of the globe, they conclude with these stirring words : 
"Remember the name of Pennsylvania ! Think of your ancestors 
and of your posterity !" 

Although Wynkoop, so far as we know, was not a member of 
the convention which drew up the Constitution of Pennsylvania, 
that body, nevertheless, elected him as the only delegate from 
Bucks county to serve on the Council-of-safety for the State, of 
which body he was a member for a year. To this council many 
important matters, military and otherwise, were referred by the 
State Legislature. In 1776 it was composed of 26 persons, who 
received eight shillings a day for their services. By an ordinance 
of September 3, 1776, David Rittenhouse, Timothy Matlack, Hen- 
ry Wynkoop and the other members of this council were appoint- 
ed justices of the peace for the entire State of Pennsylvania. 

About that time, the county was infested with a villainous set 
of men called "refugees," who, bemg acquainted with the resi- 
dence of prominent citizens, were engaged by British officers to 
point them out and assist in securing their persons, so that they 
could be taken as prisoners to Philadelphia, the headquarters of 
the army. Wynkoop escaped capture by being absent from 
home. In August, 1776, his family were greally alarmed in 
the dead of night by a party of Hessians breaking into the house. 
A kick against the door of a back entry sent the lock with so 
much force across the narrow space against at! opposite door 
as to make an impression there which ever remained as a memen- 
to of the foul deed. Mrs. Wynkoop, whose bed-room adjoined 
that into which the entrance was made, was greatly overcome 
by the shock. The only man about the place, a farm hand, es- 
caped to the garret and hid under some flax. The children, 
who slept upstairs, were aroused from their sleep by the noise, 
and their first impulse was to get out of the window on to the 
pent-house. But the eldest daughter aged 13 persuaded them to go 


down to their mother's room, though to get there they had to 
pass through the parlor, where all the soldiers were. They found 
their mother so much alarmed that it was impossible for her to 
suppress her screams. A brutal soldier proposed that she should 
be quieted by forcible means, but the officer spoke kindly to her, 
telling her not to be alarmed, that she and the family should be 
well treated, that the only object of their visit was to convey 
Mr. Wynkoop to the city; and so after refreshing themselves 
with what they could find to eat and drink, they left, taking 
nothing more than a silver spoon, which one of the soldiers found, 
and was remonstrated with by "Old Isabel." telling him he "musn't 
take that." All the answer she got for her faithfulness was a 
kick which sent her across the kitchen. This frightful scene so 
affected Mrs. Wynkoop that, rushing from the house, she jump- 
ed into the well and was killed. We read on her tombstone, "an 
unfortunate victim to the public calamities of America." Her 
grandson writes : "Her piety was of the highest order, and the 
children who were old enough to remember her. regarded her 
memory with the truest veneration." 

After the battle of Trenton, Christmas night, 1776 — the fight 
which so greatly revived the drooping spirits of the patriots — 
Washington entered Newtown, only 9 miles from the scene of 
action, and filled the church, the jail, and the inns with his 
Hessian prisoners. James Monroe, afterwards President, then 
but a youth of 18. was wounded in this battle, and, with Lieuten- 
ant Wilmot. an Englishman who had been injured and captured, 
was taken to the Wynkoop homestead. It was the letter of Gen- 
eral Washington to his friend Wynkoop that secured for them 
those hospitable quarters. Monroe obtained a captaincy for his 
bravery in this engagement, and there is a tradition in the family 
that he offered himself to Christina, eldest daughter of Henry 
Wynkoop. but she preferred to marry Dr. Reading Beatty. 

On June 4. 1776, the city committee had issued a significant 
request to the justices of the Courts of Common Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions to hold no further sessions until a new govern- 
ment had been established. When the new government 
was established under the Constitution of 1776, the courts of 
Bucks county were thoroughly re-organized, and were opened for 
the first time on September 9, 1777, with Henry Wynkoop pre- 


siding, probably by virtue of seniority, as president judges were 
apparently not then provided for until afterward by act of aesem- 
bly. In this capacity he delivered the first charge to the grand 
jury of the county — a charge remarkable for its clearness and 
conciseness, and the eloquence, reverence and patriotism it dis- 
plays. In it he said : 

"Gentlemen of the Grand Jury : The end and object of all good gov- 
ernment is the happiness of the people ; when it fails in this, it becomes 
tyranny and oppression ; and there is no time in civil life, in which we 
can prove the integrity of our principles to each other more effectually, 
than by uniting in and supporting such legal measures, by which we may 
be enabled to render justice unto all men. I need not call to your atten- 
tion the great difficulties under which we have long labored from the 
want of having our courts of justice open, yet, at the same time I feel a 
pleasure in declaring that the disposition of the generality of the inhabi- 
tants of this county has been so honestly affected towards each other, as 
to render the want of the public administration of justice, an evil of as 
little inconvenience as possible. From this good omen I may venture to 
infer that nothing will be wanting on your parts to give due authority and 
execution to the business for which we are now met. 

"I congratulate you, gentlemen, on this signal favor of heaven towards 
us ; that at a time our country is threatened to be overrun by foreign 
invaders, our liberties sacrificed to the ambition of an arbitrary court, and 
our property given up to a hireling army ; that we can this day meet in 
uninterrupted security, to prosecute the lawful business of the county. 
May this blessed right be confirmed and increased to our posterity, that 
they may look back upon us, their struggling ancestors, with pleasure 
and veneration. 

"When we consider the great cause we are engaged in, and take a re- 
trospective view of our former condition under the English government, 
our veneration therefor, and attachment thereto, together with the variety 
of unforeseen causes productive of events equally unexpected, which have 
at length brought us into our present state of independence, we are con- 
strained to admire the disposal of Heaven. It would be impious in us to 
question the unerring wisdom of Providence. The Almighty setteth 
up. and he casteth down ; he breaks the sceptre and transfers the 
dominion ; he has made choice of the present generation to erect the 
American empire ; let each individual exert himself in this important 
operation directed by Jehovah himself, for it is evident from a short re- 
view, that the work was not the present design of man. Under such a 
powerful ally we have nothing to fear, but to do our duty like men, and 
to trust the event of His divine disposal, who in His own time will do 
strict justice unto all men. 

"But that, gentlemen, which I would at this time most strenuously 
recommend to your attention, is the cultivation of good order, and a 


serious, friendly deportment towards each other, in the execution of 
public business. Courts of justice, next to places of Divine worship, 
require a solemnity of carriage, as a mark of that awful respect which 
we pay to the Creator of heaven and earth, at the time we are invoking 
His aid. and making our appeal to Him as a witness of our integrity. And 
in this place I would be understood to extend my charge to all persons 
present, not doubting, but that you. g ntlemen of the jury, will by your 
example endeavor to influence, and by your legal authority to support and 
encourage, this so necessary and important a part of our duty. 

"It would be a most extraordinary miracle, if the opinions of all men 
as to modes and forms were to be the same ; but that government will 
always be the most esteemed, which is the most distinguished by justice 
and candor. Governments which are formed by the arbitrary will of one 
man. or by the despotic and self-interested notions of a few, will never 
be the favorite of the bulk of the people, because in those governments, 
equal and perfect justice never can be obtained. The strong will triumph 
over the weak, the crafty over the ignorant, and the litigations between the 
rich will be decided by the longest purse. Justice will give way to favor, 
and mankind will, by degrees, sink into slavery, under the form of law. 

"The Constitution of our courts of justice now. is such, however men 
may differ in opinion, no man need fear the want of equity. We have 
been so long deprived of the advantage of the legal and public admin- 
istration of justice, and men have been so much accustomed to live 
without civil restraint, that it has now become one of the greatest obli- 
gations we owe to society, to set an example of good order and obedience. 
In this salutary measure all men are interested, it is that by which prop- 
erty is made secure to the lawful owner ; the poor are thereby protected 
from the encroachments of the rich ; and the rich from the lawless in- 
vasions of the robber. However we may differ upon trifles, in modes and 
forms, let us be careful to remember that the administration of justice, 
on which our civil happiness depends ought, and must be, supported ; 
otherwise there is no safety for any man, either rich or poor, and we sink 
at once into confusion. 

"It is therefore high time to come back to rule and order, and as our 
worthy assembly for various salutary purposes, has proposed to take the 
sense of the people, whether a new convention shall be called or not. for 
the purpose of revising, altering, or amending the present constitution, I 
conceive it my duty, as a magistrate, and for the preservation of the peace, 
to recommend to all the inhabitants of this county, a cordial and brotherly 
union, and a firm and unshaken determination to support the administra- 
tion and execution of civil authority and public justice. 

"Various and numberless have been the artifices of the enemies of 
America to seduce us from our union, and involve us into parties. It 
is in our union, that our salvation as a people depends. It is the arcanum 
of our strength, a blessing that we ought to prize as a gift from heaven. 
It is our duty to watch over it as the treasure of America, and shun 
every measure and suppress every passion that has a tendency to destroy 


it, as we would the poison of a serpent. Difference of opinion has arisen 
concerning the present form of government, and differences of opinion 
will always arise on that subject, let the form be what it may. I 
would therefore recommend to every man to read and consider the 
constitution for himself, and that you, gentlemen of the jury, after 
you depart from this place, -would recommend the same conduct in your 
several neighborhoods that when the voice and opinion of the people 
come to be taken they may be able to give it with clearness and pre- 
cision. I think it necessary at this crisis of affairs, to preface my charge 
with these hints, because I would not be thought to abet a measure con- 
trary to what should be judged the public good, nor to shrink from my 
duty in supporting the just rights of the people. The well effected in- 
habitants of this county have been remarkable for their firm attachment 
to the cause of liberty, none have exceeded them in zeal and duty, and 
what I am now anxious to caution them against is, that they would not 
suffer little differences of opinion to grow into stubborn prejudices ; it 
will sap our union and act against us with more mischievous efiicacy than 
the whole army of our enemies. 

"Let us, by no imprudence of our own, give any advantage to those 
who are seeking to destroy us nor yet let us neglect th«- use 
of such means, as the present Constitution puts in our power, for 
the preservation of ourselves and the well ordering of our con- 
duct. * * * * Twelve of you, at least, must agree in opinion that 
the accused ought to undergo a public trial — so twelve other jurors are 
to declare him innocent or guilty. Happy institution, whereby no man 
can be declared a criminal, but by the concurring voices of at least four 
and twenty men collected in the vicinage, upon their oaths to do justice. 
Gentlemen, I do most cordially congratulate you, placed as you are in a 
station honorable to yourselves, and beneficial to your country. Guard- 
ians of the innocent, you are appointed to send the felon, the assaulter, the 
beater, affrayer and rioter, together with the counterfeiter, the disorderly 
public-house keeper, extortioner, defrauder of his country, and him who 
is so lost to every patriotic feeling as to commit treason, to trial. Your 
diligence in inquiring of such offenders is the source of your own honor, 
and a means of your country's safety; and although no such offenses be 
found, your laudable search will yet tender to curb a propensity to the 
commission of such offenses. 

"See, gentlemen, what great advantage may result from your vigilant 
and patriotic conduct ! Your ears therefore ought to be shut to the peti- 
tions of friendship, and the calls of consanguinity. But they ought to 
be open to receive the complaints of your injured country, and the de- 
mands of impartial justice." 

On December 4, 1778, Wynkoop was chosen by the General 
Assembly as one of the commissioners to settle the accounts of 
county lieutenants. 


Fearing that the judge might become idle if he did not fill two 
or three offices at one time, he was, April 6, 1779, elected to the 
Continental Congress to succeed Edward Biddle. Wynkoop did not 
disappoint the people. Although he served as a delegate until 
1783, and although Congress held sessions at Philadelphia, Prince- 
ton, Annapolis, and New York, each of which Wynkoop attended, 
the docket of the orphans' court of Bucks county seems to show 
that the judge was absent only twice, namely, in March and 
December, 1781, having even attended the special sessions. 

On November 18, 1780, a commission was issued from Hon. 
Joseph Reed, President of the Supreme Executive Council, to 
Henry Wynkoop, to act as president judge of the Bucks county 
courts. But a still greater honor was in store for him. In Feb- 
ruary, 1780. while the Revolution was at its height, a tribunal 
higher than the supreme court of Pennsylvania had been estab- 
lished. Its province was to hear appeals from the supreme court, 
the register's court, and the court of admiralty. It consisted of the 
president of the supreme executive council, judges of the su- 
preme court, and "three persons of known integrity and ability." 
On November 20, 1780, Henry Wynkoop as one of the "three 
persons of known integrity and ability" was commissioned a judge 
of this court. He did not take his seat until April 9, 1783, very 
probably because he was until that time a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, as well as president judge of the Bucks county 
courts. With him were associated such famous men as Joseph 
Reed, Thomas Mifflin, Francis Hopkinson, Edward Shippen, John 
Dickinson, Jacob Rush, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas McKean. 
In 1791, upon the adoption of the new State Constitution, this 
court was reorganized, and on February 24, 1806, finally abol- 

Henry Wynkoop was president judge of the Bucks county 
courts from November 18, 1780, until June 27, 1789, when he 
was elected a member of the first Congress of the United States. 
In the docket of the orphans' court at Doylestown may be seen 
a curious order issued by Judge Wynkoop in 1784. It shows 
that he favored pomp and ceremony in the transaction of judicial 
business. In it the constables are enjoined to appear in court 
with their staves in their hands, and after adjournment "to walk 
in procession with their staves before the sheriff to the door of 


the justice room, where they shall deposit their staves until the 
time of adjournment shall have expired, when they shall again 
attend and walk to the court-house door as before directed." 

Judge Wynkoop held the position of president judge of Bucks 
county, and the more important post of justice of the high 
court of errors and appeals until 1789. In that year he was 
elected to the first Congress of the United States as one of 
the representatives from the State of Pennsylvania. In a let- 
ter, dated June 27, 1789, addressed to the Supreme Executive 
Council of the State, he resigned both the offices of president 
judge and of justice of the high court of errors and appeals, 
about the same time resigning the eldership of the church of 
North and Southampton. This first Congress convened March 
4, 1789, and adjourned March 3, 1791. He served in this Con- 
gress until its adjournment, then returned to his birthplace, to be 
immediately appointed, by Governor Mifflin, an associate judge 
of the Bucks county courts, which position he filled until the 
removal of the courts to Doylestown in 1813. 

Upon Judge Wynkoop's election to Congress, John Barclay was 
appointed to succeed him, being the last lay president judge in 
Bucks county. 

Another Constitution was given Pennsylvania in 1790, and 
under the Act of 1791 another change was made in the judiciary. 
Under this act James Biddle was appointed first lay president 
judge of the district comprising the counties of Philadelphia, 
Montgomery, Chester and Bucks. In 1806, the same year that 
the high courts of errors and appeals was abolished. Bird Wil- 
son was made president judge of the courts in Bucks county. 

Wynkoop was one of those rare characters whose influence on 
the community is well marked. The handsome face, the fine 
features, the firm chin, and the high forehead, all denote the 
strong character of the man. Add to this intelligence, integrity, 
and profound religious convictions, and we have a complete 
picture of Henry Wynkoop — a character pre-eminently fit to be 
loved, respected, and honored. 

His grandson, John Beatty, writes: 

"He was much interested in the cultivation of his farm, one of the 
finest in the county, and planted a large orchard of the Virginia crab 
apple, which made the finest of cider, and was sold in Philadelphia. 


immediately from the press, at forty dollars a hogshead. It was sup- 
posed that the recipient in the city sold it for champagne. His colored 
man mentioned to some one that he was afraid his master was going 
to fail, he saw so much cider put in the cellar and never saw any taken 
out. He was not aware that it was passed through a process of fining 
and decanting, and finally disposed of, greatly to his master's advantage, 
in champagne bottles. The farm was planted with a variety of fruit. The 
long lanes reaching from the buildings to roads on either side were lined 
with a variety of the finest cherries, and his son also planted a number 
of pear trees of twenty-seven varieties, besides a great variety of other 

Major Wynkoop was, of course, deeply interested in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and was a great sufferer by it. When Wash- 
ington's army passed through the lower part of the county, on 
its way to winter quarters at Valley Forge, there lay in its line 
of march a woolen factory near Newtown, where the soldiers, 
finding a quantity of ready dressed wool, did not scruple to 
apply it to their own use, and thus carried it away with them. 
The owner, not being sufficiently interested in the good cause 
to make this sacrifice, began to look around to see how he could 
recover his lost property, or its value in money, and finally con- 
cluded to apply to his neighbor, Wynkoop, for advice and assist- 
ance. He. in the kindness of his heart, although ^it was cold 
winter weather, and the roads were bad, consented to take a 
journey to headquarters to see if anything could be done for his 
friend and neighbor. On his arrival and making his errand known. 
General Washington scanning his very ample vesture, facetiously 
observed to him : "Why, Mr. Wynkoop. I don't think you stand 
very greatly in need of cloth." Whether he succeeded in his 
mission is not known. 

After the war was over, and Washington had returned to 
his beloved Mount Vernon to engage in farming, he wrote to 
his friend Wynkoop, requesting him to send him a Bucks county 
plough, which he had heard greatly praised. The article was pro- 
cured and sent giving much satisfaction. 

In a letter to his son-in-law. Dr. Reading Beatty, dated April 
30, 1789, the judge, in describing the inauguration of Washing- 
ton, pays the following tribute to the Nation's first Executive: 
"The arrival of the President exhibited a scene more grand, 
majestic, yet truly affecting, than any I had ever been witness 


to. The conduct and behavior of this great character in that day 
hath been consistent with that of his whole Hfe." 

Washington, in his diary for the year 1790, makes frequent 
mention of Henry Wynkoop and other great RevoJutionary lead- 
ers, as having dined with him. And Senator Maclay, who was 
the judge's friend and room-mate during the Congressional ses- 
sion, has the following entry in his diary : 

"Tuesday, April 28. 1789. At New York. This day I ought to note 
with extraordinary mark. I had dressed and was about to set out when 
General Washington, the greatest man in the world, paid me a visit. I 
met him at the foot of the stairs. Mr. Henry Wynkoop just came in. We 
asked him to take a seat. He excused himself on account of the num- 
ber of his visits. We accompanied him to the door. He made us com- 
plaisant bows — one before he mounted and the other as he went away on 

Judge Wynkoop was on like terms of intimacy with Hamil- 
ton, Adams and other great men, particularly was this the case 
with that great financier, Alexander Hamilton. 

While both were members of the Continental Congress, in Phila- 
delphia, they were walking along Chestnut street one day. Ham- 
ilton, in his usual earnest manner, was ardently advocating a bill 
before the House, for which he wished to secure the vote of his 
friend. The judge, being unfavorable to the measure, changed 
the subject by calling attention to two very beautiful women who 
were passing. Two days later he was surprised by the arrival of 
his wife, who had traveled all night in response to a message 
from Hamilton that her husband was in a very dangerous condi- 
tion: Not to be outdone by his friend, the judge sent a similar 
letter to Mrs. Hamilton, who hurried from New York to her 
husband. Mutual explanations followed and the families had a 
merry visit with each other. 

Referring to a title for the President of the United States, 
General Muhlenberg tells us that Washington himself was in 
favor of the style of "High Mightiness" used by the Stadtholder 
of Holland, and that while the subject was under discussion in 
Congress he dined with the President, and by a jest about it, for 
a time he (Muhlenberg) lost his friendship. Among the guests 
was Mr. Wynkoop, of Pennsylvania, who was noticeable for his 
large and commanding figure. The resolutions before the two 


Houses being- referred to, the President, in his usual dignified 
manner, said, "Well, General Muhlenberg, what do you think 
of the title of 'High Mightiness?' " Muhlenberg answered, laugh- 
ing, "Why, General, if we were certain that the office would al- 
ways be held by men as large as yourself, or our friend Wyn- 
koop, it would be appropriate enough, but if by chance a Presi- 
dent as small as my opposite neighbor should be elected, it would 
become ridiculous. The evasive reply excited some merriment, 
but the Chief looked grave, and his evident displeasure was in- 
creased soon after by Muhlenberg's vote, in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, against conferring any title whatever upon the Presi- 

Wynkoop was six feet four inches in height, being two inches 
taller than the Father-of-his-Country. In a company of gentle- 
men one day, Mr. Hamilton observed, "We have all to look up 
to Mr. Wynkoop." The latter courteously replied that he always 
felt mortified when he had to look down upon Mr. Hamilton — 
a man every one was disposed to revere and look up to. 

From an old list of men connected with the government in 
1789, we learn that Henry Wynkoop, member of Congress from 
Pennsylvania, lived while in New York, "at Mr. A'andolsom's, 
near Bear Market." 

Judge Wynkoop married three times. His second wife, whom 
he wedded in 1777, was Maria Cummings ; she died in 1781. In 
1782 he married Sarah Newkirk, of Pittsgrove, New Jersey, 
who died in 1813. 

Judge Wynkoop had no brothers and only one sister, Helen, the 
wife of the Rev. Jonathan DuBois, pastor of the Dutch Re- 
formed church of North and Southampton. They had four 
sons and four daughters. Judge Wynkoop had eight children, 
and more than forty grandchildren. 

Christina Wynkoop, the eldest child, was born August 18, 
1763. Her husband. Dr. Reading Beatty, born December 23, 
1757, was of Scotch descent. He was a son of the Rev. Charles 
Beatty, of Log College fame. His mother was Ann Reading, a 
daughter of Governor John Reading, of New Jersey. 

The father of Dr. Beatty had intended that he should go to 
Princeton College, but for some reason it was given up, and after 
his father's death he began the study of medicine, and was thus 


engaged when the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775. He 
enHsted as a private, and was immediately appointed sergeant. 
Through the influence of his elder brother, he obtained an en- 
sign's commission, August 10, 1775, in the Fifth Pennsylvania 
Battalion, commanded by Colonel Robert ]\Iagaw ; February 2. 
1776, he was appointed a lieutenant, and in the course of the 
campaign, in consequence of the sickness of his captain, had 
command of the cc^mpany. Whether he was in any of the en- 
gagements of the summer is not known, but he was taken 
prisoner at the surrender of Fort Washington, November 16, 
1776, and met with harsh treatment, indeed, almost losing his 
life at the hands of a savage Hessian soldier, and had to be 
shielded by a British officer. He was confined on the "Mersie" 
prison ship, and held as a prisoner eighteen months until ]May 18, 
1778, when he was exchanged. Having been diligent in the study 
of medicine, he was appointed by Dr. Cochran, surgeon-gen- 
eral, as a surgeon in the Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment, and 
his appointment was confirmed by Congress in a commission dated 
November 8, 1780. On February 10, 1781, he received a com- 
mission from Congress as surgeon of a regiment of artillery, 
commanded by Colonel Proctor, in which capacity he served till 
the end of the war. After the war he first settled as a practitioner 
of medicine at Hart's Cross Roads, now Hartsville, Bucks county. 

It was on April 20, 1786, that he married Christina, daughter 
of Judge Wynkoop, who had been one of the executors of his 
father's estate. They made their residence at Rockhill, Nocka- 
mixon township, near Erwinna, where he practiced two or three 
years. In 1788 they removed to the vicinity of Falsington. 

Reading Beatty died October 29, 1831, and his wife died April 
18, 1841. They had 8 children, among whom was Ann the wife 
of Rev. Alexander Boyd ; Dr. Charles Clinton Beatty, who mar- 
ried Rebecca Vanuxem ; Mary, the wife of Rev. Robert Steel ; 
and John Beatty, born 1800, died 1894, whose children and grand- 
children live at Germantown, Axilla Nova and Reading, Pennsyl- 

Judge Wynkoop's second daughter, named Ann, born October 
18, 1765, was married on August 17, 1790, to James Raguet. 
They had 3 children, James, Henry and Claudine. Raguet wa* 


a French exile, a Bonapartist. The judge's grandchildren ever 
remembered the famous Fourth of July celebrations at Vreden's 
Hoff. The jolly Frenchman, rather short and rotund, would roll 
down the grassy banks for the amusement of the children. He 
died suddenly. February 9, 1818, while conversing in a counting- 
house in Philadelphia. 

The Wynkoop family motto. "Jlrtutem Hilaritate Colere" — 
"To adorn excellence with joyousness" — has been preserved up- 
on a piece of silverware in the possession of Ann's granddaugh- 
ter, Mrs. Leonard Mortimer Thorn. Mrs. James Raguet died 
July 23, 1815. 

Judge Wynkoop's daughter, Margaretta. born January 22, 1768. 
was married at Churchville on November 24, 1789, to Herman Jos- 
eph Lombaert, a merchant of Philadelphia, where he died of yel- 
low fever, August 29, 1793, aged ^y ; he was a native of Flanders. 
After his death Judge Wynkoop spoke of him as a man of "re- 
markable cultivation and accomplishment." i\Irs. Lombaert re- 
mained in Philadelphia for some years after the death of her hus- 
band, and then removed to Easton. Pa. She is described as talented 
and courtly in her manner. Her daughter, Susan Lombaert, be- 
came the wife of James Vanuxem, Jr., of Morrisville, Pa., and 
her son, Charles Lombaert, married Anna Arndt. 

Nicholas, son of Heniy Wynkoop. was a physician. Born 
March 25, 1770; died Alarch 30. 181 5. While out gunning with 
a companion, the latter carelessly fired in such a manner as to 
destroy the sight of one of his eyes. He married Francenia. 
eldest daughter of General Francis Murray, of Newtown, and 
after her death he married Sarah Campbell. He had seven 
children, who left numerous descendants. 

The judge's daughter, IMary Helen, born April 30, 1772, 
a very pretty child, was one of the little girls who strewed 
flowers before General Washington as he passed over the Assan- 
pink bridge in Trenton on his way to New York to assume the 
first presidency, was married July 9, 1793, to Christian Wirtz, 
Jr. He was a merchant in Philadelphia and a member of the 
City Troop. She died February 25, 1809; and her husband died 
.April 27 of the same year. His father, Christian, Sr.. had come 
from Baden to Lancaster, where he wa6 a major during the Revo- 

JUDGE he;nry wynkoop 215 

lution. This Wirtz family should be distinguished from the better 
known family who are descendants of Rev. John Conrad Wurts of 
Zurich, Switzerland, who was pastor at Egypt church, Bucks 
coimty, as early as 1742, whose descendants of later days inter- 
married with Judge Wynkoop's family. 

John Wanshaer Wynkoop, son of Henry Wynkoop. Born July 
II, 1774; died September 6, 1793, of yellow fever, while a student 
of the law. 

Judge Wynkoop's son, Jonathan. Born June 21, 1776; mar- 
ried on April 27, 1809, Ann Dick, daughter of Campbell Dick 
and Margaret Ledlie. He built a house in the village at New- 
town, where he died February 21, 1842. They had seven chil- 
dren, among whom were Margaret Ledlie, wife of Rev. James 
C. Watson, and Isabella, wife of Rev. Winthrop Bailey. Edward 
Vanuxem often spoke of the time he spent as a boy at the house 
of his Uncle Jonathan. 

Judge Wynkoop's youngest daughter, Susannah was born April 
II, 1784. On October 13, 1808, she married Jan Lefiferts, son 
of Arthur Lefferts and Adrianna Van Arsdalen, and removed 
to New York State, where their descendants now live. Susannah 
died March 2, 1849. 

Thus have we located the descendants of Judge Wynkoop. 

It would be unjust, while expressing our veneration for him 
who is the immediate subject of this paper, were we to omit 
a most respectful, afifectionate, and grateful mention of those other 
great men, his colleagues, who stood with him and with the 
same spirit, the same devotion, took part in the same transac- 
tions. The traditions of our fathers are ours to enjoy, ours 
to preserve, ours to transmit, and generations to come should hold 
us responsible for this sacred trust.* 

The grandfather's-clock bought in London in 1760 by the 
Rev. Charles Beatty for his friend, Judge Henry Wynkoop; 
his cane, curiously twisted, silver punch bowl, tiles from the 
fire-place, his family Bible with silver clasps, several chairs, a 

* As there is in preparation a volume on the life and times of Henry Wynkoop, we 
would be indeed grateful for information tending to make the work accurate and com- 


table, and a magnificent oil portrait by Rembrandt Peale, are all 
in the possession of his descendants. 

In a series of letters, written from New York in 1789 and 1790 
by Judge Wynkoop. to his son-in-law, Dr. Reading Beatty, and 
fortunately preserved by the descendants, interesting mention is 
made of the controversy as to the location of the capital of the 
United States. He writes : 

"From present appearances I am induced to believe it will be in 
Pennsylvania somewhere, & from confidential Communications there is 
a strong probal)ility at the Falls of the Delaware." In another letter he 
says : "The Bill respecting the permanent Seat passed I think on Wed- 
nesday for Susquehannah 31 to 17. It was taken up in Senate yester- 
day, & this day stands amended with Germantown * * * what will be its 
fate at last is yet uncertain. The Maneuvering of this Affair has been 
so various & also interesting, that I confess myself heartily tired of it, yet 
feel myself anctious for a Termination favourable to the ^tate. Ger- 
mantown is certainly the first place in the National Scale, & the Fallse 
of the Delaware with me is the next." And again : "Should the Sus- 
quehannah fail, it goes either to Germantown or the Potowmack, most 
probably the Latter." 

In another letter he writes : 

"Dining at the house of an old acquaintance yesterday, an old respect- 
able gentleman, there hit upon a thought respecting Titles, so new & 
singular that I cannot refrain mentioning it, that every succeeding Presi- 
dent should be honored with the Title of Washington, thus the name 
and virtues of this great man to be perpetuated in his otificial Successors as 
that of Caesar became a Title to the Roman Emperors, & Pharoh that 
of the Egyptian Kings. But this for Posterity." 

This series of letters, some 46 in all, have recently been pre- 
sented to the Bucks County Historical Society by one of his 

An old tax list shows that in 1779 Judge Wynkoop paid taxes 
on 460 acres in Northampton township, and on a grist-mill and 
144 acres in Southampton township, and he is thought to have 
owned considerable property in Philadelphia. When he died 
he left what was considered in those days a large fortune. 
Vreden's Hofif and the farm he left to Jonathan, his youngest 
and only living son. 

That Judge Wynkoop was a man of kindly disposition is shown 
by the fact that shortly before his death he set all his slaves 

judge; henry wynkoop 


free, but so well had they been treated that they absolutely re- 
fused to leave the homestead. Under an ash tree, not far from 
the house, they lie buried, the doings of "Granny Maria" and 
"Old Isabel," being spoken of to this day. 

On March 25, 1816, the busy life of Henry Wynkoop came 
to an end. His body lies buried in the church-yard at Richboro. 

Delegate to two most important Provincial Conventions, seven 
times a member of the Continental Congress, member of the first 
Congress of the United States, one of the General Council-of- 
safety for the State of Pennsylvania, and of the Bucks county 
committees of correspondence and safety, judge of the High Court 
of Errors and Appeals, and for nearly half a century on the 
bench of the Bucks county courts — thus was the life of Henry 
Wynkoop devoted to his country. 

He lived to a great age, dying 40 years after the Declaration of 
Independence. He was both an early patriot and an aged and ven- 
erable object of admiration and regard. Thus he finished his 
course, and thus his freed spirit ascended to God who gave it. 
His was a character worthy of emulation. May God send us 
many such ! 

* A history of life and times of Judge Henry Wynkoop, in book form, is being pre- 
pared for publication by John S. Wurts, Esq., 1109 I.and Title Building, Philadelphia, 
who will be pleased to correspond with any one who may be interested in his publication. 


'henry Wynkoop, 

who departed ifii-^ Id'e 
contented arid gJTatef'ui. 


The Rodmans and Foxes. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 20, 1903.) 

Some enterprising individual with a mathematical turn of mind, 
reasoning that since each of us possessed two parents, who in 
turn had a like number of progenitors, a very simple calcula- 
tion would prove that twenty generations back we had the re- 
spectable number of 1,048,576 grandparents of that degree of 
remoteness. It shows what an enormous population existed upon 
earth at the time of Adam ! 

We shall not, like the amiable Diedrich Knickerbocker, at- 
tempt to trace the Fox and Rodman families back to such an- 
tiquity. Just a few incidents that stand out from the gathering 
gloom of the past are here presented ; and yet, perhaps, they 
may serve to show the personality of the men and the character- 
istics of the times better than would ever so complete a record 
of births, marriages and deaths. 

John Rodman, the ancestor of the Rodmans in the New World, 
is probably first met with in the year 1655. in a little episode in 
keeping with the spirit of that age. Rodman was a Quaker, 
and with tenacious adherence to the tenets of his sect, refused 
to remove his hat when in attendance at the Assizes of New 
Ross, an Irish town in the western part of county Wexford. 
Committed to gaol by Judge Louder and kept there for three 
months, he refused to purge himself of the contempt of court, 
and was banished from the country. 

Settling in the parish of Christ Church, Island of Barbadoes. 
he became a planter. Plantation life in that summer isle is 
described by a writer in 1708. who says "the planters live each 
like little sovereigns on their plantations. They have their ser- 
vants of the household and those of the field. Their tables 
are spread every day with a variety of nice dishes, and their 
attendants are more numerous than many of the nobility's in 
England. Their equipages are rich, their liveries fine, their 
coaches and horses answerable, their chairs, chaises, and all the 
conveniences for their traveling magnificent. 


Dr. John Rodman, son of the former, came to Newport, R. 
I., in 1682, and subsequently settled on Block Island, a rugged, 
billowy mass of rocky hills emerging from the Atlantic some 30 
miles southwest of Newport. This was far from being the pleasant 
summer resort that it now is. Pirates, privateers and a miscellan- 
eous assortment of picturesque buccaneers and swash-bucklers 
made life too theatrical for the good doctor, who is described as 
"a gentleman of great ingenuity, and of an affable, engaging be- 
havior, of the profession of them called Quakers." Affable 
though his manners were, he had inherited his father's quiet 
obstinacy and pertinacity. His son, John, narrates an incident 
occurring in the summer of 1690, when a ship manned by a rabble 
rout of French, English and Mustees, came sailing past the is- 
land. Led by a renegade Englishman, they concealed their true 
identity, and under some pretext or other got the unsuspecting 
islanders to call out to them from shore the proper directions 
for avoiding the hidden rocks, and so came safely to anchor. 
Sending heavily-armed boat crews ashore, and making prisoners 
of those whom they came across at the landing, among whom 
was Dr. Rodman, they proceeded to their work of pillage and 
plunder. Dr. Rodman secured permission to go home and see 
to his family and was escorted to his house, which the scoun- 
drels had used as an impromptu jail, the men being secured 
upstairs and the women below. The doctor refused to leave 
the latter to the tender mercy of the ruffians ; and in spite of 
threats and finally a sword-thrust made by one of the party, 
which was parried by another of his fellows, he remained fixed 
in his resolve. Fearing the consequences of killing him, 
one of the buccaneers went to the door, shot a fat hog, and 
ordered Dr. Rodman to dress it. The latter said he had never 
done such a thing in his life and knew not how, but that should 
they realease the prisoners upstairs, some of them could doubt- 
less do so. Finally, cowed by his unyielding and intrepid spirit, 
they abandoned the execution of their fiendish designs, set the 
islanders free, and departed with their booty. 

Several analogous adventurers wearied the worthy doctor of 
what too greatly resembled "A life on the ocean wave," and 
making large purchases of land both in Long Island and in 
Hunterdon county. New Jersey, he moved to the former place. 


His son John, also a "Chirurgeon," made his home in Burling- 
ton, and became the owner of land both in Eensalem and in 
Warwick township, Bucks county. William, son of the youngest 
John Rodman, resided on his father's plantation in Bensalem, 
upon which a house had been erected about the year 1715. 
Upon his marriage, in 1744, to Mary, daughter of Dr. John 
Reeve, of Burlington, he made large additions to the house, which 
was situated on the Neshaminy. about four miles from its 
mouth ; and named the estate "Rodmanda." This name was 
changed by his son William, at the beginning of the last century, 
to "Flushing," as being more democratic, and i;ot savoring so 
much of aristocracy. 

The old house with its gable end stood until 1861 upon the 
brow of a gentle slope about two hundred yards distant from 
the Neshaminy creek. In former times a spring of water welled 
forth at the foot of this slope, but one day. when the elder Wil- 
liam Rodman was a young man, he was riding in a distant part 
of the plantation and plucked up a young buttonwood sapling 
to use as a riding whip. Upon his return he stopped at the spring 
to refresh himself, and beside it planted the switch. This took 
root and grew with the passing years to be a stately tree. Its 
roots drank eagerly of the life-giving water, till at last naught 
of the spring remains, while the tree has grown to be one of 
the largest east of the Rocky Mountains, with its green foliage 
and rugged boughs supported by a massive trunk thirty feet in 

William Rodman was a member of the Assembly from Bucks 
county from 1763 to 1776. and was appointed one of a committee 
of five to negotiate a treaty with the Indians at Fort Pitt in 
1768, but declined, since his health and business aflairs prevented 
so long and toilsome a journey through the wilderness. 

Shortly after this came the exciting times of the Revolution. 
The Friends, who formed so large a proportion of the inhabi- 
tants in this region, were for the most part neutral, refusing to 
take any active part in the struggle on account of conscientious 
scruples ; but the Rodmans were ardent patriots, thereby in- 
curring the discipline of the meeting. This section of the coun- 
try was the scene of much military activity. From near here 
Washington made his brilliant dash on Trenton and his march 


on Princeton. The short distance between Flushing and Phila- 
delphia made Flushing subject to marauding expeditions while 
the British occupied that city, and frequently the cattle had to 
be hastily driven away to prevent their falling into the hands of 
the enemy. 

The two sons of William Rodman, Gilbert and WiUiam, Jr., 
enlisted. In organizing for resistance to the British the patriots 
of Bucks county generally met either at Newtown or in Buck- 
ingham township, at the tavern of John Bogart, Centreville. At 
the latter place, on July 20, 1775, the officers of various recently 
formed companies met for the purpose of selecting field officers. 
Those chosen for the second battalion were : Joseph Hart, 
colonel ; Robert Shewell, lieutenant colonel ; James McMasters, 
first major; Gilbert Rodman, second major; Joseph Shaw, stan- 
dard bearer and William Thompson, adjutant. Colonel Hart 
made return of this election to the Committee-of-safety at the 
same patriotic tavern on April 24. 1776, and soon they took 
the field. 

After the evacuation of Boston by the British, Washington 
went to New York and Brooklyn with his army, and a little 
later on the British came sailing in from Halifax and landed on 
Staten Island. Washington had already foreseen the gravity and 
sternness of the struggle, and as a result of his exertions Con- 
gress had passed a resolution that Continental regulars should 
be enlisted for three years, and that meantime a flying-camp of 
10,000 militia, furnished by Pennsylvania, Delaware and Mary- 
land, to enlist by the first of December, should be stationed in 
the Jerseys for the defense of the middle colonies. The greatest 
danger of invasion was from Staten Island, where the British 
were throwing up works, and from whence they might attempt to 
cross to Amboy. In consequence of this danger, the flying- 
camp was stationed there, and to this camp went Colonel Hart 
and his regiment. On August 10, 1776, an entry in the diary 
of Captain Loxley, of the Philadelphia artillery company, says "at 
10 A. M. we paraded the men ; Captain Stiles joined us, and 
marched down near Colonel Miles' house; there took the right 
of the Bucks county battalion, commanded by Colonel Hart ; 
formed the circle, and William Bradford, Jr., brigade major, by 


order of General Roberdeau, read the address from General 
Washington." And again. 

"Headquarters, Amboy, August 19th. 
■'Parole, ]\Iifflin ; countersign, war; field officer for tomorrow, 
Colonel Hart." 

Life in camp was varied by attempted attacks on the British, 
which were rendered futile by lack of boats ; and when finally 
the enemy had landed such an overwhelming force as to be un- 
assailable, they could but take an occasional shot at a red-coat 
across the water, or seek to damage Howe's vessel with fire- 
ships. Instead of attacking Amboy the British crossed over to 
Long Island, drove the Americans out and took possession of 
New York. These are matters of history known to all. 

Just north of the city, on the ridge separating the Hudson from 
the Harlem river, the Americans still held Fort Washington, and 
opposite, on the Jersey shore, Fort Lee. Geneial Washington, 
who was at White Plains, gave discretionary orders for the 
evacuation of Fort Washington, but the officers on the ground 
thought best to maintain it. It was garrisoned chiefly by Penn- 
sylvania troops, under the command of Colonel ]\Iagaw, who 
felt confident of his ability to hold the place. As he had about 
3,000 men under his command, and the fort itself would accom- 
modate but a third of this number, the balance were disposed 
about the outworks. To the eastward, among the rocks and 
trees overlooking the Harlem, was Lieutenant Colonel Baxter 
with a portion of Colonel Hart's Bucks county battalion, the re- 
mainder of the battalion being still at the flying-camp. Howe 
made four simultaneous attacks upon the devoted fortress. The 
one from the east was under the command of General Mathew, 
who crossed the river in flat-boats and was reinforced by Lord 
Cornwallis, with the first and second grenadiers and a regiment 
of light infantry. Scrambling, pushing, climbing, from rock to 
rock and height to height, Cornwallis and Mathew hurled their 
overwhelming force on the little band of Bucks county soldiers, 
who made a desperate struggle to maintain their position. Col- 
onel Baxter fell by the hand of a British officer while bravely 
fighting at the head of his troops, and the few who survived were 
driven into the fort. The same fate befell the Americans on all 


sides, and the fort was taken. From across the river Washing- 
ton, who had come down from White Plains, witnessed the dis- 
aster, powerless to help; and when he saw the wounded Amer- 
icans, begging for quarter, mercilessly bayonetted by the brutal 
Hessians, he burst into tears, sobbing and weeping, says a con- 
temporary, "with the tenderness of a child." 

Just what part of Colonel Hart's regiment had left. Amboy and 
was with Lieutenant-Colonel Baxter at Fort Washington I cannot 
say; but it would seem almost certain that the Fifth Company, 
Captain Jamison, was a part of his command; since in October 
it had been sent under him to Newtown to suppress a Tory elec- 
tion ; and subsequent to the capture of Fort Washington. Both 
its captain, John Jamison, and the second lieutenant, John Irwin, 
were prisoners in the hands of the British. It may be, also, that 
the first major, James McMasters, was in the ill-fated detachment, 
since he, too, was in the Newtown affair. 

Three other Bucks county companies, though not from Hart's 
battalion, certainly participated — those of Captains Beatty, Bene- 
zet and Vansant, who were under Colonel Magaw. 

The full strength of Colonel Hart's regiment at Amboy was 
not kept up till winter. On December 8th the Colonel himself 
was back home, probably on leave, and upon that day he wrote 
the Committee-of-safety that no provision was made for the men 
at the camp, and he says : "It will be impossible for them to lie 
in the open air without tents or cover." The life of those at 
Amboy, therefore, was no bed of roses. Their time of enlist- 
ment had expired, and somewhere about the first of the year 1777 
they were discharged. 

For his participation in this campaign Gilbert Rodman was 
disowned by the society of Friends. He afterwards engaged in 
business in Philadelphia, but failing health compelled him to live 
in the country, and he took up his residence at Spruce Hill farm, 
in Warwick township, just below Doylestown, where he lived 
till the death of his father-in-law, Richard Gibbs, in 1795. He 
then purchased Edington, the home of the latter in Bensalem, 
and in 1808 sold the Warwick farm to the county for an alms- 
house. The old house in which he lived still stands on the south 
side of the road leading from the Willow Grove pike to Castle 


His younger brother, William, also took an active part in the 
Revolution. On October 4, 1781, he was appointed brigade 
quartermaster of the militia vmder Brigadier-General Lacey, 
stationed at Newtown, and served until the militia was disbanded, 
shortly before the close of the war. For taking the oath of 
allegiance and fidelity to the State of Pennsylvania, he, like his 
father and elder brother, was disowned by Friends. Serving 
subsequently in the State Senate and the United States Congress, 
he occupied a prominent place in local affairs. The two brothers 
were at one in their high views of public morality. In 1797 a 
scheme none too savory had been suggested to William Rodman 
by certain politicians whereby his brother Gilbert might be elected 
to the Legislature. His reply was as follows : 

"I laid your scheme before my brother yesterday afternoon. He 
says that as the fair, voluntary, and unsolicited voice of his fellow 
citizens can alone be expressive of their confidence, no other method of 
obtaining their suffrages can be flattering or grateful to him. and having 
no sinister ends to serve, he has no motive to induce him to wish for 
the honor of a seat in the Legislature, if in the least tarnished by being 
acquired in a clandestine way. This being his determination. I hope you 
will excuse my not meeting you agreeably to your request." 

The above few episodes serve to illustrate the character of the 
Bucks county Rodmans. Quiet and peace-loving, they were 
firm, nay stubborn, in their adherence to what they conceived 
to be right, regardless of consequences. 

Alargery, daughter of Gilbert Rodman, married the late Judge 
John Fox, of Doylestown, a man who had inherited from both 
father and mother an aggressive love of independence ; albeit 
he was denominated by an aggrieved newspaper on the other side 
of the fence "the political despot of Bucks county." 

On August 20, 1641, the "Eyckenboom," one of those ponder- 
ous Dutch craft whose breadth of beam rivaled that of the equally 
ponderous "Burgomaster," arrived off IManhattan Island, having 
on board Cornelis Melyn, the great-great-great-grandfather of 
John Fox. An able and energetic merchant f r(jm Amsterdam ; 
he came to this country as patroon of Staten Island, after sundry 
vicissitudes on the way. His first expedition met with disaster, 
his vessel being captured by pirates and he himself held for ran- 
som ; but the "Eyckenboom" fared better, and carried him safely 
to the Western World. Sailing up the bay, anchor was dropped 


off the quaint little village of New Amsterdam, at that time con- 
sisting of a score or so of steep-roofed houses clustering round 
the stone and mud palisaded fort which manfully frowned down 
upon the placid waters of the bay, though, if the truth were 
known, those imposing ramparts were, in fact, in imminent peril 
of destruction from the assults of the thrifty burgers' swine. 
This secret undermining due to the porkers, while it greatly 
disturbed the commandant, in no wise took away from the 
picturesque aspect of the diminutive stronghold, with the high- 
pitched roof of the Director-General's house, the flag-staff with 
its orange, white and blue banner fluttering in the breeze, and the 
old Dutch wind-mill ; all emerging above the protecting circuit of 
the bastions. 

Life in the little village moved peacefully in those times. The 
monotony of the day was broken by the arrival of friendly Indians 
in their canoes, who exchanged furs and peltries for the various 
gew-gaws and trinkets dear to the savage heart In the long 
summer evenings the burger sat in front of his house pufiing 
contentedly, at his pipe, while his good vrouw knit industriously 
as she watched the children playing about her. 

The little community was all agog with excitement when the 
good ship Eyckenboom came to anchor. Immediately upon ar- 
riving Melyn paid his respects to Governor Kieft at the fort, and, 
presenting his credentials, secured the patents for his new domain. 
He began forthwith his work of colonization, which, under his 
able management, progressed prosperously, when, thanks to the 
bungling incompetency of Director General Kieft, the settlement 
was embroiled in warfare with the Indians. 

In 1639 the first outbreak had occurred, occasioned by Kieft's 
injudicious conduct. Arbitrary despot though he was, he found, 
like many a greater one, that war made it necessary to call on the 
people for the sinews thereof. Absolute as he might wish to 
be, the people over whom he ruled were tenacious of what they 
considered their rights. In the Netherlands, since the thirteenth 
century, every town below the grade of city was governed by a 
"Tribunal of Well-born Men," elected by all the inhabitants en- 
titled to votes. The number of well-born men varied, but was 
usuallv nine. 


A murder was committed by an Indian in revenge for the killing 
of his uncle twenty years before ; the demand for his surrender by 
Kieft, and a refusal on the part of the natives, started the trouble. 
Kieft became alarmed at the increasing bloodshed and destruc- 
tion, and called a popular assembly, who appointed a council or 
tribunal of twelve to take cognizance of affairs. Matters were 
settled after a fashion, but in 1643, when Melyn's colony was in 
full activity, trouble began in earnest. Kieft, in cold blood, ord- 
ered the massacre of. unoffending Indians; men, women and 
children. The storm that burst on the Dutch was terrific, and 
in the crisis Kieft had once more to call upon the people. A 
board of eight men was chosen. Five were Dutchmen, Cornells, 
Melyn, chairman of the board, being one ; one was a German, 
Joachim Kuyter, from Darmstadt, who heartily backed up Melyn 
in subsequent controversies with Kieft ; and two were English- 
men. Six months of wrangling with the Director saw but little 
or no improvement in the general situation. As a last resort the 
"eight men" sent an eloquent letter to the States General. In it 
they said : 

"Our fields lie fallow and waste ; our dwellings and other buildings are 
burned ; not a handful can be either planted or sown this autumn on the 
deserted places ; the crops which God permitted to come forth during 
the past summer remain on the fields standing and rotting * * * and 
we sit here amid thousands of barbarians, from whom we find neither 
peace nor mercy * * * All right-thinking men know here that these 
Indians have lived as lambs among us, until a few years ago * * * 
These hath the Directors, by various uncalled-for proceedings, so em- 
bittered against the Netherlands nation, that we do not believe that any- 
thing will bring them and peace back, unless the Lord, who bends all 
men's hearts to His will, should propitiate them." 

Of a voluminous report that Kieft had sent to the States 
General, giving his version of the situation, the eight warn 
their High Mightinesses. 

"If we are correctly informed by those who have seen it," say they, 
"it contains as many lies as lines." In conclusion, "It is impossible ever 
to settle this country until a different system be introduced here, and a 
new Governor be sent out. 

As a result of this document Kieft was recalled and Peter 
Stuyvesant appointed as his successor. Events in Melyn's career 
moved rapidly after Stuyvesant's arrival. A very graphic ac- 


count is given by Fiske, (see "The Dutch and Quaker Colonies 
in America") which we will here reproduce. 

"On the day when Kieft handed over his office to his successor, it 
was proposed that the conventional vote of thanks should be given him 
for his official conduct, whereupon two of the ablest of the Eight Men, 
Kuyter and Melyn, spoke out boldly, saying they had no reason to thank 
him, and would not. Presently these two gentlemen came forward with 
a petition for a judicial inquiry into Kieft's policy and behavior from the 
time in 1639, when he first tried to impose taxes upon the Indians." 
* * * "Stuveysant was not so dull as to overlook the bearings of this 
bold proposal. If such a weapon could be forged against Kieft another 
of like metal might some day be sharpened against himself. The sacred- 
ness of the Directorship must be sustained. 

He at once took Kieft's part, declaring that to petition against 
one's rulers was flat treason, no matter how much cause there 
might be for it; he forced the rejection of Alelyn and Kuyter's 

The guilty and alarmed Kieft, emboldened by this turn of 
events, became plaintiff ; and charged Melyn and Kuyter with 
being the authors of the memorial which had caused his removal ; 
and which, he claimed, contained false statements, calculated to 
bring the magistrates into contempt. Stuyvesant had worked 
himself into a passion by this time, and made up his mind to 
punish Melyn and Kuyter as an example. He ordered them to 
appear to answer within 48 hours Kieft's complaint, being no 
more than the accusation that the patroons had told the plain 
truth about himself ; other charges were trumped up. Both were 
convicted, with a shameless disregard of the evidence. Melyn 
was sentenced to seven years' banishment and a fine of 300 guil- 
ders, for treason and other heinous crimes ; Kuyter to three 
years' banishment and a fine of 150 guilders. Stuyvesant wished 
to have Melyn sentenced to death, but it was felt that this would 
be going too far. The sentences were unjust and very unpopular. 
Melyn declared his intention of appealing to the directors in 
Holland, which increased Stuyvesant's anger to fury. "1{ I was 
persuaded," he said to Melyn, "that you would appeal from my 
sentences, or divulge them, I would have your head cut off, or 
have you hanged on the highest tree in New Netherlands." 
Nothing excited him so much as the contempt of his authority 
involved in a threatened appeal to Holland. When any one 


m^entioned the subject he became so angry that "the foam hung 
on his beard." 

And now occured a strangely just retribution. The ship 
"Princess" lay at anchor in the East river ready to sail to Holland. 
Ex-director General Kieft embarked to return home, and the 
unfortunate patroons were sent aboard as prisoners. By some 
error of reckoning the "Princess" got into the Bristol Channel, 
-struck on a rock, and was beaten to pieces off the English coast. 
It was night when the ship struck, and at daybreak she began to 
go down. "And now," says Breeden Raedt, "this wicked Kieft, 
seeing death before his eyes, sighed deeply, and, turning to these 
two. said: 'Friends. I have been unjust towards you; can you 
forgive me ?' " 

His repentance came too late. Kieft and nearly all the ship's 
company were drowned in the presence of hundreds of English- 
men, who lined the strand and did what they could to rescue the 
unfortunates. An anonymous work published in 1649. which is 
ascribed to JMelyn himself, gives the following account of the 
wreck by the Breeden Raedt : 

"Jochem Pieterson Kuyter remained alone on a part of the ship on 
which stood a cannon, which he took for a man : but speaking to^ it 
and getting no answer, he supposed him dead. He was at last thrown on 
land, together with the cannon, to the great astonishment of the English, 
who crowded the strand, and iset up the ordnance as), a lasting memorial. 
Melyn, floating on his hack, fell in with others who had remained on 
a part of the wreck, till they were driven on a sandbank, which became 
dry with the ebb. 

Pertinacious and persistent, the two patroons would not leave 
the scene of the wreck till, after three days' hard work dragging 
the adjacent waters, they recovered the documents necessary to 
prove their case. Armed with these they were enabled to com- 
pletely justify themselves before the States General. 

Returning triumphantly from Holland with a letter of safety 
for himself from William H. Prince of Orange. IMelyn brought 
with him a reversal of his sentence, obtained from their High 
Mightinesses, together with a letter ordering Stuyvesant to ap- 
pear in person or by proxy, at the Hague, to answer the accusa- 
tions which he and Kuyter had brought against him. Melyn, 
smarting under his ill-treatment, was not inclined to spare the 
director. Upon his return a meeting of the citizens was held in 


the church. There he went in company with his friends and 
demanded that the reversal of his sentence be made as pubhc 
as the sentence itself had been. A hot dispute arose between 
Stuyvesant and his adherents on the one hand, and Melyn and 
his associates on the other. A vote being taken upon the question, 
the decision was in favor of Melyn. Van Hardenberg, a member 
of the nine men (a council that had succeeded the old board of 
eight), took the paper and rose to read it. In a terrible rage, 
Stuyvesant lost all control of himself, declared that a copy of the 
paper must first be served on him, rushed up to Van Harden- 
berg and snatched the paper from his hand. Van Hardenberg 
attempted to regain it, when the friends of each faction joined in 
the fray, and in the uproar and confusion the official seal was torn 
from the document. After an unseemly battle of some duration, 
the more conservative men present convinced Stuyvesant that 
his position could not be maintained. Melyn promised to furnish 
him with a copy of the reversal, and Van Hardenberg was per- 
mitted to read the torn and battle-scarred paper. 

Such was some of the fighting blood which came down to 
Judge Fox. His grandfather, an English army officer stationed 
in Ireland, married a lady from Dublin, in T750, and had two 
sons, Edward and Joseph. Some time before 1775 these two 
young gentlemen became involved in an insurrection against the 
English Government, and upon its failure were obliged to fly the 
country. Joseph went to France and Edward came to this 
country, where, possessing a liberal education and some means, he 
at once became associated with persons of prominence. He was 
on terms of intimacy with Robert Morris, and through his influ- 
ence was made auditor general of Pennsylvania. He was the 
first secretary and treasurer of the University of Pennsylvania, 
holding that office for a period of 34 years. He also held many 
other positions, political and otherwise, which it is not necessary 
here to speak of. He died April ii, 1822, leaving four surviving 
children, one of whom was John Fox. 

Born in 1787 and graduating at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1803, John Fox studied law with Hon. Alexander J. Dallas, 
after which he came to Bucks county and was admitted to the 
bar June i, 1807, at Newtown, the county-seat. There he remain- 
ed till 1813, when the seat-of-justice was removed to Doylestown. 


Going to Doylestown with the court, he held the office of deputy 
attorney general, as it was called, but now known as district 
attorney. This office he continued to hold for fifteen years, with 
the exception of his term of service in the army. 

At the time of his removal to Doylestown the "War of 1812" 
with England was taking place, and on land the incompetent 
conduct of the war by the Americans culminated in the invasion 
of Washington and the burning of the capitol, August 24, 18 14. 
It is difficult for us to realize the great progress made in the 88 
years that have passed since that time. It took two days for the 
momentous news to reach Doylestown, but when, on Saturday, 
August 26, the intelligence came that the city of Washington 
was in possession of the British, excitement rose to a fever heat. 

Court met the following Monday, Hon. Bird Wilson being 
the president judge, and Hon. Samuel Hart one of the associate 
judges. After court had convened. Deputy Attorney General 
Fox arose and stated that the capitol of the country was in the 
hands of the enemy ; Baltimore and Philadelphia were threat- 
ened by them ; and that he thought the people had other and higher 
duties to discharge that to be holding court at such a critical 
time. He, therefore, moved that the court adjourn, but the 
motion was refused by Judge Wilson. At this Mr. Fox took his 
hat, made a low bow to the court, and stating that the country 
needed his services elsewhere, walked out of the court-house. 

Mr. Fox had sounded that sympathetic chord, and the hearts of 
his hearers responded to the full. Judge Hart arose, followed 
the rapidly retreating form of the speaker, and, accompanied by 
the m^ijority of those in attendance on court, left the room, 
which in a few moments was nearly emptied. 

In front of the building Mr. Fox made a fiery speech, calling 
on his hearers to come to their country's aid. His patriotic 
action stimulated the military fervor. He himself left for New- 
town, where he called a meeting to raise a volunteer company. 
Shortly after he was elected second lieutenant in Captain Chris- 
topher Vanartsdalen's company of Newtown light infantry, thirty- 
second regiment of Pennsylvania militia. Colonel Lewis Bache. 
He was soon appointed aide to Major General Worrall, with the 
rank of major, and served till the close of the war. 

He then resumed the practice of his profession, but still retained 


his interest in military matters, and on August 3, 1828, he was 
made major general, second division, Pennsylvania militia. April 
16, 1830, he was appointed president judge of the courts of 
Bucks and Montgomery counties, which office he filled with mark- 
ed ability for twelve years. His most noteworthy decision was 
that upon negro suffrage, delivered by him December 28, 1837. 
Abraham Fretz had been a candidate for county commissioner 
and had received a majority of the votes, forty of which had been 
cast by negroes, and without which his opponent's votes out- 
numbered his own. After a masterly discussion of the legal 
principles involved, the decision closed with the following words : 
"For the reasons given, the court is of the opinion that a negro 
in Pennsylvania has not the right of suffrage." This decision 
created the greatest interest at the time, and the precedent held 
until the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

For many years Judge Fox took an active part in political 
affairs, and indeed it is due to his influence that Hon. Samuel J. 
Ingham had a seat in Jackson's cabinet. He was intimate with 
many of the national leaders, and could have had high preferment 
had he desired it, but, in the words of a contemporary, "During 
the many warm political contests in which he was engaged, he 
uniformly refused office, preferring, with wisdom, to devote 
his time to that profession of which he was a distinguished mem- 

I trust that these few sketches may serve to make real the 
personality of some to whom this county owes in part its sterling 
manhood. Though they have departed they are none the less 
existent. "Is the past annihilated, then, or only past?" asks 
Carlyle. "The curtains of yesterday drop down, the curtains of 
to-morrow roll up ; but yesterday and to-morrow both are." 

The Folwells of Bucks County. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 20, 1903.) 

The following rough memoranda are prepared in the hope 
that they may call out from the members of the Bucks County 
Historical Society information which may lead to filling the gaps 
and the correction of probable errors. 

The first known appearance of the name Folwell in its earlier 
Frencli dress, "Folvile," is on the roll of Battle Abbey (1066). 

Much disconnected gossip is to be found in the publications of 
the Camden Society, Vol. 4 ; in the papers of the Harleian Society, 
\'ol. 18, and in Nichol's History of Leicestershire. Among other 
items the following: 

1. "The family of Folvile or Follevile * * * came out of Normandy 
with the Conqueror and were seated here (in Ashby, Leicestershire) in 
the reign of King Stephen (1135-1153.) 

2. Sir Walter de Folvile, living in 1186, was succeeded by Sir William 
Folvile, Knight, who, siding with the rebellious barons in 1216, had his 
lands seized by the king * * * \y■^■^^ j^g ^,^5 afterwards restored to them 
and to the king's favor. 

3. "In 1326 Eustace de Folvile and two of his brothers having been 
threatened by Roger le Beler. one of the justices itinerant, and then very 
old, they took the law into their own hands, and barbarously murdered 
the judge in a valley near Reresby." 

The wife of the writer suggested that here would be a conven- 
ient point to suspend further inquiries into the history of his 
possible ancestors. But it is proper to add that the Chronicle 
relates that King Fl'enry, who was John's son, gave to Sir Eustace 
de Folvile, Lord of Ashby-Folvile, a charter of pardon for divers 
trespasses he had done against the king, and for slaying of his 
chief justice. Sir Roger Beler, dated July 26, in the 51st year of 
his reign. It is also added that Beler was an oppressor of church- 
es and of his neighbors. In Nichol's description of Ashby church 
it is recorded : 

"In this church is an ancient and fair altar for one of the Folviles m 
armor, under the south window, and is said to be for old Folvile, who 
slew Beler." 


4. " * * * gi,- John Folvile, the first son of Mabell (Delamar), 
aforesaid, had never issue; nevertheless he wedded an old ancient lady 
of Yorkshire that was the wife of Lord Marmion, that he might dispend 
yearly her seven hundred marks — and they kept a worthy household and 
great at Ashby-Folvile." 

5 "Dame Margaret, after the decease of Sir Christopher, her hus- 
band, was in the household of Sir John Folville, her husband's brother, 
and was Mickel cherished there and was with him in household at 
Ashby-Folvile till he was dead ; and then she imagined false deeds and 
let write them and ensealed them with his hand when he was dead, for 
she had the seal of his arms, and all his deeds. And this false feofment 
was made by her when Sir John Folvile was dead with the seal of his 
arms, and, therefore, I suppose verily that she is in hell. Nevertheless she 
delivered and made confession ere she died that she had made false 

In an account of her confession by a certain abbot elsewhere 
given, Dame Margaret declared "that she had done such deed, 
but by the evil counsel of men of law." All is forgiven, good 
Dame. May your penitent soul still be at peace. 

William de Folvile was born at Ashby-Folvile. He was bred 
a Franciscan in the University of Cambridge, and engaged him- 
self a great master of defense in that doughty quarrel pro pueris 
induendis, that children under the age of eighteen ought not to 
be admitted to monastic orders — one Folvile with more passion 
than reason maintained the legality thereof. He died and was 
buried among those of his order at Stamford, circa 1384. 

The Ashby-Folvile estate probably passed to a collateral branch 
in the fourteenth century and the last mention of it found is to 
the efifect that in 1776 it was sold in lots. In 1800 the village 
was reduced to thirty houses, and "a. pleasing mansion watered 
with much taste." 

The Cheshire branch mentioned in the Harleian papers is 
worthy of notice from the appearance of Christian names still 
familiar in this day. "John Folvile vulgo ffooil, of Middlewich, 
had children, John, Thomas, William and Margaret." 

The Folvile arms on account of simplicity and the absence of th.; 
crest indicate an early origin. In the dialect of heraldry they are 
"Party per fess, argent and or; a cross moline gules" — which, be- 
ing interpreted, means, a red millers' cross on a field, half silver, 
half gold. 

It must be here confessed that the writer has but slight ground 


for the expectation that a connection may be traced between the 
plebeian Folwells of America and the ancient and knightly family 
of Old England. But the object of this writing is to elicit in- 
formation in America as to whether there survives in Bristol, 
England, a family of Folwells. 

In regard to the Folwells of the United States there is the 
familiar tradition of "three brothers who came over with Wil- 
liam Penn," but the writer has not found any mention or refer- 
ence to such an immigration in the Pennsylvania Colonial records. 

There is reason, however, for believing that there were three 
brothers who near the close of the seventeenth century came over 
to New Jersey at or about the same time. An encyclopedia 
article relates that Lord Berkeley sold West Jersey to a firm of 
Quakers who established a settlement at Salem in 1675 and soon 
after another at Burlington. It may be surmised that the Folwell 
immigrants were among those settlers. 

The first of these brothers was William Folwell and he is said 
to have settled in Salem, N. J. From him it is surmised have 
descended a group of Folwell families, known in Morristown, 
Mount Holly, and Mullica Hills, N. J. Of these the writer has 
but slender and disconnected notes. 

The second, Peter, was town clerk in Burlington, N. J., in 1702. 
Of him nothing further is known. Mr. Thomas Service Folwell, 
of Archdale, N. C, writes (1902) that his father's name was 
Peter Folwell, and that he was born in Bucks county. Pa., in 
1809. Query — Are these in the same line? 

The third of the original emigrants — if three there were — was 
Nathan Folwell, of Mansfield, Burlington county, N. J. Of his 
identity there is no doubt, and he is the patriarch of a numerous 
tribe. It is noteworthy that he capitalized his signature with two 
"lower-case" "f's," fifolwell, after the fashion of the Cheshire 
family in England. 

One of the Cranford ladies said: "There was a deal in a name. 
She had a cousin who spelt his name with two little fif's, and he 
always looked down upon capital letters and said they belonged to 
lately-invented families." 

Nathan, of Mansfield, N. J., had eight children ; five sons, 
Nathan. John. George, William, Joseph; and three daughters, 
Mary, Hannah and Elizabeth. Of these the writer has no trace 


except of the fourth son, WiUiam, who was born March 30, 1704, 
and married Ann Potts December, 1727. Both were received 
into the Southampton Baptist church July 20, 1755, a recorded 
fact which suggests that the couple settled in Bucks county about 
that time. From this pair have descended a numerous progeny, 
far beyond the limits of this paper to detail. 

His children were one daughter, Sarah, who became the wife 
of Arthur Watts in 1758, and three sons, John, Joseph and Wil- 
liam. John left no children. Joseph emigrated to Canada and 
raised a large family. Thomas, born in 1737, married Elizabeth 
Watts, and was one of the trustees of the Southampton Baptist 
church when it was incorporated in 1794. 

The four daughters of Thomas intermarried with Harts, 
Purdys, Joneses and Reeders and disappear from the Folwell line. 

His one son, William Watts Folwell, born January 28, 1768, 
graduated from Brown University in 1796, married Jane Dun- 
g-an the same year, appears to have resided in Bucks county till 
1806, when he migrated to the "Genessee Country" in central 
New York. 

There is a romantic but sad story of a previous journey into 
that region to consummate a large land purchase engineered by a 
reverend gentleman of great fame, whose name need not now be 
revealed. Folwell and Joseph Hart set out with the preacher and 
traveled together to Williamsport, Pa. At that point the leader 
made an excuse for leaving them, pretending it to be necessary to 
have a personal interview with Courtlandt Van Rensselaer, the 
patroon at Albany, a holder of large tracts in the interior. The 
two others made their way to the rendezvous, (Sayre's tavern on 
the east bank of Seneca lake,) where they learned that the rever- 
end gentleman had not gone to Albany, but had traveled rapidly 
by another route in advance of them. Also that he had disposed of 
some effects and departed for the Carolinas. Folwell and his com- 
panion returned at once to their home, called together the ten men 
who were investing in the enterprise, and handed to each the pack- 
age of money originally made up by him. Judge Wynkoop broke 
open his package, to find nothing but the rags of a pair of satin 
breeches. The others had been similarly rifled. A long and 
vain pursuit, a return, a long wait in jail pending trial, a convey- 
ance of certain properties, a payment of the balance in cash, and 


an abandonment of prosecution complete the story. The importance 
of it is that young Mr. Folwell was so enamored of the beautiful 
region "between the Lakes" (Seneca and Cayuga) that he was 
not content until he had established his permanent home there. 
There he lived surrounded by a numerous group of descendants 
till 1859, dying at the age of ninety-one. He was a typical 
country gentleman of the old school, with manners which might 
well be revived in these days of hurry and hustle. 

Although attached to the Baptist church, he had the quiet 
repose of a Quaker. The tradition is that the Folwells were 
originally Friends. Here may have been a case of reversion. 

He had two sons, who had families. Dr. Nathan Wright 
Folwell and General Thomas Jefferson Folwell. Both lived to 
the last on sections of the domain acquired by their father.' All 
of their sons of military age with one exception served on the 
Union side in the war of the Rebellion. 

As this is partly a story of migrations, the writer may be 
excused for reference to another in which he himself appears. 

The son of General T. J. Folwell, just mentioned, (the writer 
of this paper,) was born in 1833, graduated from Hobart College 
in 1857, served through the war in the Fiftieth N. Y. Engineer^, 
married in 1863 ; moved to Minnesota in 1869 to become president 
of the University of Minnesota. After fifteen years in that 
capacity he exchanged it for the professorship of political 
science, which he still occupies. How large a group of Folwells 
are to spring up in Minnesota cannot yet be guessed at. 

The writer indulges the hope that members of the Bucks County 
Historical Society who may accept this sketch, will be both able 
and willing to furnish some of the information so conspicuously 
necessary. The slightest notes will be welcome to one who 
resides at so great a distance from the ancient home of his fathers. 

Memorandum of variants on the name Folwell: Foil well, 
Fallwell, Falwell, Folvile. Folevile. Follvile, Folleville, Favell, 
Fauvel, Falvel, Faviell. Fawell, Faville, Fowell, Fauel, Fouel, 
Yoghill, Vowell, Flavel, Fauville, Flavelle, Fowle, Fowler, 
Fowls, Foule, Fovil, Foluile, ffovil, ffolvile, ffolwell. 

Historic "Summerseat." 

(Morrisville Meeting, May 26, 1903.) 

The Bucks County Historical Society having been invited to 
meet at "Summerseat" to-day it is only fitting that a brief 
history of the property should be presented to it. 

The earliest records indicate that the lands of Summerseat 
formed a part of the property of a certain John Wood, an Eng- 
lishman, who settled in Bucks county in 1678, and took up 478 
acres of land oppos'te the falls. The succession of owners from 
1678 to 1859 is as follows: 

1678, John Wood; from 1684, John Ackerman ; 1687, Jos- 
eph Wood; 1723, Josiah Wood, to 1770, William Wood; 1773, 
Thomas Barclay; 1791, Robert Morris; 1798, George Clymer ; 
1805, Henry Clymer; 1812, Elizabeth Waddell ; 1859, John 
Humfrey Osborne. 

Morrieville, the borough in which the property is partly in- 
cluded, was originally known as '"Colvin's Ferry," which name 
it retained until it came into the possession of Robert Morris, 
who is said to have built a number of houses, and projected 
other improvements in the settlement. Morrisville came very 
near being the site of the National Capitol, and Summerseat 
seems to have been the very spot selected, for "the high ground 
lying west of the village" is mentioned in the description. In 
fact the location was actually decided upon by resolution of Con- 
gress in 1783, and commissioners had been appointed to lay out 
the district ; but Washington disapproved of the scheme, and so 
the matter was dropped. 

In 1773 Thomas Barclay, of Philadelphia, purchased the prop- 
erty, which then consisted of 221 acres, and erected the house 
which remains to all intents and purposes as he left it, with the 
exception of the wing to the north, which was added by Mr. 
Waddell. Thomas Barclay was registered in 1782 as having 11 

In November, 1791, Summerseat passed into the hands of 


Robert Morris, the "Financier of the RevoKition." He was 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; but 
his dedication of time, talents and wealth to the cause of the 
infant State has never been appreciated as it deserved. 

Morrisville was called after him, and he lived for some time 
in a fine mansion in "The Grove." He died in Philadelphia, 
deserted and friendless. May 8, 1806. The house in "The 
Grove" was afterwards the residence, for about three years, of 
the French General Moreau, who doubtless was often found 
among the company assembled at Summerseat. Moreau was 
subsequently killed at the battle of Leipsic, in 1813, while con- 
versing with the Emperor Alexander. 

In 1798 George Clymer, another signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, became the owner of the property, and died there 
January 2^, 1813. He was buried in the Friends' meeting 
ground, at the corner of Hanover and Montgomery streets, 
Trenton, New Jersey. 

In 1805 George Clymer made a deed of gift of the property 
of Summerseat to his son, Henry Clymer. 

The next owner, 1812, was Elizabeth Waddell (nee Pem- 
berton), wife of Henry L. Waddell, a Frenchman. A brother 
of Mr. Waddell was rector of St. Michael's church, Trenton, 
New Jersey. Henry L. Waddell died in March, 1833. Eliza- 
beth Waddell, his wife, died in 1859. For many years after 
the death of Mr. Waddell the property was in the hands of ten- 
ants, some of whom sadly neglected and abused the premises, 
selling statuary, etone and iron-work, cutting down hedges, and 
even whitewashing the rooms of the mansion and storing grain 
upon its floors. 

During Mr. Waddell's time, in 1824, Lafayette revisited the 
United States, and received a hearty welcome, especially in 
Trenton, Bristol and Philadelphia. On his way from Trenton 
to Philadelphia he was entertained and spent a night at Summer- 
seat, arriving in a barouche drawn by six cream-colored horses, 
and escorted by a troop of cavalry. This troop of cavalry, ac- 
cording to the statement of a very old resident, was drilled in 
one of the fields adjoining the mansion. The statement that 
Lafayette spent a night at Summerseat rests upon the authority 


of Mrs. Fetters, a daughter of Mr. Waddell. Mrs. Fetters paid 
several visits to her old home, the last being about the year 
1885, and she not only pointed out the room in which Lafayette 
slepr, which was hung with pictures of French generals, but 
spoke of the ball given here in his honor that evening. The 
Marquis was escorted across the bridge by the Governor of 
New Jersey and staff, and received on this side by the Governor 
of Pennsylvania and staff, and Henry L. Waddell is mentioned 
in the records as having been present. The Delaware Division 
of the Pennsylvania canal was in process of digging at the time 
of Lafayette's visit. 

In the autumn of 1859 Summerseat was purchased by John 
Humfrey Osborne. Mr. Osborne, though an Englishman, was 
connected with one of the heroic figures of the American Revo- 
lution, his great-grandmother on his mother's side having been 
a sister of General Mercer. Dr. Hugh Mercer (for he was a 
physician) was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1721, and edu- 
cated at its university. He was a surgeon in the army of Prince 
Charles Stuart, and after the disastrous battle of Culloden came 
to America in 1747. He practiced medicine for some years; 
was present with Washington at Braddock's defeat ; in the 
Revolutionary War was commissioned a brigadier general on 
Washington's recommendation, and was killed leading a gallant 
charge at the battle of Princeton. His remains were followcvi 
to the grave in Philadelphia by thousands of people, and were 
laid to rest in Christ churchyard, from whence in 1840, "with 
unusual pomp," they were removed to Laurel Hill cemetery, 
where a handsome monument was erected over them by St. 
Andrew's Society. This monimient beare inscriptions upon its 
four sides; that upon the east side quoting the words of Wash- 
ington, who mourned his companion in arms as "the worthy and 
brave Mercer." It may well be that General Mercer, who was 
one of the officers crossing the Delaware with Washington, may 
have been among the distinguished men, who have been enter- 
tained at Summerseat. The United States Government is about 
to erect a monument to his memory at Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
where for a number of years he was settled as a physician. 

Joseph Bonaparte, the ex-king of Spain, is said to have of- 


fered a handsome price for Summerseat, but, finding he could 
not buy it. he purchased the well-known property at Borden- 
town, N. J. 

The frame building near the canal bridge, at the north en- 
trance to the property is the remains of the old school-house, 
the land upon which it stands having been deeded to trustees, 
in 1762, by Josiah Wood. The original building was of stone, 
to which subsequently was put a frame addition. Many of the 
old residents in this neighborhood were among the pupite who 
received the first elements of their education under its roof. In 
1858 the school-house property was sold to Mahlon M. Wright, 
and by him in the same year to David W. Kelly, from whom 
it was purchased by John H. Osborne in 1865, and restored to 
the lands of Summerseat. 

The oval grass-plot on the west side of the house, in the 
centre of which was a sun-dial, was in Washington's time sur- 
rounded by a post and chain fence. To these posts the officers 
were accustomed to tie their horses. 

The ruins at the north end of the garden ar-^ known as the 
old slave-quarters, where the gardener and other servants were 
housed. There is a tradition that a British soldier was buried 
in the grounds near these quarters. 

Beneath the house is a wine cellar, and four other cellars, 
well lighted and capacious. 

The approach to the place and the mansion and grounds have 
been portrayed in the following words : 

"A quiet village street ending in a rail-guarded bridge, across which 
the street merges into the country highway ; glimpses of the Delaware 
here and there through the trees, with low meadows between : nothing in 
sight to suggest the present. Such are the surroundings to the home of 
John H. Osborne, a place redolent of Colonial times and Revolutionary 
interests. At the roadside entrance stands a small lodge-house, a hip- 
roofed building, quaint in its plainness ; past which the long avenue, with 
its quadruple row of cedars, winds up the hill to the well-kept, substantial 
mansion at the top.- The house, of two and a half stories, facing the 
river, consists of a main building, and a smaller wing; it is of a grey 
color, well toned by time and weather; a broad piazza crosses the front, 
upon which the windows of the lower rooms open to the floor. Within, 
from the wide hall, four large, cheerful rooms open, two on either side, 
the heavy timbered floors, the panelled doors, the high ceilings, the wain- 


scoting and mouldings, so well preserved, all bear substantial witness to 
times when solidity was a reality and not an appearance. From the 
windows, across the sloping fields and shining strip of river, lies Trenton, 
with its hazy veil of smoke and present day activity, in contrast with its 
neighbor on the Pennsylvania hillside. Passing through the hall and out 
the opposite door, the house presents from this side a much quainter ap- 
pearance; there is an irregularity in the position of the windows and 
small hooded porch over the hall door with its latch and knocker, while 
the wall of the smaller wing is broken by an arched recess opening upon 
a brick pavement, where, at the moment, stood several figures, dogs and a 
horse ready saddled, giving a characteristic touch to the picture. Many 
interesting ornaments, showing the taste of past owners, at one time 
adorned the place ; all are lo«g since scattered ; a pair of lions now guard- 
ing the entrance to Fl. George's Hall, Philadelphia, came from here. But 
as we saw it one blustering October day, the wind blowing the leaves 
down in yellow showers, it seemed to us the place wanted no other adorn- 
ment than the beautiful trees which surround it on all sides — tulips, pop- 
lars, maples, ash, walnuts, chestnuts dropping their nuts with every wind, 
tall cedars and pines OiUtlining the avenues and mingling their darker 
foliage with the gay autumn tints on the lawn : they entirely conceal the 
house, but make a landmark of a place to which each year is adding a 
new interest." 

Such was the picture, as seen through the eyes of an artist, 
who made a note of her visit some ten years ago. 

But the chief interest attaching to Summerseat is the fact that 
it was the headquarters of General Washington from Sunday, 
December 8, to Saturday, December 14. 1776. From Summer- 
seat Washington removed his headquarters to the farm-house 
of William Keith, near Newtown, from which place he went 
into camp above Trenton falls on Friday, December 20th, and 
on the following Wednesday. December 25th, a little before 
midnight, made hie famous passage of the Delaware at McKon- 
key's Ferry, now known as Taylorsville. On the day he arrived 
at Mr. Barclay's he wrote a letter to the President of Congress, 
dated: "At Mr. Berkeley's, Summerseat, Pennsylvania." On 
December 9th he wrote in his diary : "General Mifflin at this 
moment came up and tells me that all the military stores yet 
remain in Philadelphia. This makes the immediate fortifying of 
the city so necessary that I have desired General Mifflin to 
return and take charge of the stores, and have ordered Major 
General Putnam immediately down to superintend the work and 
give the necessary directions." On December 13th he wrote to 


the President of Congress : "I shall remove further up the 
river to be near the main body of my small army, with which 
every possible opposition shall be given to any further approach 
of the enemy towards Philadelphia." 

The name of Washington is one of tho6e world-wide names 
which can never be forgotten. The wonderful balance of his 
character, his unshrinking devotion to duty, his steady hope- 
fulness in adversity, his self-effacement in prosperity, his stern 
veracity and unsullied virtue, combine to make him one of the 
grandest figures that have ever appeared among the eons of 
men. His memory rests like a golden shadow upon the land he 
loved, and this imperial man, so modest and yet so sublimely 
great, has left the impress of his magnificent personality as a 
standard of manly perfectnes«s to all succeeding generations. 

As Byron sing-; : 

"The Cincinnatus of the West, 
Whom envy dared not hate, 
Bequeath'd the name of Washington 
To make men blush there was but One !" 

Morrisville and Its Vicinity. 

(Morrisville Meeting, May 26, 1903.) 

The subject assigned to me, by your wortliy president, for 
this paper "Morrisville and Its Vicinity" is one about which 
a volume could be written. The geological history alone is very 
inviting to any one who may have the time and inclination to ex- 
amine it. It is also rich in prehistoric relics of races long 
since passed away. Only a couple of days ago my son brought 
me fine specimens of a stone-axe and a flint arrow-head just 
then plowed up in my field north of Edge Hill. Some time 
ago I found a meal-stone for fining the pounded corn and a 
stone-pounder for doing the mashing, also a curious stone in 
the shape of a portion of a back-bone of some ancient saurian, 
the real nature of which has not yet been determined, but in the 
vastness of the material at hand I have thought best to con- 


fine my paper as far as possible to the relation of matters and 
things of which history is silent or sparingly describes. 

It is well known that the falls of the Delaware was a favorite 
haun: of the red-men of the forest who lived by hunting and 
fishing. Deer, wild turkeys and animals fit for food were abun- 
dant, and the delicious shad swarmed at the falls in their season. 
When the white-man came he soon found the desirableness of 
the 6ituation. The climate was good and the rainfall more 
evenly distributed here than in other parts of our globe. 

The Dutch having taken Holland, turned their attention to the 
other parts of the world, and trying to reach the North Pole or 
some other region by a northwest passage, they landed up the 
Hudson where Albany now rears its lofty and expensive 
pile of State. Finding their way barred by shallows and the 
water getting too fresh for them they gravitated back to New 
York City which they called New Amsterdam. General Davis 
in his history says that three of them (a Dutchman goes to 
trading as soon as he strikes land) while after beaver skins, found 
the head waters of the Delaware and came down the river in 
1616. They passed the site on which Morrisville was afterwards 
built and went on to the Schuylkill, (thus going further and faring 
worse). They were made prisoners by the Mingoes and were 
ransomed by Capt. Hendrickson with some old kettles, beads 
and other things. The West India Trading Company in 1624 
and 1625 had a trading-post just below the falls at which time 
Morrisville may be said to have made a beginning. This post 
was broken up, probably for cause in 1627, and a vessel only 
remained, which was doubtless left as a matter of safety. I heard 
years ago that a certain noted fur-trader on the Susquehanna used 
to buy and sell by the pound, and the balance-scales being the 
handiest, as they could be hung from a tree or almost any place, 
and weights never being handy, he used his hand for one pound 
and his foot for two pounds. The natives, or I should say the 
Indians, found fault with his methods, and were very much in- 
censed thereat, saying, "Heap much for skins and heap little for 

In 1 83 1 the trading-post had been reinforced and re-estab- 
lished with 12 servants. From that time on visitors were fre- 

244 morrisville; and its vicinity 

quenr. In 1638 Robert Evelin wrote to Lady Plowden across 
the seas a glowing account of the fertility and beauty of the 
country. Campanius, a Swede, in 1642 wrote an account of the 
Delaware and stated that at the falls he found walnuts, chestnuts, 
peaches, mulberries, plums, grapes, hemp, hops and the calabash 
(pumpkin) and rattlesnakes. 

Peter Lividstrom surveyed and mapped the Delaware from 
the capes to the falls in 1654. The falls at that time bore the 
name of ''Alummengh," which I suppose must have been an ap- 
propriate Indian name for it. Parties from New Amsterdam 
trying to find their way to the settlements down the Delaware 
soon found that their shortest route was through the woods by 
way of the falls. Governor Andros came through in May, 1765, 
with a numerous retinue accompanying him ; as he crossed at 
the falls he was met by the sheriff (Cantwell ) and proceeded 
with him through Bristol to New Castle, where he held court, 
at the session of which it was ordered that convenient ways 
should be made between town and town. A ferry was therefore 
established on the west side of the river. The fare for a man 
was fixed at 10 slivers, equal to 18 cents, and for man with 
horse, 2 guilders or 60 cents (according to Peterson's coin book). 
In 1675, William Edmonson, a traveling Friend from Ireland 
on a visit to his brother on the Delaware say^- : "At 9 a. m. 
by the good hand of God we came to the falls and by his 
providence found an Indian boy, man and woman with a canoe. 
We hired him with some wampum-peg to take us over in the 
canoe and swam our horses. 

Lands were purchased by Andros in 1675 from Cold Spring 
above Bristol to 9 miles above the falls making a river front of 
18 miles, the falls being the centre of the tract, which being 
on the line of the most traveled road, the Kings highway, was 
beguming to be a place of some note. On this survey, lands 
were granted in 1679 to several English settlers, and in 1680, 
John Acreman & Son settled on a plot below the falls, contain- 
ing 309 acres, Thomas Sibeley 105 acres, Robert Scoley 206 
acres and Gilbert Wheeler, of London, with h.s wife, children 
and servants 205 acres, William Biles 309 acres and so on down 
to the lower end of the survey. John Wood, a Davis farmer 


from Axerclip county, York, the first English settler known in 
the county, in 1678 took 478 acres opposite the falls, and with 
live children settled where the borough of Alorrisville now is 
and including also the adjoining island. The river properties 
were soon taken up, and also the lands back from the falls, toward 
the Xeshaminy. 

It is generally conceded that the first court-house was located 
in Falls township, but its exact location seems to be unknown. 
The nearest to a solution is a statement in History of Bucks 
County, (1887) by J. H. Battle (p. 204) where it is stated that 
Dr. E. D. Buckman made some research in regard to this 
matter, and in a letter published in 1854, he says: 

"The most substantial matter learned was a tradition by a Jacob Smith, 
who then owned the first farm below Alorrisville, and showed us the 
building that was said to have been the first court-house and jail in 
Bucks county. It was situated on a part of his farm, about 200 yards 
from the river bank, at the mouth of a small creek, and opposite to what 
was then called Moon's island. The building was of logs, on a stone 
foundation, and two stories in height, with an attic under the roof. It 
was estimated to be about forty feet in length by twenty in width, and 
was divided on the lower floor into two rooms, one large one about 20 
feet square, the other, the width of the house, and from 12 to 15 feet in 
depth. The floor of the room was laid in double plank fastened with pins ; 
the two windows had been grated with iron bars, (long since removed,) 
and the doorway entrance from the other and larger room had also been 
grated ; the chimney that stood between the two rooms, built with a large 
fire-place for a wood fire, had its throat also grated with iron bars, which 
yet remained there. This room is said to have been used as a jail, and 
the larger one as the court-room, and the second story for the accommo- 
dation of the keeper." 

The historian, J. H. Battle, goes on to say that "the author 
of the letter does not lay great stress upon this evidence, and 
this traditionary court-house does not accord with the facts found 
in the records" and quotes the minutes of the session of the 
court, under the date of Wednesday, December 2, 1693, at "Court 
House near the falls," while sessions of the court at earlier 
and later dates were held at other places, and suggests that there 
may have been two court-houses in Falls before the one at 
Bristol was built. Under date of October 4, 1692, the court 
decided in the case of a prisoner that "it being the winter season, 
and the prison inconvenient for the season it was good to order 


that the prisoner be let go on bail." also the 14th of the loth 
month. 1692, an entry states that the court adjourned to the 
house of Joseph Chorley, the court-room being equally with the 
jail inconvenient for the season. In December, 1695. adjourn- 
ment again was made to Chorley 's house. December, 1702, a 
similar adjournment was made to the house of William Biles. 
He being a merchant probably had ample accommodation, 
and moreover there might have been other inducements, as 
Chorley had a license to sell beer, etc., and William Biles also 
was an importer and seller of rum. 

Historians seem to have had the impression that the court 
must of necessity have been located in the vicinity of William 
Penn's mansion, as being the most central. In answer to these 
observations I will say that according to the plan of the survey 
ordered by Governor Andros and the actual settlements made, its 
proximity to the crossing at falls and being at the head of tide 
water, the location as now defined was the most favorable situa- 
tion tor such an institution. Without mentioning their names 
I will give the number of families from CoM Spring to the 
location as now defined as 28, the number above to Taylorsville 24, 
and adjoining ones, toward the rear from the river, 19. The 
roads at that time were mere bridle paths and but little used, 
boats and canoes being a more easy means of conveyance when 
near the river. The location of the jail and court-house on or 
near the creek as it is called, (it is really a portion of the river 
flowing around and forming Moon's island), was convenient for 
canoes. The water is now quite shallow at low tide and would 
not float a boat when the river is low and the tide out. But 
the tide comes up twice in 24 hours and I have been assured by 
old settlers that sloops and other light boats used to come up 
between Periwig island and Biles island at usual stages of water, 
to load at Morrisville and Trenton. From the mills at Morris- 
ville considerable flour and grain used to be shipped by water. 
vessels loading close to the mill. Since I came to Morrisville 
in 1866, Periwig island, which then had trees and a fish housi 
on it, has disappeared leaving only a gravel bar in its place, and 
the river gradually wearing away Duck island on the New 
Jersey side, has made the principal channel there, and descend 

morrisville; and its vicinity 247 

the flow next to Biles island and throug-h the so-called creek 

Having a desire to ascertain something more satisfactory con- 
cerning the court-house and jail, I applied to John Brooks now 
in possession of the Smith farm. He showed me a stone (in his 
wheat field) now covering the well at that place, and also said 
that every time the field was plowed the large stones of the 
foundation interfered with their work, they had been removed 
as fast as they had been turned up, so that no part of the foun- 
dation can now be seen. The surrounding soil is a gravelly loam 
and sand, with no large stones in it. The extent of the foun- 
dation agreed with the estimate of Dr. Buckman as far as could 
be determined under the circumstances. Finding out that An- 
drew Crozier at one time owned the place while the buildings 
were still standing, I transferred my investigation to him, and 
from him obtained a full description of the place, enabling me 
to make a sketch showing the general appearance of the build- 
ings when in his possession. The frame portion was reroofed 
by Mr. Crozier and part of the floor relaid. It is not certain 
when the frame part was put up. 

The court-house and jail (one building for both) were built 
by Jeremiah Langhorne by, or before 1686. It was of hewed 
logs covered with clapboards. It was two stories high, with a 
hipped roof, 20x40 feet on the ground. The frame house ad- 
joining was the same in its dimensions and having a straight 
instead of a hipped roof, the ridge of the two roofs being con- 
tinuous. The court-house part had a door near the middle of 
the front which was away from the river and toward the road 
from Morrisville or Falls to the Manor ; over the door there 
was n porch with a straight roof held up by two posts, between 
each of which and extending to the building each side of the 
door were seats for the court to rest upon. Dr. Buckman states 
that the court-room was the largest and that the jail was 12 
or 15 feet only in width in front. Jesse Morris, who says that 
as a boy he used to visit his uncle who lived there, gives the 
same idea that the jail-room was quite small on the front way. 
Probably the actual fact is that the building was 40 feet long 


and the jail was 12 or 15 feet of that distance, the court-room 
occupying the rest of the space, be it much or httle. 

The only point now remaining to view being the covering of 
the well, I thought best to locate that, and have made as accurate 
measurement as possible from points least likely to be changed, 
ascertained that it is 714 feet from the Manor road, 375 feet 
below the present line of the borough of Morrisville, 87 feet 
from the bank of what is called the creek. There is however 
no creek there. What is described as the mouth of the creek, 
is where the river flows into a channel cut around Moon's 
island, and the distance to that ix)int on the main river Delaware, 
following its devious turnings, a little east of north is 3,240 feet. 
A lane passed the west end of the jail from the Manor road 
to the creek, and under a shed at the rear of the jail was the 
well, with a trough in the lane for watering animals ; a lane 8 
feet wide also extended in front of the place to the T)arn, which 
stood where the old barn and shed nearest the river now 
stand. An entrance also extended from the barn tO' the Manor 
road, corresponding to the one now there. The fields about the 
Manor road were covered with a heavy growth of forest. The 
lanes were enclosed with post and board fences. The ad- 
journing of court to a more clement location, as I have shown, 
took place in cold weather. Log-houses even when clap-boarded 
were not very warm on a windy day. Two Hollanders, Jaspen 
Danker and Peter Sluyter, visiting the Delaware in the fall of 
1679, stayed all night with Mahlon Stacy, a well to do settler 
near the Assanpink creek where Trenton now is. Stacy built 
the first grist-mill on that creek, and was considered well off for 
those days, but his palatial mansion was not very pretentious. 
These Hollanders stated that the English houses along the river 
were mostly built of clap-boards nailed outside of a frame, but 
usually so far apart that they could stick their fingers through 
them, and at Mr. Stacy's although they were too tired to eat, 
they had to stand up all night, because there was not room 
enough to lie down, and the house was so poorly made that 
unless close enough to the fire to burn they could not keep 

The earliest ferry was at the foot of Green street, in Morris- 


ville, which was later the stage road from Philadelphia to New 
Yori< by way of Bristol. The ferry-man's house was the stone 
building of one story and an attic, immediately in the rear of 
what has been called the grove-house, and which served in later 
years as a kitchen for that house. About the time of day that 
stage-coaches were due to arrive, a boy by means of a lad- 
der climbed to the top of a large tree on the rise of ground 
above the ferry-house, and as soon as he saw the stage dust ris- 
ing down the pike, he shouted to the men below who arranged 
the scow so that the stage would not be delayed in getting over. 
This ferry was designated on a map, or a copy of a map, drawn 
by one of the Hessian engineers, which I saw not long ago 
(August, 1902), in the Congressional library at Washington, as 
the "Blazing Star ferry," generally known as "Pat Colvin's fer- 
ry." Colvin had a ferry-house on each side of the river, the 
one on the New Jersey side was two stories high and built of 
stone. It is gone now ; I looked for it a few weeks ago and 
founil only the Pennsylvania Railroad's new abutment of their 
cut-off bridge over Fair street. I asked a friend whom I met 
concerning its whereabouts, showing him a sketch taken from 
Gen. Stryker's history, and he said "there it was," pointing to 
a vacant corner. On the Morrisville side a portion only of the 
cellar wall, 12x14 feet, of the ferry-house is still in view. The 
same cut-off having knocked out both of Pat's ferry houses 
at one swoop. Colvin's city mansion was located at the corner 
of Fair and Ferry streets in Trenton. 

The brick grove-house, as it was called, was pulled down some 
time ago, the railroad company having taken every vestige of its 
foundation grounds for an embankment for their railroad. It was 
a fine building; was of brick two stories high on the south end. 
and three stories high on the end toward the river, with a pillared 
porch extending the whole front and river end ; it was fitted 
up inside in good style with high ceilings, fine mouldings and 
ornamental fireplaces. It had a ball-room and a bar ; was used 
'for some time as a sort of club-house by parties from New York 
and Philadelphia, who arrived in boats ; at times quite a fleet 
would be gathered in the river for days at a time. Music and 
dancing went on with all the usual accompaniments of a good 
time, not even excepting the gout, but its glory has departed. 


The Hessian engineer who discovered Blazing Star ferry also 
found a Joseph Kirkbride ferry opposite Bordentown. It has 
been usually called "Charleys Ferry." There was also a ferry 
at Calhoun street, Trenton at the time Washington punched 
up the Hessians, which at that time was operated by Beatty, after- 
wards by Joseph Kirkbride. A line of stages was run over this 
ferry from Philadelphia in opposition to the one by way of Bristol 
and which made better time ; it came by way of Frankford, 
Bustleton, Hulmeville, Fallsington to Kirkbride's ferry and so on 
through Trenton. The old stage tavern in Fallsington is still 
standing among the trees just over the bridge farthest west over 
the cut-off railroad ; an old barn, wagon house and corn crib, or 
something like one, keep it company. 

The Robert Morris mansion was in "the grove" (as it was, 
and is yet called) but no trace of it remains except the old well 
(about 2^ feet m diameter) and the depressions of what were 
once the cellar and ice-house, which are now filled and strewn 
with the debris of the neighborhood. I can find no description 
of the building except that it was a brick structure, and can only 
judge of the size of the house from my recollection of the cellar 
as it was when I first saw it in 1866, and from its present ap- 
pearance. By the best measurements that I can make now, it 
was 60 feet each way in the form of a Greek cross, making a 
centre of 20x20 feet and each arm of the cross 20x20 feet, out- 
side measurement. How it was constructed inside there is no 
means of knowing. The stone walls of the cellar were 6till 
there when I first saw the place, and for several years after, 
and the ice-house also was still in use for some years. The 
ice-hcuse was about 20 feet in the rear of the mansion on the 
brow of the hill, it was about 15 ft. in diameter, about 20 ft. 
deep, walled with stone, and covered with a peaked low roof 
coming within 3 feet of the ground on the up-hill "side, and 
there was an opening on the north side and on the slope toward 
the river that could be boarded up, affording easy access to the 
ice. The well was just across the driveway in front of the house 
and distant therefrom about 45 feet, and about 576 ft. from the 
present (1903) railroad line. The well was used freely in the 
picnic days of the grove. 


The brick ^tables were two stories high 123 feet long by 25 
feet wide. 36 feet at each end of the building were divided 
into stalls for animals, facing toward the east, making 72 feet for 
the stables; the other 51 feet in the centre were divided into car- 
riage rooms with arched double door entrances each side so that 
carnages could run directly through to the east side where there 
was a well about 50 feet from the centre of the building. 

There were rooms over the carriage part for the stable-keeper's 
family. There was also a harness-room on the first floor with a 
cellar underneath. The stalls at the south end of the building 
were removed by former occupants. The building was used as 
a shop when the Pennsylvania railroad was being built from Mor- 
risville to Bristol, afterward during the war, or probably earHer 
it was used as an oil-cloth factory, and later as a pottery and 
dish factory. When the building was transferred into a rubber 
factory I assisted John Kinney a carpenter of Morrisville in mak- 
ing the alterations. The dome, cupola, weather-vane, etc., remain 
the same as formerly except the dome which has been re-tinned. 
I think it had previously been covered with thin sheets painted 
red. The roof was originally of shingles and was very much 
out of repair until we (the Morrisville Manufacturing Rubber 
Co.) covered it with slate. John Kinney, the carpenter, told me 
that when a boy he used to be employed to watch from the 
cupola to see when the car drawn by horses was coming from 
Bristol, and when it appeared in the distance he rang a bell 
(placed in the cupola) to notify the good people of Morrisville 
and Trenton that the car was coming. The road was afterward 
extended to Tacony and a locomotive used instead of horses and 
the railroad was extended over the river into Trenton. 

Either John Kinney or Phineas Jenkins, told me that about 
the same time Prof. Morse had completed a telegraph line through 
from. Washington to New York; that a controversy arose as to 
the advantages of the telegraph for lengthy messages. A Presi- 
dent's message was about to be presented to Congress, and it 
was arranged that it should be 6ent by wire to New York, and 
at the same time a special messenger was to take a copy to New 
York where it was to be printed for the public before it could 
be transmitted by wire! 


The man carrying the message in his hand-bag boarded a car, 
attached to a locomotive ; the track was cleared and he started for 
New York. A few days ago I was relating this occurrence to 
Andrew Crozier who informed me that he was present at the 
time and related sub-stantially what I had heard before, as fol- 
lows : — 

"The general public were all out in expectation. The time for the 
passing at Morrisville had long gone by, when with a rush and a roar the 
car passed over the Delaware river bridge at Morrisville. The curve in the 
track at that point was formerly much shorter than it now is. On the 
left side of the bend is still to be seen a row of houses. The table was 
set for supper and the people were there either eating or waiting to see 
the cars pass. The locomotive struck the curve, and with the speed "it 
was carrying climbed over the track, and made straight for the build- 
ing (taking the car along) which turned over outside while the locomo- 
tive plunged into the house and into the cellar. As it entered the front 
of the house the occupants inside went out the back door. One man was 
injured in the overturn, but the express-man with his grip, gathered him- 
self together, ran across the bridge without waiting to see what had 
happened : got a hack to the other depot and was soon on his way to New 

I am sorry to relate that I do not know whether the express 
or the telegraph beat. 

The groimds around the mansion and the driveway through the 
grove were ornamented with elaborately carved stones which set 
on end, bore carved statuary on top, each stone with a hole 
drilled in the centre of the top for fastening the ornament on. 
Each stone was five feet high without the ornament on top. 
For long time three of these -stones were to be seen lying 
around ; one of them has been preserved by E. Wright of Mor- 
risville. The others are out of sight. Squire Wright says that 
they extended all along the drive-way at intervals. The main 
entrance to the grounds was at Green street, then the post-road. 
Double gates attached to huge posts, formed the enclosure, the 
gates were some twelve feet or a little more inside of the fstreet 
line forming a bowed entrance. 

History relates that Robert Morris lost his great possessions, 
was imprisoned for debt and his property sold. The Robert 
Morris mansion then came eventually into the hands of Gen. 
Jean AHctor Moreau. who exiled from France a-s one of Bona- 


parte's generals landed at Philadelphia September 24, 1805, with 
his wife and two children. It is said Bonaparte pointed out 
on a map the location of Morrisville and remarked to Gen. Mo- 
reau: "That would be a desirable place in which to live." How- 
ever this may be, IMoreau was favorably impressed with the loca- 
tion when he arrived. He at first took up his residence at the 
seat of a Mr. LeGuen, who lived in the vicinity. I have not been 
able however to find the location of Mr. LeGuen's residence. 

March 11, 1807, Moreau purchased three lots of land from 
Paul Sieman, J. B. Sartori and J. Hutchinson, including mills, 
etc. He lived in the mansion until Christmas morning, 1811. 

Sometime in 1872 or 'j}, I was professionally attending Mrs. 
Henrietta Smith nee Happette an elderly lady residing then at 
the house of Mrs. Martindale in Morrisville. She told me that 
when very young she was in a French convent, that a cousin 
whose home was near Pittsburg, Pa., returned to France and 
brought her away with him. On their way to America their 
vessel (French) was attacked by a British vessel, captured and 
the entire cargo including the property of the passengers was 
confiscated, and the people put ashore at Jamaica and turned 
loose. After two or three months they found passage to Bor- 
dentown. From there they went to Brifstol where her cousin 
left her and went back to Pittsburg. She took service with 
Victor Moreau, and was placed in charge of his house, on 
Christmas eve of 181 1, the servants being mostly absent on fes- 
tivity bent, Gen. Moreau (having a valuable lot of choice flowers 
in his conservatory and the weather being extremely cold), de- 
cided to stay up to keep the fire in the wood furnace going, think- 
ing that everything would be safe until morning; he retired at 2 
or 3 o'clock. Some time later those in the house were ? roused 
by the smell of smoke and the cracking of fire, and found the 
stairway under the conservatory a mass of flames. No efiicient 
help being near, the whole building with its contents was de- 
stroyed, plants, furniture, valuable library, and all, a very small 
portion of the furniture only being carried out and saved. A few 
weeks ago I related this circumstance above stated to Henry 
Buchanan, in charge of the State House library at Trenton, who 
to my surprise, on looking over the files of newspapers published 


at that time found in the Federahst of December 30, 181 1, the 
following in reference to the burning of the mansion of Moreau 
in Alorrisville : — 

"On Christmas morning the house of Gen. Jean Victor Moreau caught 
fire from the heater. The servants being mostly away the fire soon gained 
headway. Two fire engines from this city went over but from lack of 
water and assistance could do but little. Some of the furniture and a 
few other things were saved. But his fine library and most of the con- 
tents were destroyed along with the house. Loss estimated at $10,000." 

A few days ago I received a letter from Mahlon Carver of Car- 
versville Bucks county ; a portion of which is of interest in 
connection with this paper as follows 

"I see by the papers that our Historical Society, of which I claim to 
be the oldest member, is to hold its meeting at Morrisville. As I have 
a large business to claim my attention, besides the infirmities of age, 
will prevent me from attending. Thinking I could furnish some items of 
interest as my great uncle kept the 'Robert Morris,' and John Carver, 
of Byberry, visited his uncle, Mahlon Carver, often when the French 
Gen. Moreau lived in Morrisville and used to tell us in the long winter 
evenings of the pleasures he received in the acquaintance of that very 
talented polite gentleman. He (Moreau) said on his banishment Pitchegre, 
Dumauries, and the captain of the French cruiser had private instruction 
to take his life before he reached America, but they were too honorable 
to do such a deed. The captain warned him of his peril and he never 
returned to France until Bonaparte was sent to St. Helena. Moreau was 
a Republican. His regiments that served under him were much attached 
to him and could not be trusted. Moreau said openly. LeClere was sent 
(although a brother-in-law to Bonaparte) in a vain expedition to Hayti 
or San Domingo to reconquer it and his troops and himself were 
left to perish ; they grew sickly in that pestilential climate. The splendid 
fleet returned to France and the blacks killed the fever-stricken brave 
French soldiers. Moreau put up a fine set of stables and kept a fine 
stable of horses. In person he was medium size, but walked stoop shoul- 
dered. After he had been a few years in Morrisville his house was burnt 
by incendiaries. Two young French officers came to Trenton from New 
York, stayed the day in Trenton, but strolled along the river, passed over 
to Morrisville and took a view of Moreau's property. At night they 
left Trenton, and were seen to pass through Morrisville for Philadel- 
phia. The writer's father saw them at the Red Lion Hotel. He said 
they drove a fine horse and rode in a gig (a two-wheeled vehicle then the 
prevalent conveyance). He said they were smart and intelligent, but re- 
served. They wore the French blue uniform and were armed with swords 
and pistols, the guards and hilts were of solid silver. In speaking to 
Moreau after the destruction of his home, Moreau said that they were 


no doubt sent to destroy his life and property. Moreau entered the ser- 
vice of the allies afterward and was killed near Dresden." 

The history of the Jonathan Kirkbride house in Lower Make- 
field township, now the office of the WilHam H. Moon Co. (Nur- 
serymen) is of interest. The building is of stone one story high, 
with a high pitched roof, windows at each end of the attic, a door 
on the south side also an outside cellar-door and window, also a 
window on each of the other three sides, a small cellar-window at 
each end, a brick chimney on the east corner, and a corner fire 
place on the inside. The "size of the building is i7/4 feet by 20^ 
feet on the outside. I am indebted to Mr. William H. Ivioon for 
the following interesting account of this building taken from the 
Kirkbride family history published some years since by Mahloti 
Kirkbride, then residing on the premises : 

"The house was at one time daily surrounded by armed men from the 
camp on his farm, and when he saw his children amusing themselves by 
throwing his apples from his garret windows among their war-worn 
visitors, he enjoyed equally with his children seeing the guests scramble 
for the much coveted fruit. The army passed away leaving all of his 
property undisturbed. Jonathan Kirkbride was a minister in the Society 
of Friends. At one time during the Revolutionary War, when he had 
been away from home he was stopped by armed men in his own lane 
(soldiers on guard) and was only allowed, after proving his identity, to 
enter his house, where he was welcomed by Washington himself, with 
whom he was personally acquainted. It is more than likely that Wash- 
ington's letters and dispatches spoken of by Gen. Stryker in his history 
of the battles of Trenton and Princeton, as dated for four days from 
above Trenton falls, December 20, 21, 22 and 23d, were sent out from 
Jonathan Kirkbride's house (especially as Kirkbride had apples). If they 
had been sent out from headquarters at the Keith mansion as Gen. 
Stryker supposes, he would never have dated them from camp above Tren- 
ton falls. These dispatches might have been sent direct from head- 
quarters at the camp, for the camp winter barracks extended from the 
mouth of Potatoe creek, (later called Sinton's creek from Sinton, who 
owned the property at one time,) and the line of the now borough of 
Morrisville, which was some distance above the overflow of the canal 
to the river just opposite to the falls." 

Andrew Crozier says that these barracks were built of brick 
and were made up of houses about 20 feet back and 20 feet front, 
placed close end to end, each having a door and two windows 
toward the river. They were probably as comfortable as most 
hoiKes were at that time. At these barracks were several cases 


of smallpox and one or more of the soldiers died from it and were 
buried on the hill some distance back of the barracks. The mouth 
of Potatoe creek formed the boundary line of the northern por- 
tion of the John Wood plot and the division line between him 
and John Luffe or Luffs. This land came at an early day 
through Robert Morris et. al. into Jonathan Kirkbride's hands, 
who, in 181 1, built the house where I now live. His son, John 
Kirkbride, operated the mill near the ferry at the mouth of the 
creek, and his son, Joseph Kirkbride, operated the tannery a 
little above on the same creek. At the time of the silk-worm 
(morns multicaulis) craze, the buildings of the tannery were 
used as a factory for unwinding cocoons, the product of the silk- 
worm.* Jonathan Kirkbride transferred the house to his son Jos- 
eph ; from him it went to John Miller, Miller to George Clymer, 
Clymer to Farrand, Farrand to Dana. The deeds in my possession 
cover the transfers of the property from. William Penn to the 
present owner. 

The gray stones which mark the purchase of lands from the 
Indians, known as the "Markham Walk," which took place about 
three months before William Penn arrived, are at the point of 
Edge Hill, a short distance below Potatoe creek, and a short 
distance above the upper bridge, which crosses the river be- 
tween Morrisville and Trenton. 

In conclusion. I desire to mention the old Morris sign that 
formerly hung at the Robert Morris hotel near the lower bridge. 
Many citizens remember having seen the sign, but no one ap- 
pears to recollect just how it looked, or the inscriptions which it 
contained. I have, therefore, thought that the following, taken 
from the "Business Directory and Gazetteer of Bucks County," 
published in 1871 by S. Hersey would be of interest. 

"The old sign which swings backwards and forwards in front of the 
hotel kept by John Cartile, is commemorative of Robert Morris. It 
was painted by Edward Hicks, a Bucks county Quaker. The old sign 
has been swinging to and fro for half a century, without a touch from 
vandal hands. On the one side Morris is represented as standing talking 
to a friend, and telling him of the distressed state of Washington's army, 
and of the immediate necessity of $10,000. IMorris says to his friend, 
'You must let me have the money ; my note and my honor will be your 

* See paper in this volume on Silk Culture in Bucks County, by John A. Anderson. 


only security !' The friend replied, 'Robert, thou shalt have it !' On 
the reverse side of the sign is the following : 'Robert Morris, a dis- 
tinguished member of the illustrious Congress of 1776, for whose finan- 
cial labors, next to Washington, America is indebted for turning the 
tide of success in favor of the Revolution, in taking the Hessians at 
Trenton, on Christmas morning, 1776* reviving the despairing cause of 
liberty and independence." 

The sign was long since taken down, and its whereabouts 
at present cannot be ascertained. 

After the long and strenuous efforts which Morris, the noble 
patriot, had made on behalf of his country, pledging as he did, 
his personal fortune to the cause, it seems at this distant day 
rather ungrateful on the part of his country that he was allowed 
to go to prison for debt, even if the indebtedness was not part of 
the obligations incurred in behalf of his country. On February 5, 
1798, he writes in great sadness. "My money is gone; my fur- 
niture is to be sold, and my family to starve, and I am to go to 
prison ; good night." 

* The Hessians were taken the morning of December 26, not on Christmas morning. 

Five Bucks County Generals. 


(Morrisville Meeting, May 26, 1903.) 

The five heroes whom I make the subject of this paper Dan- 
iel Morgan, Andrew Pickens, Zebulon M. Pike, Jacob Brown, 
and Ward B. Burnett, played prominent parts in their day in 
the drama of war, but to the general reader of to-day they 
may be almost forgotten. 


Durham township, Bucks 
county, rightfully claims, 
as her own, General Daniel 
Morgan, the son of James 
and Sarah, who was born 
near the Durham furnace 
in 1736. He was the grand- 
son of John Morgan who 
settled in Durham in 1727. 
This is the view taken by 
Charles Laubach who now 
lives on a portion of the 
tract whereon Daniel Mor- 
gan is said to have been 
born. There is however 
some dispute as to the an- 
cestry of Daniel Morgan, 
Warren S. Ely, also good 
authority, claiming that 
James Morgan, of Dur- 
ham, an ironmaster, was the son of Thomas and Jennet Morgan, 
of Providence township. Philadelphia, now Montgomery county, 
and therefore not the father of Daniel Morgan. But whatever 
be the difference of opinion as to the ancestry of Daniel Morgan, 
there should be none as to his birthplace which was in the vi- 
cinity of the Durham furnace. After the death of Daniel Mor- 



gan's father, his home in Durham was occupied by Jonathan 
Dillon, whose son, John, died August i, 1890, at the age of 
91 years. Another witness may be called as to the birthplace 
of Daniel Morgan, B. F. Fackenthal, Jr., of Riegelsville, who 
says: "From what my father and grandfather told me, I think 
General Morgan was born on plat No. i of the Durham survey 
in 1773. (see Deed-of-partition with map, Recorders office at 
Doylestown, Book No. i6, Page 192). The place pointed out is 
on tract No. i about 30 yards south of the boundary line between 
Nos. I and 30. No. i is on the north side of Durham creek, ni 
the western angle formed by the small Laubach run where it 
empties into the Durham creek."* The Morgans were Welsh 
Baptists, who settled in Chester county, Pa., about 1700, possibly 
earlier, whence John Morgan removed to Richland township, 
Bucks county, and thence to Durham, where he died in 1743- 

* Mr. t,aubach may have fallen into an error in stating that James Morgan described 
in the title deeds of Durham iron-works as "Ironmaster", was the father of Gen. Daniel 
Morgan; but that would not be sufficient to materially weaken the claim that Durham 
was the birthplace of Daniel. 

James Graham, his biographer, inclines to the belief that his birthplace was in Hun- 
terdon county. New Jersey (in the winter of 1736). The claim on behalf of New Jersey 
states that his father was a Welsh iron-worker, and was connected with the 
forges along the Musconetcong creek, which empties into the Delaware river at Riegels- 
ville, N. J. The forges in New Jersey referred to were situated but 3 or 4 miles distant 
from the Durham furnace, and there is no contention that he was born elsewhere than 
at either one of these two places, and that both were associated with the manufacture of 
iron at Durham. 

The evidence presented leads me to believe that he was born in Durham. At the time 
of his birth, in 1736, there were a blast-furnace and three forges on the Durham property. 
The blast-furnace manufactured pig-iron, part of which was converted into castings, and 
the balance, by refining, converted into wrought-iron at the forges, all operations were 
run by water-power derived from the Durham creek ; I can find no evidence that the 
Greeriwich and Chelsea forges in New Jersey on the Musconetcong creek were estab- 
lished as early as 1736, and moreover there were not then and are not now any iron-ore 
mines in that vicinity. The forges were doubtless constructed to use Durham pig-iron, 
and their management was doubtless closely connected with the Pennsylvania operation, 
at any rate the records at Durham show that these New Jersey forges were controlled 
from 1778 to ISoo by the same people who owned the Durham works. 

My principal reason however for believing that Gen. Morgan was born in Durham con- 
sists of written memorandums prepared by my father (B. F. Fackenthal, Esq., born 1S25, 
died 1S93) which record in detail statements made to him lay his grandfather (Michael Fack- 
enthal, Sr., born 1756, died 1S46) who stated that he was well acquainted with Daniel Mor- 
gan, and was told by him that he was born at Durham His grandfather also told him that 
he was a personal friend of Col. Thomas J. Rogers, who had been recorder of North- 
ampton county, also a member of Congress for four terms, from 1.S17 to 1S25, inclusive, 
that he often spoke of Col. Rogers, and among other things had called his attention to a 
mistake in the first edition of his Biographical Dictionary ("A New American Biograph- 
ical Dictionary of the Departed Heroes, Sages and Statesmen of America ") pviblished in 
1813, in .stating that Gen. Morgan was born in New Jersev ; whereupon Col. Rogers said 
he would correct the error in a subsequent edition of his 'book. He published a second 
or supplementary edition in 1823, which makes no reference to Gen. Morgan, but in his 
third edition published in 1824, page 351, the error is corrected and the statement made 
by Col. Rogers, that Durham was the Isirthplace of Gen. Morgan. This correction was 
made by reque.st of Michael Fackenthal, vSr., my great-grandfather, who was well ac- 
quainted with Gen. Morgan, and who had told him that he was born in Durham. 

The evidence produced on the mind of Col. Rogers was evidently of sufficient weight 
to induce him to correct the error into which he had fallen in the first edition of his 
Biographical Dictionary. 

My father, B. F. Fackenthal, F;sq., was an attorney-at-law, practicing principally in 
the courts of Northampton county, and I am sure that'his associates who may be living 
will endorse my statement in saying that his memory in matters of this kind' was exact 
and correct. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr., 1909. 


Daniel Morgan began working- early at the Durham furnace, 
but, becoming tired of his employment, went across the Delaware 
into New Jersey and worked some time at the Chelsea forge. 
This pleasing him no better, within a year, at the age of 17, he 
followed his brother, John, to the Shenandoah valley, \^a., and 
hired out to a farmer. Soon tirmg of this life, in 1755 we find 
him driving a baggage wagon in General Braddock's disastrous 
expedition to Fort DuQuesne, now Pittsburg, which fitted him 
to some extent, for the military career he entered upon later. 

When the war for independence broke out in 1775, Daniel 
Morgan was living a quiet country life in the valley of Virginia, 
but on receipt of the news of the fighting at Lexington, Con- 
cord and Bunker Hill, he did not hesitate on which side to array 
himself. He immediately relinquished the pursuit of peace and 
organized a regiment of Virginia riflemen, unrivaled at that 
day as marksmen, and marched for Boston, where he arrived 
while Washington and his army were besieging the British. 
Morgan and his riflemen served to the end of the war, much of 
the time with the main army under the Commander-in-chief. No 
corps rendered more valuable service. While the Continental 
army lay on the Neshaminy, near Hartsville, this county, in 
August, 1777, waiting developments of Lord Howe's plans, 
whose fleet had sailed south from New York, Morgan's riflemen 
were dispatched to Saratoga, to reinforce General Gates, and 
are given the credit of turning the tide of battle on that hotly 
contested field. Throughout the war he bore the same distin- 
guished part, and was excelled by none in the "times that tried 
men's souls." 

In a recent turning over of the leaves of "Lossing's Field 
Book of the Revolution," to refresh my memory of Morgan's 
distinguished career, the author, in speaking of the assembling 
of the American army at Cambridge, while the British held Bos- 
ton, fsays : 

"Some riflemen from Maryland, Virginia and western Pennsylvania, 
enlisted under Congress, and led by Daniel Morgan, a man of powerful 
frame and sterling courage, soon joined camp. Upon their breast they 
wore the motto, 'Liberty or death.' These men attracted much atten- 
tion, and, on account of their sure and deadly aim they became a terror 
to the British. Wonderful stories of their exploits were sent to England, 


and one of the riflemen, carried there a prisoner, was gazed at as a 
great curiosity." 

Lossing's Field Book, in enumerating the important services 
of General Morgan, mentions the following: 

"He was with Arnold in his Canada Expedition, 1775, and made prisoner 
at Quebec; was at the battle of Beniis Heights, Stillwater, Saratoga, 
Brandywine, Whitemarch and Monmouth ; under Green in North Caro- 
lina, and fo.r his conduct at the battle of Cowpens, Congress voted him a 
gold medal and appointed him a Brigadier General." 

General Morgan was also at Yorktown, in one sense the Ome- 
ga of the Revolution, and there played a conspicuous part. He 
was for some time under General Lafayette, prior to the arrival 
of the allied French and American armies, and on one occasion 
it benig necessary to obtain reliable information from within 
the British lines Morgan was sent as a spy to Cornwallis' camps, 
remaming there several days as a deserter. On his return, he 
refused to receive other reward than a gun which he highly 
prized. At the close of the Revolution, General Morgan retired 
to his farm, serving one session in Congress, and dying at 
Winchester, Va., July 6, 1802, in the 67th year of his age. 

The "Virginia Riflemen," a Misnomer. 

(Communication from John A. Ruth, Bethlehem, Pa., July 11, 1903.) 

General W. W. H. Davis' interesting paper ha-s suggested this 
contribution which is written with the intention of correcting 
some very generally accepted, but misleading statements relat- 
ing to Gen. Daniel Morgan's celebrated "Virginia Riflemen." 

At the opening of the Revolutionary War, Daniel Morgan, 
then a resident of Virginia, recruited a company of riflemen, 
and with his command joined Gen. Washington before Boston. 
The march from Virginia northward was made by way of Beth- 
lehem, Pa., where the command stopped on July 24 and 25, 
1775. After joining Washington's army they were selected to 
accompany Gen. Arnold on his ill-fated expedition against Que- 

A most interesting account of this expedition may be found 
in the diary of Judge John Joseph Henry, published at Lancas- 
ter, Pa., 1812, and reprinted m Penna. Archives, Series H, Vol. 
15. Judge Henry says: 


"Col. Benedict Arnold was appointed the commander-in-chief of the 
whole division. The detachment consisted of eleven hundred men. Enos 
was second. Of this I know nothing but from report. Riflemen com- 
posed a part of the detachment. These companies, from 65 to 75 strong, 
were from the southward ; that is, Capt. Daniel Morgan's company from 
Virginia; that of Captain William Hendricks from Cumberland county, 
Pa., and Capt. Matthew Smith's company of the county of Lancaster in 
the latter province. The residue and bulk of this corps consisted of troops 
from Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut." 

Judge Henry's description of Arnold and Morgan are es- 
pecially interesting. Of the former he says: 

"Our commander, Arnold, was of a remarkable character. He was 
brave, even to temerity, was beloved by the soldiery, perhaps for that 
quality only ; he possessed great powers of persuasion, was complaisant, 
but withal sordidly avaricious. Arnold was a short, handsome man, of 
a florid complexion, stoutly made and forty years old at least." 

Contrasting the two officers, Henry says : 

"On the other hand ]\Iorgan was a large, strong bodied personage, 
whose appearance gave the idea history has left us of Belisarius. His 
manners were of the severer cast, but where he became attached he was 
kind and truly afifectionate. This is said from experience of the most 
sensitive and pleasing nature ; activity, spirit and courage in a soldier 
procured his good will and esteem." 

The expedition against Quebec was a failure, and ]\Iorgan 
and his command were captured by the enemy. Further refer- 
ence to Judge Henry's diary discloses the fact that Morgan and 
his fellow prisoners returned from their captivity September 11, 
1776, landing at Elizabethpoint, N. J. (Penna. Arch., Series H, 
Vol. 15. pp. 186-89.) This was Gen. Morgan's first revolutionary 
campaign, but the company he led to Quebec was not the celebrated 
"Rifle Corps," so famous in Revolutionary history. 

The credit for organizing Morgan's riflemen belongs to Gen. 
Washington, who saw the need of such a corps, when Burgoyne's 
army with its Indian allies approached through the wilderness 
of northern New York. In a letter to Gen. Gates, dated August 
20, 1777, Washington writes: 

"From an apprehension of the Indian mode of fighting I have despatch- 
ed Colonel Morgan with his corps of riflemen to your assistance, and 
presume they will be with you in eight days from this date. This corps I 
have great dependence on, and have no doubt but they will be exceed- 
ingly useful as a check given to the savages, and keeping them within prop- 


er bounds, will prevent General Burgoyne from getting intelligence as for- 
merly, and animate your other troops from a sense of their being more 
on an equality with the enemy." 

The results achieved at Saratoga show that Washington's 
judgment was not at fault. Morgan's riflemen did the work that 
had been assigned to them, and did it well. It has been the 
almost universal custom of historians to refer to Morgan's corps 
as the "Virginia Riflemen." This has left a popular impression 
that the organization was made up entirely of troops from that 
State. A careful study of Penna. Archives, Series II, Vol. 10, 
p. 318, presents this matter in a somewhat different light. It 
appears that in the formation of this corps Gen. Washington se- 
lected the best material his army could supply. Many of the 
men were experienced Indian fighters, who had in former years 
defended the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, 
again'st savage invasion. The appointment of Gen. Morgan to 
this command is further evidence of Washington's military wis- 
dom. The corps was made up as follows : Colonel, Daniel Mor- 
gan, of Virginia; Lieutenant Colonel, Richard Butler, of the 
Ninth Penna. Line ; Major, Joseph Morris, of New Jersey. The 
eight companies which made up the command were as follows : 

1. Capt. Samuel J. Cabell, afterwards promoted to lieut. colonel; 

2. Capt. Pusey, promoted to brigadier general in 1792, and 
later Governor of Indiana ; 3. Capt. Knox ; 4. Capt. Gabriel 
Long, of Maryland ; 5. Capt. VanSwearingen, of the Eighth 
Penna. Line ; G. Capt. James Parr, of the First Penna. ; 7. Capt. 
Hawkins Boone, of the Twelfth Penna. ; 8. Capt. Matthew Hen- 
depson, of the Ninth Penna. Of the total number of officers 
and men, 163 were from Virginia, 65 from Maryland and 193 
from Pennsylvania. It is evident that Pennsylvania supplied more 
men than Virginia, and that the historic title "Virginia Riflemen" 
is somewhat misleading. 


The second of Bucks county's distinguished generals was 
Andrew Pickens, of South Carolina. The family were French 
Huguenots, who left France soon after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes ; went to Scotland, then to the north of Ireland, 
and finally settled in Bucks county, Pa., probably in the neigh- 


borhood of Deep Run meeting-honse. The exact dates of these 
removals are unknown, but supposed to have taken place in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, not later than about 1730. 
General Andrew Pickens is known to have been born in Bucks 
county, September 13, 1739. How long the family remained 
here is not known, but they subsequently removed to Augusta 
county, Va., and then to the Waxhaw settlement, South Carolina, 
prior to the Revolution, and numerous descendants are still 
living in that State. 

The Pickens family had not been long in South Carolina, 
before the French and Indian War broke out, which the son. 
Andrew, entered as a volunteer and soon developed the qualities 
that, in after life, made him famous. After the war, the family 
again changed their residence, going to what was then known as 
the "Long Cane Settlement" and settled down to a pioneer's life. 
Andrew Pickens was one of the first to protest against Great 
Britain taxing her Colonies without their consent and, when the 
clash of arms came, he entered the military service. He was 
a ]:)atriot in principal and practice, and one of the most active : 
the peer and companion of ]\Iarion, Sumter and Morgan. 

During the long struggle for independence, Andrew Pickens 
participated in some of the severest engagements in the South, 
with the British and their Indian allies. In heroic bravery he 
was excelled by none. Among the battles he took part in were 
the Cowpens, the capture of Augusta, and the Eutaw Springs. 
At the close of the Revolution, General Pickens was elected or 
appointed to several important civil offices, including that of com • 
missioner to make treaties with the Indian tribes, member of the 
Constitutional convention ; was in the Legislature for several 
terms, and in 1794 was elected to Congress, but declined re- 
election. He enjoyed the confidence of Washington, and, during 
his administration, was consulted as to the policy to be adopted 
for civilizing the Indians and declined an election as governor. 
General Pickens died October 11, 181 7, at the age of ^6. 

Much of the information, touching the life of General Pickens, 
is derived from Southern sources. A few years ago, the York- 
ville, S. C, Enquirer printed a lengthy sketch of General Pick- 
ens and hi^s career, which was afterward published in the Doyles- 


town Democrat. To the latter Mr. MacReynolds, its local editor, 
added additional information. While the name of Pickens is 
not to be found on our county records, it does not prove that 
the family were not residents of Bucks, for many of the early set- 
tlers removed from the county without leaving a trace behind to 
show they had ever lived in it. 


The third of our generals in the order of time and service, is 
General Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who fell at York, Canada, 
in 1 81 3 in the last war with Great Britain. The Pike family was 
settled at the town of Woodbury, Middlesex county, New Jersey, 
in 1699, where the name of Captain John Pike appears on 
the original patent, and was a member of the Governor's Coun- 
cil. General Pike was possibly born at Trenton, N. J., where 
his father, Zebulon Pike, was living at the outbreak of the Revo- 
lutionary War, and, about that time, he moved with his family 
across into Bucks cqunty. He was living in this county in 1777, for 
the 28th of June, of that year, he took the oath of allegiance 
before Joseph Hart, Esq., of Warminster township. From that 
time forward, for several years this county was the home of the 
Pike family, which lived in a frame building at Lumberton, in 
Solebury township. It was called the "Old Red House" prior 
to 1784, and was torn down 1835. The records, of the Adju- 
tant General's office, Washington, a transcript of which was 
furnished me by Assistant Adjutant General Hall, show that 
the father of General Pike served as captain in the Revolutionary 
War. and subsequently in the U. S. army from 1791 to June 15, 
181 5. when he was honorably discharged by reason of the corps 
to which he belonged having disbanded. He reached the rank 
of lieutenant colonel by brevet, and died near Laurenceburg, 
Dearborn county, Ohio. July 27, 1834. at the age of 83. His 
army life necessarily carried him away from Bucks county, and 
we find him living near Cincinnati. Ohio, 1818. 

While we know but little of the early life of General Zebulon 
Montgomery Pike, not even his place of birth to a certainty, inas- 
much as his father took the oath 'of allegiance here in 1777. 
there seems hardly a reasonable doubt of the son having been 
born in Bucks county, January 5. 1779, the alleged date of his 


birth. Thi-s county was undoubtedly his residence until the age of 
twelve or thirteen, and he attended school in the old stone school- 
house at the present village of Centre Hill. A number of 
traditions, much to General Pike's credit, while a boy, have been 
handed down from that generation to the present. He was a 
close student, fond of athletics and well liked by his school- 
mates. While going to school in Solebury he heard the storv 
of the Revolution rehearsed, and this, with the fact that his 
father was an officer, may have induced young Pike to embrace 
military life. It is said that the son, when quite young, en- 
tered his father's company as a cadet when stationed on the west- 
ern frontier. 

The War Department records give the following as the ap- 
pointments and promotions of General Pike, from his entry into 
the service to his death : second lieutenant, 26. Infantry, March 3, 
1799; first lieutenant, November i, 1799; transferred to ist In- 
fantry, April I, 1802; promoted to captain, August 12, 1806 to 
major, 6th Infantry, May 3, 1808, and to lieutenant-colonel, 
4th Infantry, December 31, 1809 — rapid promotion for a young 
officer. In the meantime he had performed important detached 
service while a lieutenant. 

As soon as the Lewis and Clark's expedition was fairly under 
way, and was planned to explore the Mississippi to its source 
on the recommendation of General Wilkinson, Lieutenant Pike 
joined the expedition. He left St. Louis August 9, 1805, with 
20 men of his own company and provisions and stores in a boat 
which he was soon obliged to abandon. The expedition was a 
trying one and dangerous, occupying 9 months instead of four, 
the tmie thought necessary when it eet out. Two months after 
Pike's return from the Mississippi exploration, the authorities, 
meanwhile discovering what manner of man the young lieuten- 
ant of 26 was, detailed him to make a second expedition, by 
penetrating a region almost entirely unknown, and more dan- 
gerous than the one he had just returned from. This time he 
was to visit the interior of the vast territory, then known as 
''Louisiana," recently purchased from France, in order to obtain 
such accurate geographical information concerning it, as would 
enable our government to settle the boundary line between this 


newly acquired territory and the Spanish provinces of North- 
ern Mexico. 

Pike set our on this expedition, July 15, 1806, accompanied 
by Lieutenant Wilkinson, U. S. A., Dr. John H. Rolinson, a 
volunteer for the occasion, 20 private soldiers and non-commis- 
sioned officers, and an interpreter. He had also with him a large 
party of Osage and Pawnee Indians which our government had re- 
deemed from captivity among the Pottawatamies. Pike and his 
party ascended the Missouri river to the Osage river, then fol- 
lowed the course of that stream- to the foot-hills of the Rocky 
mountains where he discovered what is known as "Pike's Peak," 
in Colorado, which was named after him. In that region he fell 
in with a party of Spanish troops sent out to capture him, and 
he and his companions were made prisoners. They were taken 
to Santa Pe, New Mexico, where Pike was confined in a small 
adobe building, at the north end of the Spanish palace, and which 
was standing fifty years later when I lived in that section of 
country. Lieutenant Pike attracted great attention there, as he 
was the first red-headed man ever seen in New Mexico. From 
Santa Fe, Pike and his party were taken to the city of Mexico, 
where they were set at liberty and reached the United States 
in safety. 

On Lieutenant Pike's return home from this expedition, he 
resumed his military duties, where new appointments and promo- 
tions awaited him. He was deputy quartermaster general from 
April 3 to July 3, 181 2, promoted to colonel of 15th Infantry, 
July 6, 1812, and appointed brigadier, adjutant and inspector 
general, March T2, 1813. When war with Great Britain broke 
out, 1812, Colonel Pike was stationed with his regiment on the 
Canadian frontier. On his promotion to brigadier general, 1813, 
he was given command of the U. S. force destined to attack 
York, the capital of Upper Canada. He landed and made the 
assault the 27th of April, and was killed by the explosion of 
the magazine after its capture, a heavy stone striking him on 
the breast. His body was conveyed to Sackett's Harbor, where 
it was buried at Fort Tompkins with that of his aide. Captain 
Nicholson, who was mortally wounded at his side. Many years 
ago a tablet was erected to the memory of General Pike at 


St. Michaers church, Trenton, New Jersey, consisting of a 
marble slab, 36 inches high by 20 inches wide, inserted in the 
outer wall of the building. 


General Jacob Brown, the fourth of our group of generals, 
was a descendant of George Brown, who came from Leicester- 
shire, England, settling in Falls township, on Biles creek, near 
the Delaware, 1679. The farm was owned by Benjamin P. 
Brown in 1871. George Brown brought his intended wife, 
Mercey, with him whom he married on their arrival, and died 
in 1726 at the age of 83. They had a large family of children; 
the son, Samuel, who married Ann Claim in 1718, became a 
member of the Assembly and died Tenth-month 31st, 1769, aged 
75. Samuel, son of John Brown, also a member of Assembly, 
was fond of fox hunting, and kept a number of hounds. He 
likewise had a large family, among the sons being Samuel 
Brown, father of General Jacob Brown, who also served in the 
Assembly. The General was born May 9, 1775, in the house 
occupied in recent years by William Warner, three and a half 
miles below Morrisville on the Delaware, where the family lived 
until the son was grown, when they removed to western New 
York and settled the town of Brownville, on the Black river, 
Jefferson county. The descendants of George Brown, the im- 
migrant, are numerous in the lower part of Bucks county. 

Jacob Brown, our future general, lived and worked on his 
father's farm for several years until war was declared against- 
England, 1812. This aroused him to action, and, although a 
member of the society of Friends, and despite his religious con- 
victions, he resolved to take a hand in it. With this object in 
view he made the long and fatiguing journey to Washington, 
and presented himself to General Armstrong, secretary of war. 
While we have no official account of what took place at thi^ 
interview, family tradition tells us that the following was the 
substance of what was said. On being ushered into the office 
of the Secretary of War he gave his name as Jacob Brown; said 
he was a full-blooded Bucks county Quaker, but had an inclina- 
tion to enter the military service, which he would do if the Sec- 


retary would give him the command of a brigade ; that he 
knew nothing of miHtary affairs, but beUeved he possessed every 
other requisite of a soldier and an officer. The Secretary of 
War, it is said, ofifered him a colonel's commission which Brown 
declined without hesitation, saying: "I will be as good as my 
word ; give me a brigade and you will not be disgraced, but 
I will accept nothing less." 

This closed the interview between the "Bucks County Ouatc- 
er" and the Secretary of War, when Brown turned upon his 
heel and retraced his steps homeward. He had not, however, 
given up his military aspirations. He next made application to 
the Governor of New York from whom he received the com- 
mission of brigadier general of militia, and entered the service 
with a command equal to his rank. Our "Quaker soldier" un- 
doubtedly rendered good service, for the records of the war 
department show that Jacob Brown was appointed a brigadier 
general, U. S. A., July 19, 1813, within a year after the decla- 
ration of war and Major General, U. S. A., January 24, 1814. 
He served in the field to the end of the war, and after its 
conclusion, rose to be commanding general of the army holding 
the command to his death. He was buried in the Congressional 
burial-ground, the following inscription appearing on the monu- 
ment erected to his memory : 

"Sacred to the memory of General Jacob Brown. He was 
born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of May, 1775, 
and died at the city of Washington, while Commanding General 
of the Army, the 24th of February, 1828." 

"Let him whoe'er in after days 

Shall view this monument of praise, 

For honor heave the patriot sigh 

And for his Country learn to die." 

The father of General Jacob Brown died at Brownville, New 
York, September 24, 1813. 


Lacking information concerning the military record of Gen. 
Ward B. Burnett, the fifth of our generals, I wrote to the adju- 
tant general's office, Washington, which, with its usual courtesy, 
gave me the following, under date of August 8: 


"In reply to your letter of the 22d, ult. I beg to say that Ward B. 
Burnett was admitted to the Military Academy (West Point) from New 
Britain, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, July i, 1828. and was graduated and 
appointed brevet 2d lieutenant, 2d Artillery, July i, 1832. 

"The records do not show the date of his birth, but give his age as 
18 years and 3 months when admitted. He was promoted to be 2d lieu- 
tenant 2d Artillery April i, 1834, and resigned July 31, 1836. This covers 
his services in the Regular Army. He was in the Black Hawk expedition 
in 1832, but was not at the seat of war ; was on special duty at the 
Military Academy for a time in 1832 ; in garrison at Fort Jackson, La., 
1832-33 ; Assistant Instructor of Infantry tactics at the Military Academy 
November 4, 1833, to December 23, 1834 ; on topographical duty to January 
21, 1836: and on ordnance duty in Florida in March, 1836, where he served 
until July 31, 1836, when he resigned his commission in the Regular Army." 

On resigning his commission in the United States army. Lieu- 
tenant Burnett became a civil engineer, for which he was quahfied 
by education: took up his residence in the city of New York, and 
practiced his profession actively for several years. We learn 
from the report of the "Senate Committee on Invalid Pensions," 
first session 49th Congress, something of the engineering work 
Lieut. Burnett was engaged in. In 1837 he was engineer with Colo- 
nel Abert, chief of topographical engineers on harbors ; was resi- 
dent engineer of the Illinois and Michigan canal ; in 1849 President 
Polk offered to appoint him commissioner to run the boundary 
line between the United States and iMexico, but illness prevented 
him from accepting. He was subsequently made chief engineer 
for the Navy Yard dry-dock, which he completed in 1852; in 
1855 he was in charge of the New York dry-dock, and the con- 
struction of the workshop in New York navy-yard ; he made the 
plans of the Brooklyn water-works, which were accepted; in 1857 
he was made chief engineer of Norfolk navy-yard and Ports- 
mouth water-works : drew plans for tunneling the Blue Ridge 
mountains in Mrginia ; was surveyor-general of Kansas, Nebras- 
ka, Colorado and Montana from 1856 to i860, and was also 
superintendant of the dry-dock at the Philadelphia navy-yard. 
These appointments, coming unsolicited, as was doubtle-ss the case, 
Burnett being a graduate of West Point, were a compliment to 
our national military school as well as to the recipient, and be- 
speak his qualifications as an engineer. 

On the breaking out of the Mexican War, in 1846. our New 

i'ive; bucks county generals 271 

Britain soldier laid down the weapons of peace and took up 
those of war. He immediately called for volunteers, and in a 
very short time, raised a regiment that was known as the ist 
New York Volunteers ; himself commissioned the colonel Decem- 
ber 3, 1846. Colonel Burnett and his regiment joined General 
Scott's "Army of Invasion" at Vera Cruz, while he was preparing 
to march to the Valley of Mexico, and he participated in that won- 
derful campaign of victories from Cerro Gordo to the Garita of 
Belen, at the entrance of the City of Mexico, Colonel Burnett be- 
ing severely wounded at the battle of Churubusco, August 20. 
1847. At the close of the war Colonel Burnett was mustered 
out of service and returned to civil life. 

It was my fortune to serve with General Burnett in the Mexi- 
can War; our regiments brigaded together and we spent the 
winter of 1847-48 in the same village, six miles from Mexico 
City. His regiment had a couple of French poodles, Rolla and 
Jack by name, for mascots, which seemed to possess an apt talent 
for a military life. When the drum beat in the morning, for 
turning off the guard, these poodles placed themselves, side by 
side, in front of the drum-major and awaited his sig- 
nal to march to the public square where the new guard was 
paraded. There our quadruped heroes stepped to one side until 
the old guard detail was brought in and ready to return to their 
respective quarters. Now Rolla and Jack again placed them- 
selves, side by side, in front of the drum-major, and, at the tap 
of the drum, took up the step and conducted the detail of the 
New York regiment back to their quarters. I believe they at- 
tracted more attention than the soldiers engaged in this military 
spectacle. These dogs had never received any instruction in their 
military duties, but took to it naturally. Rolla and Jack were 
both wounded in the battles in the Valley of Mexico and taken to 
the hospital for treatment. I have, in my house, a couple of 
pictures of these heroic dogs, which served their country so faith- 
fully, one a colored lithograph taken in the City of Mexico, the 
other done in oil by Thomas P. Otter, the artist. I believe these 
dogs were never allowed a pension. 

Subsequent to the Mexican War, Colonel Burnett received nu- 
merous public and private recognitions of his gallantry on the 


field. On July 30, 1848, the corporation of the city of New 
York presented him with a silver medal; on August 20, 1853, 
the regiment he commanded in the Mexican War, presented hi'.n 
with a gold medal ; in 1850 he received the thanks of the Legisla- 
ture of New York, and in 1853 the Legislature made him a briga- 
dier general, by brevet, of New^ York Volunteers, for "gallant and 
distinguished service in the war with Mexico." In August, 1859, 
by a vote of the surviving members of the regiment that he 
commanded in Mexico, General Burnett was presented with the 
gold snufif box, in which the freedom of the city of New York 
had been presented to General Jackson, February 23, 1819, and 
by him was bequeathed "to that patriot of New York City, who 
should be adjudged, by his countrymen, to have been most dis- 
tinguished in defence of his country's rights in the next war." 
These honors are evidence that the New Britain cadet of 1828-32 
made his mark in his day and generation, and honored both State 
and county. In 1878 Congress passed a bill giving General Bur- 
nett a pension of $72 per month, as a recognition of his services, 
and after his death his widow was placed on the pension-roll, 
probably for the same amount. 

The closing years of General Burnett's life were passed quietly, 
much of his time being spent at Washington, where he died 
June 24, 1884. His health began to fail him on his retirement 
to private life and he became a confirmed invalid. His death, 
while not unexpected, was sudden, and his remains were con- 
veyed to West Point for interment. His widow, a second wife, 
who survived him a few years, also died at Washington. 

As the War Department records give General Burnett's age, 
at the time he entered West Point, as eighteen years and three 
months, this would bring his birth in the year 1809, but we are 
not certain where he was born nor do we know the Christian 
names of his parents. The family were early settlers in Bucks 
county, and Daniel Burnet, spelled with one "t," died in Bucking- 
ham township in 1752, leaving a widow, Grace. At that time 
Buckingham joined New Britain on her east border, and it would 
have been an easy matter for the family to move across the line 
and leave descendants behind them in New Britain township, 
where Ward B. Burnett was born sixty years after the death 


of this ancestor. He was appointed to West Point by the Hon- 
orable Samuel D. Ingham, of Solebury township, who, at that 
time, represented this district in Congress, and who later became 
a member of General Jackson's cabinet. The settlement of the 
estate of Daniel Burnet is on file in the register's office, Doyles- 
town. his widow, Grace, administering to it, and wa'S valued at 

General Burnett held no command under the United States 
army in the Civil War, being too much of an invalid to take 
the field, but rendered valuable service otherwise. During the 
riots in New York he was put in command ; was badly wounded 
and saved the United States mint. He was also active in or- 
ganizing troops in that city. New Jersey, Delaware and else- 
where. For this purpose he had a commission from President 
Lincoln and received the thanks of Congress and the State of 
New York for his services. General Burnett was a warm per- 
sonal friend of Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, 
Abraham Lincoln and others of our leading statesmen. IMorgan, 
Picken, Pike, Brown and Burnett form a group of soldiers whose 
achievements would do honor to any county or State. If we 
supplement these names with that of General John Lacey, the 
Quaker soldier, we shall have a galaxy of martial heroes that 
cannot be excelled in Pennsylvania. Honor to their memory, and 
we hope our Bucks county boys of the present and future genera- 
tions, when their services are needed will emulate their example. 

Old Pennypack Baptist Church. 

(Tohickon Park, Bedminster Meeting, October 6, 1903.) 

General Davis in his "History of Bucks County" describes 
the ancient pond at Cold Spring on the Delaware, above Bristol, 
and below Penn's old home. The other day I visited the beauti- 
ful spot with the Rev. George Peck, Jr., the pastor of Pennypack, 
or Lower Dublin church. It is on the Norwitz place near Edge- 
ly, formerly Cold Spring depot. 

The water is remarkably clear and the green moss on the bot- 
tom and on an old stone spring-house adjoining it, makes a pretty 
picture, while springs bubble up continually. 

We turn from the pool and a few rods distant look for the 
remains of the ancient church-yard where Thomas Stanaland, 
who probably gave the land, was buried, in 1753, as well as the 
godly patriarch, the Rev. Thomas Dungan, the spiritual father 
of all Pennsylvania Baptists, who died in 1688, and whose mem- 
ory is preserved by a handsome stone monument in Southampton 
Baptist church-yard ; Rev. Samuel Jones, parson at Pennypack, 
who died December 16. 1722, and Rev. Joseph Wood in charge 
of the same parish, who entered paradise September 15, 1747. 

What was the amazement and indignation of my clerical friend 
and myself to see the desecration of the sacred spot. Not only 
were the walls of the old church and graveyard gone, but the 
tombstones had also been removed, and the graves were over- 
grown with grass, while a dwelling house has been erected on a 
portion of the ground. I never saw a more striking example of 
American greed which in this instance cannot spare room to 
honor the dead. 

We will turn our eyes from the beautiful Delaware, where 
Father Dungan doubtless baptized his converts, with the sugges- 
tion that, if a monument marks a human grave, an old church site 
should bear a stone cross with an inscription that the crucified 
and glorified Christ had there been worshiped as God, and the 
hope that in the change of population a sacred edifice might 
again rise on the spot. 


To trace the history of Thomas Dungan we turn to the inval- 
uable records of the Rev. Morgan Edwards, a Baptist pastor in 
Philadelphia, who was perhaps never excelled in his ability to 
ascertain the details of parish and clerical histories. He had a 
burning desire to strengthen and unite the Baptists by means of 
associations, and to make the lay and clerical brethren know and 
love each other as sharers of the common Christian faith. 

He was born in Wales in 1722, a minister at sixteen years of 
age, ordained in Ireland; came to Philadelphia 1761. He sug- 
gested and labored for Rhode Island College, which he deemed 
very important for his denomination, and was a Fellow of the 
College. Though a royalist in the Revolution he retained the 
esteem of his brethren. Church records had been lost in the 
Revolution, one volume of manuscripts was burned with Edwards' 

The indefatigable man, in 1771 and 1772, visited churches 
from Pennsylvania to Georgia, tiring two horses in riding about 
3,000 miles, gathering materials, sufficient for twelve volumes, but 
cheerfully gave Mr. Backus some of his hard earned notes for 
his History of the New England Baptists in 1777; and to Mr. 
Leel the use of his papers for the History of the Baptists in the 
Southern States. 

The Pennsylvania Historical Society owns a lare and valu- 
able volume, a duplicate of which was burned when the Baptist 
Publication Society building was destroyed by fire. It contains 
Edwards' notes on Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Professor 
Newman, in his History of the Baptists, refers to this author's 
works in "Rhode Island Historical Collections," Vol. VI, and 
to the Delaware volume, published in Philadelphia in 1885. 
Other manuscripts are in Crozier Theological Seminary. 

The Rev. Thomas Dungan came from Rhode Island to Cold 
Spring, about 1684, with his family, and gathered a church of 
which nothing remains but a graveyard. The Dungans, Gard- 
ners, Woods, Doyls and others belonged to it. He died in 1688, 
and was buried in that yard. He left five sons and four daugh- 
ters. When Edwards wrote his history, Dungan's descendants 
amounted to six or seven hundred, what must be the present 
number ! 

The genealogy of the Reading, Yerkes, Watts and other 


families printed by the liberality of William L. Elkins, Esq., is 
a luxurious and valuable work. It states that Thomas Dungan 
was born in London about 1632. He sold 100 acres of land in 
East Greenwich, Rhode Island, and 50 acres with buildings at 
Newport. He had also owned land in Monmouth county, New 

Some Dungans were in Bristol before the clergyman came. 
His son, William, went to Pennsylvania in advance of hi-s father, 
and Penn's cousin, William Markham, granted him 200 acres 
of land, in 1682, and Penn confirmed the sale in 1684. Thomas 
Dungan attracted by the new colony, bought 200 acres of Penn, 
coming here three years after Penn obtained his patent from 
Charles II, as shown by Benedict's History of the Baptists. Air. 
Dungan married Elizabeth Weaver, at Newport. She died at 
Cold Spring, about 1690. 

Dungan's mother was Frances Latham, an English lady of 
high family. Her first husband was Lord Weston, and her sec- 
ond William Dungan, a London merchant, her third Jeremiah 
Clarke, and her fourth the Rev. William Vaughan, a Baptist 
minister. Dungan came to New England with his step- father. 
Jereroiah Clark, in 1637. 

It is thought that Roger Williams taught Air. Dungan, as he 
had a school for "the practice of Hebrew, Latin, Erench and 
Dutch." It is supposed that the Rev. William Vaughan taught 
him theology. 

A colony of Welsh Baptists came from Rhode Island to Cold 
Spring with Pastor Dungan. A stone church about fifty feet 
square was built there. The parish must have been sparsely 
settled and its width was checked by the river where the parson 
could only preach to the fishes,- as St. Anthony did in the legend. 
Another legend represents St. Francis D' Assisii as hearing the 
birds singing praises to God, and stirring his companions to imi- 
tate them, the good country parson may have had more such 
watery and airy parishioners than human ones. 

The little parish died in childhood, lasting only from 1684 tu 
1702. Clergy were very scarce and the pastor's death may have 
been a fatal blow to it. 

At the close of the existence of this church, Pennypack became 
the mother church of the region, and ie now the oldest existing 

the; old PENNYPACK baptist church 2"]"] 

Baptist parish in Pennsylvania. The first church of Philadel- 
phia stands eighth in order of organization, though now the city 
contains over fifty parishes. 

Morgan Edwards describes the Pennypack church of his day 
thus : "A neat stone building 33x30, with pews, galleries and a 
stove," built in 1707, on an acre lot, given by Rev. Samuel Jones. 
George Eaton added an acre and the church bought t\v^o acres 
more. Ample horse sheds stood pn the ground on the opposite 
side of the road from the church and a ''fine grove affording shade 
in the summer and firewood in winter." This grove has been cut 
down and the sheds removed. The land forms a new cemetery. 
The church received some small legacies. The living was worth 
£50 a year when Edwards wrote. 

The parish was founded by sturdy Welshmen. The English 
church historian. Fuller, says that "the poor Christian Britons, 
(in Wales), living peaceably at home, there enjoyed God, the 
Gospel and their mountains." Now they were to find new pleas- 
ure in the gentle hills around the Pennypack. 

About 1686 John Eaton, George Eaton and his wife, Sarah 
and Samuel Jones, members of a Baptist church in Llandeuri 
and Nantmel, in Radnorshire, where Henry Gregory was over- 
seer, and John Baker, from Kilkenny, in Ireland, where Rev. 
Christopher Blackwell was pastor, and Samuel Vous, from Eng- 
land, settled on the banks of the Pennypack creek. 

Morgan Edwards relates that Elias Keach, son of the famous 
Baptist minister Benjamin Keach, one of the author's of Keach's 
Baptist Catechism, of London, came hither, "a very wild spark," 
about 1686. He dressed in black and wore a band in order to 
pass for a minister, as leading clergy then wore a gown and bands, 
but in preaching fell to weeping, and declared he was imposing on 
his audience, and only pretending to hold the sacred office ; but 
his distress ended in his conversion, and he was baptized by the 
Rev. Thomas Dungan, of Cold Spring, whom Keach styles "an 
ancient disciple and teacher among Baptists." Keach became a 
devoted and successful servant of Christ, and while at Pennypack 
"traveled through Pennsylvania and the Jersies, preaching the 
Gospel in the wilderness with great success, as the chief apostle 
of the Baptists in these parts of America," as Edw^ards expresses 


it. Keach's Catechism is in Hayner's book. "The Baptist Denomi- 

In 1692 EHas Keach and his family went to England, he 
"having resigned the care of the church for a considerable time 
before to the Rev. John Watts." 

Keach married Mary, daughter of the Hon. Nicholas Moore, 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and president of the Free Society 
of Traders and friend of Penn, who stood high in the offices of 
the Province and gave name to the two Morelands, as owner 
of the tract. He lived on the Green Spring plantation, near the 
former toll-gate on the Bustleton and Somerton pike. The 
late Honorable Horatio Gates Jones, in his valuable pamphlet, 
"The Lower Dublin Baptist Church," issued in 1869, which will 
be used in carrying on this history, remarks, that Keach's only 
daughter. Hannah, married Revitt Harrison, in England, and 
their son, John Elias Keach Harrison, "came to America about 
the year 1734 and lived at Hatborough. and was a member of 
the Baptist church of Southampton." He owned a part of the 
Moreland estate. I have tried to trace this family without avail. 

Keach, according to Mr. Jones, zealously preached at the Falls 
of the Delaware (Trenton). Philadelphia, Chester. Burlington. 
Middletown, Cohansey, Salem and other places, baptizing such 
as gave evidence of true piety." Middletown is in Monmouth 
county. New Jersey, not far from Red Bank, and Cohansey is 
Roadstown, in Cumberland county, in the same State. 

These parishes were connected as actual members of Penny- 
pack, the mother church, who now has daughters all over 
these two States. Semi-annual meetings were held, "in the 
spring, at Salem, about May; and in the fall, at Pennypack, or 
Burlington," when for lack of ministers "particular churches" had 
not been organized. The Holy Communion was celebrated at the 
"general meetings." that the scattered flocks might meet around 
the Lord's table. 

\"ariations arose at Pennypack, as also in Newport, Rhode 
Island, as to the practice of confirmation, or laying on of hands ; 
while at Pennypack psalm-singing and the observance of the 
Seventh day as the Sabbath were points of difference also. 

Rev. John Watts succeeded Elias Keach as pastor of Penny- 
pack, though other gifted brethren had led in the services in 


Keach's needful absences in his varied work in the different 

John Watts was born in Leeds, England, in 1661, and was 
pastor at Pennypack from 1690 to 1702. He was buried at 
Pennypack; the first Samuel Jones, Evan Morgan and Joseph 
Wood were his assistants, there was a second parson of this 
name. Mr. Watts married Sarah Eaton. The Roberts, Melchior, 
Yerkes, Davis, Shull and Ingle families are connected with the 
Watts family. Mr. Watts was a sound and learned divine. 
His descendant, James Watts Mercur, Esq., of Wallingford, Pa., 
has given me further particulars. A tradition from Stephen 
Watts, Jr., born about 1735, was, that John Watts was descended 
from Sir John Watts, Lord Mayor of London in 1604, having 
been High Sheriff of London, in 1596, and a m-jmber of the 
Clothmakers' Guild. See "The Liveries of London" in the 
library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Charles P. 
Keith's "Councilors" notes this. 

Ann, daughter of John Watts' son, Stephen, who had married an 
Assheton, married Colonel Josiah Hart, son of Colonel Joseph 
Hart, a Revolutionary soldier in the "flying-camp," and vice 
president of the convention at Carpenter's Hall, and chairman of 
the committee which recommended a meeting of the Colonies. 
Amy Hart was Ann Hart's daughter, and she married General 
John Davis, the father of your honored president. General 
William Watts Hart Davis. There is a picture cf Watts' tomb 
at Pennypack in the Elkins volume. The quaint inscription runs : 

"Interred here I be 

O that you could now see 

How unto Jesus for to flee, 

Not in sin still to be. 

Warning in time pray take 

And peace by Jesus make, 

Th&n at the last when you awake 

Sure on his right hand you'll partake." 

The Revolutionary general, Frederick Watts, who came from 
England and settled in Carlisle, Pa., was of the Pennypack Watts 
family. He is noticed in the "History of Northumberland County." 

John Watts left a very valuable library for a day when books 
were scarce. His widow married Anthony Yerkes, who bought 


300 acres of land iti Moreland manor, Montgomery county, about 
1709. Judge Harman Yerkes is of this family. 

When Mr. Watts took charge of Pennypack parish it was the 
only Baptist parish in Pennsylvania, as Cold Spring church was 
substantially disbanded after Mr. Dungan's death, in 1688. Mr. 
Watts visited the New Jersey Baptists, in conjunction with 
Pennypack, and for years was pastor of what became the First 
Baptist church of Philadelphia. 

During Mr. Watts' pastorate the Rev. Thomas Clayton, rector 
of Christ church, Philadelphia, asked the Baptists to unite with 
the English church without avail, but the Pennypack church 
chose him as one of the arbitrators in a doctrinal dispute. Wat- 
son's Annals of Philadelphia copies Morgan Edwards as to the 
church unity matter, also see my history of the "Early Clergy of 
Pennsylvania and Delaware." 

In 1 701, some Welsh Baptists, with their minister, Thomas 
Griffith, emigrated to Pennypack, but in 1703 many of them went 
to the Welsh tract near Newark, Delaware, and established a 
church. They differed with the Pennypack church in approving 
confirmation, which Morgan Edwards approved, as well as Roger 
Williams, as noted in Dr. Newman's "History of the Baptists." 
The Rev. Owen Thomas, of this church, thrice anointed the sick 
with success, and the Rev. Hugh Davis, of Great Valley, asked 
the elders to anoint him with oil, according to St. James' Epistle 
5 : 14-17, was permanently restored. German Baptists practiced 
this rite. 

Keach wrote from London to \\'atts of the miraculous cure of 
a French girl reading of Christ's miracles, whose crooked body 
was made straight, and a lame man converted at a sermon, and 
leaping and praising God, who had healed soul and body. 

The Rev. Evan Morgan was the third pastor at Pennypack, 
from 1706 to 1709; he was born in Wales and became a follower 
of George Keith, leaving the Friends. This "intelligent man," 
as Horatio Gates Jones styles him, died in 1709. and was buried 
in the Pennypack graveyard. 

Next comes the Rev. Samuel Jones, born July 9, 1657. in 
Llanwi parish, Radnorshire, Wales ; he came to America about 
1686. He held the parish from 1706 to 1722. and had been united 
with Evan Morgan in the care of the church. His death occurred 


in 1722. He also lies buried in the Pennypack graveyard. He 
gave the land for the church, and "a number of valuable books, 
including 'Keach on the Parables.' " 

John Hart and others assisted Mr. Jones. Mr. Hart was born 
in 1 65 1, at Whitney, Oxfordshire, England, and preached among 
Friends till 1691, when he joined the Veithians, and served them 
in John Swift's house, in Southampton. About 1697, he became 
a Baptist and in 1702 joined the Pennypack church. He mar- 
ried Susannah Rush. The Crispin, Miles, Dungan and Paulin 
families were his relatives. The eminent Rev. Oliver Hart, of 
South Carolina, was of this connection. 

The fifth pastor, Joseph Wood, was a native of England. His 
birthplace was near Hull, in Yorkshire. He emigrated to Amer- 
ica about 1684. Elias Keach baptized him in Burlington in 1691. 
He was ordained in 1708. and "assisted Messrs. Morgan and 
Jones in the ministry." His death took place in 1747, and his 
burial was at Cold Spring. He was a good preacher. 

The next pastor was Abel Morgan, born in 1673, at Alltgoch, 
South Wales. He began preaching when 19 years old, and was 
pastor from 171 1 to 1722, preaching alternately at Pennypack and 
Philadelphia. He prepared a Welsh Concordaiice of the Bible, 
published in Philadelphia, 8 years after his death. He also 
published a Welsh Confession of Faith. He died in 1722, aged 
49, and was buried "in the lot of the First Baptist Church in 
Philadelphia, in Mount Moriah Cemetery," "where a stone is 
erected to his memory." "A great and good man held in dear 

Rev. Jenkin Jones, born in Wales about 1686, entered on his 
work here in 1726, living in Philadelphia and officiating also in 
the city which was called "a branch of Pennypek." WilHam 
Kinnersley and Joseph Wood assisted him. Mr. Kinnersley was 
born in England in 1669, and reached America in 1714. He had 
been an accepted exhorter in Tuxbury, but was never ordained. 
He died in 1734 and was interred at Pennypack. His son, 
Ebenezer, born in Gloucester. England, in 171 1. was a minister 
and was distinguished as a professor in the College of Philadel- 
phia, having made, in connection with Dr. Franklin, many im- 
portant discoveries in electricity, as Horatio Gates Jones records. 
He and his father lie side bv side near a tree in the old cemetery. 


The wife of Ebenezer was Sarah Dnffield. The Dufifield family 
were friends of Benjamin Frankhn. 

The Rev. Jenkin Jones ministered here from 1726 to 1746, 
when he became the. first pastor of the Philadelphia church, 
where he died in 1760. aged 74, and was laid to rest in Mount 
Moriah Cemetery. He was a man of ability. He left a legacy 
for a silver communion cup, and gave a part of the cost of the 
building of the parsonage in Philadelphia. 

Rev. Peter Peterson VanHorn was born in Middletown, in 
Bucks county, holding the pastorate from 1747 to 1762. He died 
as pastor of Salem church, in 1789, at the age of seventy-one. 

George Eaton was an assistant and exhorter though not or- 
dained; his wife was Mary Davis; he died in 1764. He gave 
the church one acre of land and £5. On his tombstone, at 
Pennypack, is the record of its erection "by his surviving and 
pious widow- 

We now approach the most remarkable pastorate in this 
record of over two centuries and one that spans nearly one-fourth 
of that period. 

The Rev. Samuel Jones, D. D., was born at Cesen of Gelli, 
Bettus Parish, Glamorganshire, South Wales, January 14. 1745. 
His parents brought him to America in 1737. His father, the 
Rev. Thomas Jones, was pastor of Tulepehocken church, in 
Berks county, Pennsylvania. The son studied in the College of 
Philadelphia, receiving the degree of Alaster of Arts in 1762, 
and was ordained in the College hall in 1763, by the wish of the 
First Baptist church of Philadelphia, where his membership was, 
and that year assumed the charge of Pennypack and Southamp- 
ton churches^: In 1770, he resigned Southampton, but held 
Pennypack almost 51 years. 

Horatio Gates Jones describes this godly man as "deservedly 
honored and esteemed by all the churches of cur faith in the 
country." He was learned, and his advise was sought by those 
near and far. I myself have gone over some of his letters, 
finding him a sort of Bishop among the Baptists. He aided in 
preparing the charter at the founding of Rhode Island College, 
at Warren, which was moved to Providence, and is now Brown 
University. After the death of Dr. Manning he was offered the 
presidency, which he declined. He taught young men theology 

the: old pennypack baptist church 283 

in his country home, near the church, and many of his students 
"became distinguished preachers of the Gospel-" 

Dr. Jones wrote several small books, but none printed except 
his circular letters and a sermon, "The Doctrine of the Covenant," 
in 1783, and "A Century Sermon," in 1807, preached at the asso- 
ciation, and a small handbill on "Laying on of Hands," which 
called forth an answer from Rev. David Jones, of the Great Valley 
church." Several colleges gave him degrees, Rhode Island Col- 
lege, the Master of Arts, and the University of Pennsylvania, 
Doctor of Divinity. 

The doctor married Sylvia Spicer, of Cape May, and had a son 
named Thomas. 

The doctor's ordination sermon, and a narrative of the ordina- 
tion was printed. 

The Rev. Dr. Newman, in his "History of the Baptist," says 
he was "the ablest and most trusted leader among the ministers 
of the Philadelphia Association. He possessed ample learning, 
a strong personality, a magnificent physique and practical wisdom 
of the highest order. Eloquent and amiable, he won the hearts 
of all, and to the close of his long life, in 1812 he was a Nestor 
among his brethren." 

Rev. William VanHorn, son of Peter VanHorn, who was pastor 
at Southampton 13 years, was educated at Dr- Jones' Academy. 
He was chaplain of a INIassachusetts brigade in the Revolutionary 

When Rev. Thomas Brown was in the academy he was devoted 
to the foreign missionary movement. He became pastor at 
Great Valley. These two cases are given in the wonderful "An- 
nals of the American Pulpit," by the Rev. Dr. William Buell 
Sprague, pastor of the Second Presbyterian church in Albany, 
N. Y. There are nine octavo volumes, on different churches, the 
Baptist one being volume six. I once saw the doctor in a pew in 
St. Peter's church, Albany, a small man with a large brain and 
a wide heart. 

My walks and rides for years have taken me by the old stone 
house on the animal farm given by Mrs. Ryerss to aid sick and 
dumb creatures, and "Lynganoir." his later abode, occupied by 
his descendants, Mrs. Dade and the Misses Henderson. 

The next pastor, Jacob Grigg, was of English birth. He 


served the church from 181 5 to 1817. He had had a school in 
Richmond. Virginia, and returned there to teach and preach as 
an itinerant. He died in Sussex county, in that State in 1836. 
He had a good mind and a strong memory, and is said to have 
committed the Old and New Testament and Watts' Psalms to 
memory, "while on the ocean." 

The Rev. Joshua P. Slack (1817 to 1821), studied in Dr. 
Staughton's theological school, Philadelphia. He died in Cin- 
cinnati. His successor in his diary notes the grief of the people 
here at his announcement of the death. 

The Rev. David Jones, Jr., (1822 to 1833), was from North 
Wales. He studied theology under Dr. Samuel Jones and became 
pastor of the Frankford church, and afterward held a parish in 
Newark, N. J., and "was much beloved wherever known." He 
died where Samuel Megargle now lives. His widow married the 
Rev. Thomas Roberts. She lived where Dr. Beyer resides. Wr. 
Jones was a great singer and would raise himself on his toes in 
his enthusiastic music. 

The Rev. James Milbank Challis, (1838 to 1845), was born in 
Philadelphia. After leaving Pennypack. he had charges in Mores- 
town and Cohansey, N. J., and then retired and died in Bridge- 
ton, N. J. The Rev. Dr. John R. Murphy wrote his memoir in a 
volume. He was of Huguenot descent, of noble Christian martyr 
ancestry. His worthy wife was Lydia Johnson. He owned the 
present residence of Frank Masland, adjoining the churchyard 
of the Memorial Episcopal church of St. Luke, the Beloved Physi- 
cian, a beautiful memorial to Dr. Bernard Henry, erected by 
his widow, Mrs. Pauline E. Henry. Mr. Challis' work was suc- 
cessful, and a revival blessed his labors, though, in what he styled 
the "Musical War," there was a contest as to the use of instru- 
mental music in which "the stringed" instruments of the 150th 
Psalm conquered. 

The Rev. Thomas Roberts (1845 to 1847), next meets us, a 
Welshman. He was ordained by the Rev. Dr. Staughton and Rev. 
Messrs. David and Horatio G. Jones, the father of the local 
historian from whom we are now culling inforrnation. He had 
been with Rev. Evan Jones, a missionary to the Cherokee Indians. 
He wrote an autobiography, which was published with several of 
his sermons. In his native land Mr. Roberts had worked on a 

the: old pennypack baptist church 285 

farm and as a cooper. He once walked from Utica to Albany, 
q6 miles, in three days, enjoying "much of the Lord's presence," 
in prayer for God's direction and composing sermons. Rev. 
David Jones, chaplain in the Revolution, desired his aid in the 
Great Valley church. He studied with Dr. Staughton and for a 
year walked fortnightly, on Saturday evenings, 16 miles to the 
country church, and every three months walked to Newark, N. J., 
to visit his family. Here was a Christian athlete. He labored 
eight years in Great Valley among the descendants of the Welsh. 
The missionary work among the Cherokees was deeply interesting 
and fruitful in Christian comfort. Mr. Roberts afterward was 
pastor at Middletown, N. J., and other parishes before his work 
at Bustleton and Homesburg. Dr. Beyer's office was built for 
his study. He died on his farm at Middletown at the age of 82. 

The Rev. Richard Lewis, M. D., (1847 to 1852), was another 
Welshman. He served Pennypack and then Homesburg and 
studied medicine and practiced in Frankford. He was a succes-^;- 
ful minister having revivals. The parsonage was built for him. 

Then comes the Rev. William Hutchinson (1852 to 1856), born 
in Drumlample, Londonderry county. Ireland, in 1794, coming to 
America in 18 19. He worked for "The London Baptist Irish 
Society," having returned to the old country ; but in 1827 came 
again to this land and in 1828 was pastor in Brandon, Vermont, 
where he started "The Vermont Telegraph," a weekly religious 
newspaper. He was later pastor in Fayetteville and Oswego, in 
New York. His daughter is Mrs. John Neville, of Bustleton. 

The Rev. Alfred Harris (1857 to i860), is still another Welsh- 
man, the son of a clergyman. He "labored with much success" 
here, about J2 members being admitted at one time, and then 
went to Hoboken, N. J. He wrote much for Vv^elsh magazines 
and could preach in Welsh. He was a fine preacher. 

The Rev. George Kempton, D. D., (i860 to 1865), was from 
South Carolina. Several of his sermons were printed. He was 
a very good preacher. 

The Rev. William E. Cornwell (1866 to 1880). is a Philadel- 
phian by birth, a graduate of the Theological Department of the 
University at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Many were baptized by 
him and the Fox Chase church was built in his pastorate. He is 
at Jacobstown, N. J., formerly a charge of Mr. Challis. I 
found him a worthv and faithful servant of Christ. 


The Rev. Charles Warwick (1881 to 1893). The great event 
connected with this pastorate was the zealous and determined 
effort to construct an elegant stone church in the village of Bustle- 
ton. In this arduous task great aid came from J. Morgan Dun- 
gan, who gave the lot, and others followed his good deed; and 
now the building stands surmounted by its cross and bell-tower as 
a monument to him, who could look on this symbol of Christ's 
pain for man's salvation as also a token of His glory when pain 
was exchanged for joy. 

The Rev. William K. Walling (1893 to 1894), resigned from 
the ministry and entered the legal profession. 

The Rev. Thomas P. Holloway (1894 to 1900), did a good 
work here and, to the regret of his flock, left them for a parish 
at Waverly, Baltimore, where success followed him. 

The Rev. George W. Peck, Jr., (1900 to the present date, 
1903). This clergyman came hither from Roselle, N. J. He 
was a student in Princeton and Columbia Universities and Crozier 
Theological Seminary. He is a faithful Christian, beloved by 
his people, and the fifth pastor of my acquaintance, may we 
all contend, as Lord Bacon expresses it, as the olive with the 
vine as to which shall bear the most fruit. 

The dignified old church, with its mullioned window in front, 
guards the sleeping dead of centuries under summer's sun and 
winter's snow, and Indians lie at its side. It used to see men 
and women coming hither on horseback, or with white-topped 
farm wagons, or in two-wheeled carts. Now the horse-block 
has departed. 

A log building is said to have first arisen. The present stone 
edifice has the inscription : 

"Built 1707. 

Enlarged 1774, 

Rebuilt 1805, 

S. Jones, D. D., 


The Indian word Pemmapacka, now Pennypack, is said to 
mean "water without a current." On a curve on the banks of 
this creek, a short distance from the old church, is a large flat 
stone which marks the old place of baptism, where generations 
of clergy baptized generations of the laity into the Christian faith. 

Newtown — Old and New. 

(Tohickon Park, Bedminster Meeting, October 6, 1903.) 

The student of history desiring to visit Europe would, if he 
sailed from New York to Liverpool, probably stop for a day in 
the latter city, then proceed by railroad to London, via the old 
town of Chester. Here he would stop long enough to take a 
carriage drive to the old city walls and tower, the church of St. 
John, the Baptist, founded A. D. 1070; thence by the castle to 
the "Old Derby House," and cathedral, each of them showing 
architecture of centuries ago. 

After visiting enroute the home of Shakespeare, the cities of 
Oxford and London, he would desire to cross o\er to the Conti- 
nent and in turn look upon the famous Heidelburg castle ; the 
wonderful cathedral at Cologne, which was over 600 years in 
building, and the home of William Tell ; thence on to Rome, 
where if he had a veneration for the "Old," he would view the 
ruins of the Pantheon, the Coliseum, the Arch of Titus, the 
Catacombs, dungeons and many other wonders dating back 2,000 
years in the world's history. But we have no such field through 
which to carry our hearers, for Newtown was only born 220 
years ago, hence my subject will not admit of great and glowing 
descriptions of men or events differing very much from other 
towns in our county or State. Neither do I propose to confine 
myself simply to its history. I desire to associate a partial 
record of the past with some of the many interesting items 
clustered around the names of some of the earlier residents 
and narrate some things not heretofore given to the public, which 
may prove of interest to my hearers. 

To speak of "Newtown — Old and New," without mentioning 
some of the old landmarks would not be possible. Some of these 
have been partly covered by a paper read before this society in 
1896 by J. P. Hutchinson, (since deceased,) entitled "Newtown 
Prior to 1800,"* and others have been obtained from our older 
residents and from other sources. 

* Published in Vol. II, page 386 of these papers. 


Tradition says Penn not only devised plans for estab- 
lishing a large city in the Province, but also for locating a number 
of towns farther into the interior. One day with a party of 
friends he rode several miles back from the Delaware river 
and coming to the valley of what is now known as Newtown 
creek, near where it empties into the Neshaminy, as the beauties 
of the situation burst on his view he said to his companions : 
"This is the place for my new town," hence the name, "New- 

This was about 1681, the town being laid out some two years 
later, or 220 years ago, but was not incorporated into a borough 
until 1838. Among the first settlers were Stephen Twining, 
William Buckman, Thomas Hillborn, and James Yates, and the 
descendants of these families are still in our midst. 

One peculiar provision made by Penn with the early settlers 
was reserving a piece of land lying on both sides the creek and 
extending the whole length of the town, for the common use 
alike of the inhabitants of the village and known as "Commons." 
After the death of all the trustees named in the patent except 
one, and the resignation of the trust by this one, the Legislature 
passed an act incorporating the "Trustees of Newtown Com- 
mons." This organization is still in existence and their services 
are still occasionally needed in perfecting titles by the satisfac- 
tion of an old mortgage, or the extinguishment of a ground-rent, 
and has been a source of vexation to those of us who have acted 
as conveyancers. 

The two oldest institutions in Newtown are the "Presbyterian 
Church" and the "Newtown Library." The former was organ- 
ized and the first building erected on a corner of Alexander 
German's estate, on the Swamp road, one mile west of the town, 
in 1734. This building was a frame structure and was used 
for church purposes 35 years. There was a graveyard attached, 
but the old stones or slabs have all sunken and but few inscrip- 
tions can be read, there being no descendants living in the vicinity 
to care for the graves of those buried there. 

The second church building was erected in 1769, on the west side 
of Newtown creek, with shedding on the north side and a grave- 
yard in rear of the lot. This building has undergone such 
frequent repairs and changes that little more than the original 


walls remain. It is kept in good repair and has been used as a 
place of worship continuously for 134 years. During this long 
period, excepting for a few years when preaching was supplied, 
the church has had but 13 pastors, as follows Hugh Carlisle, who 
•served from 1734 for a term of four years ; James Campbell, 1747, 
two years; Henry Martin, 1759, ten years; James Boyd, 1769, 
forty-four years; James Joyce, 1813, two years; Alexander 
Boyd, 1815, twenty-three years; Robert D. Morris, 1838, eighteen 
years; George Burrows, D. D., 1856, three years; Henry F. 
Lee, 1859, two years; Samuel J. Milhken, 1861, five years; 
George C. Bush, 1866, ten years; A. McElroy Wylie, 1877, eleven 
years; Thomas J. Elms, 1888, fifteen years, who is still (1903) 
the pastor. 

In 1855 the old Bucks County Academy was purchased by the 
trustees and used for parochial and Sabbath school purposes for 
31 years. In 1886 a farewell service was held, conducted by 
the writer who was superintendent of the Sabbath school, and the 
school removed to the handsome new chapel erected at the 
corner of Washington avenue and Chancellor street. 

"The Newtown Library" dates its organization back to 1760, 
in the house now occupied by Mrs. Mitchell at the corner of 
Court street and Centre avenue, Joseph Thornton being first 
librarian. David Twining afterwards served as librarian, treas- 
urer and director for a period of 27 years. The Library Com- 
pany was incorporated March 2"], 1789, under the title of "The 
Newtown Library Company." The present building is of brick, 
on the lot opposite where the library company was first organ- 
ized, the shelves are well filled with books and the interest well 

The county courts were held at Newtown from 1725 to 1813, 
a period of 88 years. The court-house stood on Court street, 
was built of stone two stories high, with the court-room on the 
first floor, the second story being fitted up for jury rooms. The 
first court under Act of Assembly of June 13, 1777, was held 
September 9th, of the same year, and an able charge given to 
the grand jury by Henry Wynkoop, the presiding justice in 
keeping with the new order of things, the Colonies having de- 
clared themselves free and independent of Great Britain. 


In October, 1896, the writer was asked by Charles A Hanna, 
of Lincohi, Neb., "to furnish him a Hst of those buried in the 
'old graveyard' of the Presbyterian church, whose tombstones 
were still standing, who were born before 1800, with date of 
death and age." To comply was no easy task, but the list was 
furnished, and from the copy which I retained I find there are 
some 155 graves marked. Of these the oldest person was Jemi- 
ma, wife of Joseph Howell, aged 100 years; one other was 95; 
two between 90 and 95 ; seven between 85 and 90 ; twenty-eight 
between 80 and 85 ; thirteen between 75 and 80, and twenty- 
eight between 70 and 75, showing that our grandfathers and 
grandmothers knew how to live to a good old age, as well or 
better than those of us who think we have advanced in knowl- 

One of the noted men in his time was Major Joseph O. Arch- 
ambault, who gave land enough for two streets to be cut through, 
provided they should be named for his sons. Napoleon and 
Lafayette. The streets were so named and known as such until 
1853, when Napoleon street was, by ordinance of council, changed 
to Green and Lafayette to Liberty. He also gave the ground 
on which Newtown Hall now stands, and a "Free Meeting 
House" was erected thereon. This was transferred to the 
borough in 1842. with the proviso continued, "That no money 
shall be collected therein for any other purpose than the expenses 
of said house, and that all meetings held shall be free to all." 
Also "that no society or person shall be entitled to make more 
than one appointment for the future to the exclusion of any 
other society or person." Many of the noted orators of the 
olden time have spoken from this platform, and a lyceum was 
successfully conducted there for years. 

Major Archambault was born at Fontainbleau. France, in 
1796, and being left an orphan he became, through family influ- 
ence, a ward of the Empire. Napoleon, the First, placed him at the 
military school at Saint Cyr. where he remained six or seven 
years. Upon leaving the school he became a page in the suite, 
first of the Emperor, then of the Empress during the exile of 
the Emperor at Elba. When Napoleon returned to France, 
young Archambault was again attached to him and from time to 
time shared his eventful career. He was wounded at the battle 


of Waterloo and left on the field, but escaped capture, rejoined 
the Emperor and was one of the twelve to accompany him to 
St. Helena. He was ordered to surrender his sword as the 
distinguished party went aboard the British war ship, but rather 
than give it to an Englishman he broke it and threw the pieces 
into the sea. He remained with the Emperor at St. Helena 
about a year, when he was removed to the Cape of Good Hope, 
and from there was sent to England. The French Govern- 
ment refusing him permission to return to France, he obtained 
a passport to the United States and arrived at New York, May 
5, 1817. He was a frequent visitor at the house of Joseph 
Bonaparte at Bordentown, N. ]., where by reason of his relation 
to the Emperor, he was ever a welcome guest. Soon after his 
marriage he removed first to Philadelphia, where his eldest son 
was born and thence to Newtown, and kept a hotel still known 
as the "Brick hotel" which he enlarged by raising a story higher 
and built the present west end with ball-room above, dining-room 
and bar below; at times he had from 50 to 75 boarders. In 
1837 he sold the hotel to Oliver Cadwallader. 

Almost immediately after his removal to Newtown he joined 
the Union troop of cavalry, of which he was elected lieutenant 
and subsequently captain, and served with the troop in quelling 
the riots in Philadelphia in 1844. He served with the three 
months men at the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion and 
upon his return recruited a cavalry company for three years, 
being captain of company A, Second Pennsylvania Cavalry, and 
was promoted to major. He died in Philadelphia July 3, 1874, 
but his sons and widow have since frequently visited Newtown as 
guests of Mrs. Alfred Blaker. 

Another noted man of Newtown was Judge Gilbert Hicks. 
He was one of the justices for Bucks county from 1752 to 1776. 
At the outbreak of the war for independence, being a "Friend," 
he was conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, and moreover 
as his office was held under the Crown he read Howe's procla- 
mation in front of the court-house at Newtown, and counselled 
his friends to pause before it was too late, but his advice was not 
taken and he was compelled to flee the county to prevent arrest, 

Isaac Hicks was a son of Gilbert, and was closelv connected 
with the business history of the town, for about 50 years. 


Edward Hicks, son of Isaac, was a prominent minister of 
the society of Friends, born in 1780. 

Henry Wynkoop figured conspicuously in the early history 
of "Old" Newtown, especially during the Revolutionary days. 
He was familiarly known as Judge Wynkoop ; his original com- 
mission bearing date November 18, 1780, is in possession of the 

Col. Francis Murray was a large owner of real estate in 
Newtown, and lived in the large stone dwelling on Court street, 
immediately opposite the court-house, now the property of Hon. 
Edward M. Paxson. He was one of the trustees of the Newtown 
Commons ; also of the Bucks County Academy, and one of the 
associate justices of the court in 18x3. He died November 30, 
1816, aged 84 years, and was interred in the Presbyterian grave- 

Hon. ]\Iichael H. Jenks, Dr. Phineas Jenks, (father of George 
A Jenks, Esq.,) Jesse Heston, Dr. David Hutchinson, (father 
of J. Pemberton and Edward S. Hutchinson,) Alfred Blaker, 
Esq., all now deceased, were prominent men in their day, and 
have left their impress on their native town. 

"The Friends' meeting-house," dates back to 181 5, when 
liberty was granted to hold an indulged meeting on First and 
Third days. These meetings were held in the old court-house, 
which was rented for that purpose. Application was made in 
December, 181 5, to Wrightstown for liberty to build a meeting- 
house, but it was not granted. The meetings were held in the 
court-house until 181 7, when the present house was built and on 
Dec. 30, 1818. Silas Cary, James Worstall, John Buckman, Jr., 
Zephaniah Mahan, Jacob Janney. Jesse Leedom and Joseph 
Briggs, were appointed a committee to take a deed of trust for 
the meeting property. In 1822 an effort was made to establish a 
Friends' school, but it was not then successful. Soon afterwards the 
Newtown Friends, with the aid of others, built what was known 
as "The Neighbor's School," on the lot opposite the meeting- 
house, afterwards used and known as the "Free School," and 
which stood until a few years ago. They have since purchased 
more land and made several improvements, including the addition 
of a heating and ventilating apparatus. The society is in a flour- 
ishine condition. 


The "Newtown of to-day" is a worthy successor of the old. 
Many houses are still standing which figured prominently in 
Revolutionary days, although much changed m appearance by 
repairs. The house on the farm of Alexander German, now 
deceased, was the headquarters of Washington from December 
27 to 29. 1776, and some of his generals were also quartered here 
at that time. Some of the Hessians captured at Trenton were 
temporarily imprisoned in the Presbyterian church. The "Court 
House Inn," now Mrs. Mitchells; the Brick hotel; and other 
buildings date well back into the past. 

"The Churches" of to-day embrace the Protestant Episcopal, 
which has stood for many years on Washington avenue, facing 
Liberty street, to which a new brick parish building has been 
added and modern heating apparatus introduced in both church 
and parish buildings. The Methodists sold their old church 
building a few years ago to the borough school-board, who 
changed it into a primary school, and erected a handsome church 
building on the adjoining lot. They have a flourishing Sunday 
school held in same building although separated from the main 
audience room by sliding partitions. The Presbyterians still 
hold their morning services in the old church building on Syca- 
more street, but all other services including a large and flourishing 
Sabbath school, are held in their new stone chapel, corner of 
Washington avenue and Chancellor street. 

The Roman Catholics some years ago built a large stone church 
on lower Sycamore street, and have since erected a commodious 
brick house adjoining, where the priest in charge makes his home. 
The Baptists have recently organized a church and Sunday school, 
meeting in Enterprise hall. 

Newtown boasts of a large brick hall, built some years ago 
on the lot where the "Free Church" once stood, permission to re- 
move the restrictions on the latter having been obtained from the 
Archambault family. It is lighted by electric lights, has a large 
stage and will seat 700 persons. 

"The Public School Buildings" embrace a large stone building 
built at a cost, including grounds, of $20,000, the lot extending 
through from Chancellor ' to Congress streets. The grounds 
are large and well shaded, the building lighted by electric 
lights and heated by the Smead and Wills heating and venti- 


lation system, with Smead's system of dry closets in the 
basement. The primary school is on a lot 70x150 feet in size, 
afifording the pupils a separate playground. 

"The George School," situated on a beautiful plot of land a 
short distance below the borough, is under the supervision of 
the society of Friends. The grounds contain 227 acres, about 
40 of which are thriving timber. The school buildings are 
built of brick, the main building having a frontage of 242 feet 
and a depth of 140 feet. There is a dormitory for boys 43 feet 
by 58 feet, a gymnasium, reading rooms, large assembly room 
with gallery seating 600 persons, a library, etc. Also separate 
houses for the principal and some of the professors. 

"The Friends Home" recently built at an expense for ground 
and buildings of over $30,000, was the free gift of Hon. Edward 
M. Paxson, and is a credit to the town and the donor as well. 
The building is of stone, heated by steam and lighted by electric 
lights throughout, with accommodations for about 30 persons, 
and is well filled. 

"The Newtown Enterprise," was established in 1868 by Eleazer 
F. Church, who died in i8<93. His son, Watson P. Church, 
assumed control in July of that year and still conducts it. 
It has always sustained the reputation of being a good local news- 
paper, while its advertising patronage and large circulation, 
make it profitable to its owner. 

The First National Bank, with a capital of $100,000, and a 
surplus fund of $200,000, has always done a large and profitable 
business and its stock has gradually increased in value. 

Randal's carriage works have an extensive trade, their carriages 
being sold not only locally, but throughout the South and West. 

Mawson Brothers Incorporated have built up a very profitable 
trade in manufacture of bobbins, spools, etc. 

A cannery has been established the present season, the buildings, 
well, lot, and machinery costing about $12,000 also an ice plant 
and a china pottery both incorporated. 

A. W. & W. M. Watson are doing a heavy business in hard 
wood and other lumber. They also run to its full capacity a plan- 
ing-mill and sash factory. 

T. S. Kenderdine & Sons are running in connection with their 
coal yards, a fertilizing plant and hay press and are always busy. 


Worstall Bros. & Co. have an extensive trade in coal, feed and 
brick ; also a trade in flour manufactured in their merchant mill. 

Our "New" town has an extensive water plant, supplying the 
citizens and railroad engines with an abundance of excellent 
water from artesian wells. Also an electric light plant, and has 
recently become an important trolley centre. Connections are 
made on State street for Doylestown, Bristol and Trenton. The 
road from Trenton was built the present season and cars have 
been running since July i, 1903. It will probably be extended to 
Hatboro in the near future, thus placing the town in easy com- 
munication with two cities as well as with the diiTerent parts of 
our own county. 

Much more might be said of "Newtown — Old and New," but 
my paper has already been extended as far perhaps as time and 
prudence will allow. The part taken by Newtown in the days 
of the Revolution, presents great inducements to enlarge upon, 
but I must refrain from doing so although the field is a tempting 
one, and moreover this subject was well covered in the two 
excellent papers read before our society last year at the Wy- 
combe meeting, one by John S. Wurts of Germantown on "J^^dge 
Henry Wynkoop," the other by one of Newtown's sons, Samuel 
Gordon Smyth now of West Conshohocken entitled "Revolu- 
tionary Events about Newtown." 

The Tohickon Settlers. 

(Tohickon Park, Bedminster Meeting, October 6, 1903.) 

The place of our meeting to-day, while not the scene of 
sanguinary strife in any of the warlike epochs of our history, 
nor of any special event in the general history of the county or 
State, nevertheless possesses special historic interest. It repre- 
sents the extreme eastern shore line of the great tidal wave of 
German immigration that, between the years 1730 and 1740, 
swept over our county from the northwest, practically filling up 
all the vacant land from the county-line to the Durham road 
and from' New Britain and Plumstead to the Lehigh. 

There were pretty distinct lines of demarcation as to national- 
ity in the first settlement of our county. The English, mostly 
Quakers, being first on the ground as permanent settlers, had 
occupied practically all the land east of the Swamp road and 
south of Plumstead prior to the arrival of either the Germans 
or Scotch-Irish in any great number, and the more optimistic 
of them had acquired large tracts of land far beyond these limits. 
The Dutch from New Amsterdam and Staten Island had occupied 
quite a large tract in North and Southampton by the end of the 
first decade of the i8th century, while the Welsh overflow from 
Gwynedd had pushed its way over the county-line into Xew 
Britain and Hilltown. This left a vacant tract of some 10.000 
acres along the upper Neshaminy in Warwick, Warrington and 
New Britain which was quickly filled up by the Ulster Scots on 
their arrival about 1730-5. There seems to have been a predi- 
lection on the part of the latter race for the banks of streams, 
and rugged hillsides, shunned by the earlier settlers. Having 
taken up all the Neshaminy land then vacant, we find them swarm- 
ing up the western banks of the Delaware from the mouth of 
the Tohickon to the Lehigh and beyond ; rarely however, push- 
ing inland from the river more than a few miles except where 
they followed the course of one of its larger tributaries. 

While the Germans were pushing eastward, the Quakers were 


expanding into Plunistead, luitil they, with a sprinkling of 
Scotch-Irish and Welsh, had occupied practically the whole of 
that township. 

We therefore find that about the year 1750, near the spot of 
our present meeting the three converging tides of immigration 
met and turned back from each other. And from thenceforth 
for half a century the lines marking the boundaries of the settle- 
ments made by the three nationalities in upper Rucks, remained 
practically unchanged. Draw a line from the upper Hne of 
Plumstead near the Durham road to the northwest corner of 
Durham township, and it will nearly represent the hne of division 
between the land settled by the Germans and Scotch-Irish. Like 
the water-shed of two great rivers, however, you will find this 
line irregular at points where the two streams interlock each 

The changes of a century and a half have well nigh obliterated 
these early lines, but in a singular manner, as practically all the 
land originally settled by the Germans is still held by their lineal 
descendants, while the hardy, frugal industrious progeny of Ger- 
man sires have extended their holdings until they now occupy 
i'lsciicallv -aW tlu- tinvnsliip (if Phmistead and the river town- 
ships and a considerable portion of Buckingham and New Britain. 
One of the reasons for this expansion of the Germans is their 
homogeneity. Those of this particular locality were mostly Men- 
nonites and by reason of their alien language and customs were 
isolated from their English speaking neighbors. They neither 
held nor sought office. The tenets of their lives and the memory 
and traditions of the sufferings of their ancestors through politi- 
cal strife, encouraged them to devote their whole energies to 
their home life and the tilling of the soil. The more adven- 
turous and ambitious Scotch-Irish, in strong contrast, seemed to 
court strife, and the sons of the original settlers almost invaria- 
bly sought homes on the extreme edge of civilization and were 
always found in the vanguard in the conquest of the wilderness, 
while the EngHsh descendants of craftsmen and tradesmen had 
c: natural tendency for mercantile and manufacturing pursuits so 
that the ranks of the husbandmen were constantly thinned to 
make the merchants and manufacturers of our cities. 

This spot had also in the early times, the distinction of being 


upon the natural overland highway from the growing settlements 
on the upper Delaware to Philadelphia and points further south. 
It was the terminus of the Durham road as officially laid out from 
1732 to 1744, when it was opened to Durham. During this inter- 
val it was but an irregular trail beyond the Tohickon over which 
the Durham teams dragged the product of the Durham furnace 
to Philadelphia. 

It is our purpose in this sketch to give some account of the 
first settlers in this locality of all nationalities, though it will 
be impossible to give any adequate account of the part they took 
in the development of the county. 

The township of Tinicum originally included two large tracts 
surveyed in 1701. One of 4,448 acres surveyed to John or Jan 
Streiper, of "Creveldt in the county of Cologne, on the Borders 
of Germany," later of "Kalden-Kirchen in the county of Juliers," 
in the right of his purchase of 5,000 acres of William Penn, in 
March, 1682. The extreme west corner of this tract was near the 
point where the Durham road now crosses the Tohickon creek, 
from which point it extended northeasterly 1,250 perches to near 
Headquarters, thence southeasterly to the river, thence southwest 
7,036 perches crossing the Tohickon into Plumstead, then north- 
west recrossing the Tohickon 424 perches then again southwest 
220 perches again crossing the Tohickon, this time into Bed- 
minster township, and northwest 306 perches to the place of 
beginning. The second tract containing 7,500 acres was sur- 
veyed at the same time to Tobias Collet, Michael Russel, Daniel 
Ouaire and Henry Goldney, of London, known as the "Pennsyl- 
vania Land Company of London" but generally alluded to as 
"The London Company." This tract beginning at the same point 
as the Streiper tract extended northwest to what is now the upper 
line of Tinicum then by that line to the river, down the river to 
where the Streiper tract touched the river then northwest and 
southwest by that tract to the beginning. Below the Streiper 
tract was a triangular tract of perhaps 1,200 acres bounded on 
the two other sides by the river and the Tohickon, which was 
part of a tract referred to by Penn in the patent for the Streiper 
tract as "reserved for my own use." It was patented about 
1735 to Mathew Hughes, Lawrence and Enoch Pearson, Joseph 


Combes, Daniel Pennington and others in tracts varying from 50 
to 250 acres. 

The London Company tract was probably settled on by renters 
and squatters to some extent about 1740, but the greater part of 
it was unoccupied when put upon the market in 1762 by the 
trustees appointed by an Act of Parliament passed in 1760, to 
sell the land in Pennsylvania, belonging to the company. Even 
at that date a large amount of it was purchased in large 
tracts by land speculators and sold to actual settlers later. The 
principal purchasers were Scotch-Irish, many of them sons of 
settlers on the Streiper tract and elsewhere. Arthur Erwin who 
had recently arrived from Ireland became the purchaser of 
several large tracts in 1763 and 1765 and increased his holdings 
later, until at the time of his tragic death June 9, 1791 he was 
the owner of 1,600 acres. Robert Stewart, a grandson of Thomas 
Stewart, an early Scotch-Irish settler in New Britain, became 
the owner of several hundred acres, which he sold later and 
removed to Stewartsville, N. J. Rachel and Robert Stewart, the 
widow and son of Robert Stewart, of Warrington, also were 
purchasers, as were Robert, Nicholas, Andrew and Alexander 
Patterson, sons of John and Margaret Patterson, of the Streiper 
tract. There was also a sprinkling of Germans among the set- 
tlers in 1763. 

Jan Streiper did not come to America to take possession of his 
land, but prior to 1700 sent over his brother William to look after 
his interests in Pennsylvania, with him came Rynier and Herman 
Tysen, brothers of Jan Streiper's wife ; and his brothers-in-law, 
Thones or Tunis Cunrads, Leonard Arets. and Paulus Custers. 
Abraham, Herman and Isaac Opden Graef who arrived in 1687 
and settled in Germantown were cousins of the Streipers. All 
of these people have left numerous descendants in Bucks county. 
Tunis Cunrads was the ancestor of most of the Conrads and 
Conards of Bucks county as well as of many of other names, that 
now reside in Bucks county. His son John married Trintje the 
daughter of William Streiper and his daughter Enneke (Annie) 
married Leonard Tysen the son of Reynier. Paulis Custers or 
Kester as the name came to be spelled also has numerous 
descendants in Bucks county; several of the name became early 
settlers in Plumstead and Solebury and across the river in King- 


wood township, New Jersey. Five of one family intermarried 
with the Hambleton family of Solebury. VVilHam Michener, 
the ancestor of the Michener family of Plumstead, married Mary 
Custers in 1720 and settled in Plumstead two years later. 

The balance of Streiper's 5,000 acres was surveyed to him in 
and around Germantown, with an allotment of two acres "Liber- 
ty land" in the city of Philadelphia. The Tinicum tract contin- 
ued to be the home of a remnant of the Delaware tribe of 
Indians for upwards of twenty-five }ears after it was surveyed. 
Among them' resided Ralph Wilson, an early Indian trader, who 
did a thriving business with the tribes farther north who some- 
times brought their pelts down the river and sojourned for a 
time with their brethren on the Tohickon. Seven of the eight 
sons of Ralph Wilson were land owners on or near the Tohickon 
and his grandson John Wilson was for many years the proprietor 
of the Harrow tavern. 

To give a detailed account of the Streiper tract and the contro- 
versy over it would fill a small volume and time will only permit 
a brief summary thereof in this article. Jan Streiper prior to 
his death in 171 5 conveyed his lands in Pennsylvania to his 
brother, William Streiper, in order to vest a right of inheritance 
under the English law, and William, like the cruel uncle of the 
nursery tale, sought to divert it to his own use. Reynier Tysen 
armed with a power of attorney from Jan Streiper, sought to 
prevent this and the matter was further complicated by the death 
of WilHam Streiper in 171 7. Finally in 1725. Tysen and the 
heirs of William Streiper joined in a sale of the Tinicum tract 
to James Logan, Penn's secretary. On July 27, 1726, a deed 
was executed in Holland, purporting to be signed by the heirs of 
Jan Streiper, conveying the land to Logan. The price was 
£200 Sterling and ijo Penna. currency. In May, 1727, James 
Logan presented his petition to the Proprietaries, setting forth 
that Jan Streiper, being an alien, his children could not inherit, 
whereby his title was defective, and further that the Indians 
claimed title to the land, and praying that he might be permitted 
to turn the land back to the Proprietors and have a like quantity 
surveyed to him "in the new township of Durham." His petition 
was granted and the Streiper tract reverted to the Penns, and so 
remained until after the famous walk of 1737 had clearly defined 


the boundaries of the land purchased by Penn of the Indians, 
50 years previously. 

In May, 1738, the land was surveyed and divided into 25 tracts. 
The warrantees were: (i,) Samuel Dyer, 226 acres; (2,) George 
Cope, 191a. loop.; (3,) James Hayes, 315a. lo^p. ; (4.) John 
Orr, i8oa. ; (5,) Joseph MacFarland, 200a.; (6,) George Albright, 
20oa. ; (7,) vacant; (8,) James Whilly, 169a.; (9.) James Kelly. 
150a. 37p. ; (10,) William Coulter, 201a. 57p. ; (11,) John Mc- 
Laughlin, 309a.; (12,) Moses Marshall; (13.) John Wallace, 
20oa. ; (14,) James Johnson, 150a. 45p. ; (15,) Christian Houk, 
200a.; (16,) Margaret Patterson, 155a.; (17,) Nicholas Kern, 
207a. 87p. ; (18,) John Sample, 175a. 64p. ; (19,) William Goodin, 
175a. 64p. ; (20,) James Brooks, 175a. 64p. ; (21,) Edward Mar- 
shall, 164a. I4ip. ; (22,) William Marshall, 165a. ii7p.; (2^,) 
John May, 183a. I54p. ; (24,) David Griffith, T8ia. 2ip., and 
(25,) Robert Wallace, 178a. i2op., a total of 4.840 acres and 
63 perches. 

It will be noticed that but three or four of these warrantees 
were Germans and of these at least two, Christian Houk and 
George Albright, never took up their lands. The tract of Houk 
was resurveyed to James Davis in 1744, who had arrived a few 
years previously from Drumquin, county Tyrone, Ireland, with 
a wife and at least three sons, William, Patrick and James. Ten 
other children were born to him in Tinicum. John Sample sold 
his tract in 1746, and in 1759 it became the property of John Wil- 
son. The George Cope tract, lying just across the Tohickon at the 
Cabin Run ford, where a new iron bridge has been lately erected, 
was sold by the sheriff to William Mains or Means who had come 
with his father and three brothers from the north of Ireland 
about 1730. William Mains died on his Tinicum plantation in 
January, 1778, aged 84 years, and the property passed by will 
to his youngest son of the same name. It was sold by the 
sheriff ten years later to George Fox, and remained in the family 
until quite recently. The John Wallace and James Whilly 
tracts were repatented to Nicholas Wyker in 1783. John Orr's 
tract included the site where this meeting is being held. About 
one-half of the 180 acres lay across the Tohickon in Tinicum 
township, but the buildings were on the Bedminster side, as 
they are at present. This was known as John Orr's ford and 


was the point to which the Durham road was laid out in 1732 on 
the petition of the then owners of the furnace at Durham. 

John Orr was a native of Rapho Parish, county Donegal, Ire- 
land, and only son of Humphrey Orr, who had emigrated to 
America and settled in the township of New Britain where he 
died in 1732. John Orr was still a resident of county Donegal in 
1737 when he executed a power of attorney to Andrew Henderson 
to collect his share of his father's estate. The affidavit of James 
and Zachias Finley attached to the power of attorney states that 
John was the son of Humphrey Orr and his wife "Eliza Orr als. 
Simrell." John Orr was licensed to keep a house of entertain- 
ment at the Tohickon ford in 1744 and probably a year earlier 
as his application is not marked "new" as was customary with 
new applications. His license was renewed from year to year 
until his death in 1762, when he was succeeded by Henry Hoover. 

It was one of the famous stopping places on the Durham road 
and the first one licensed north of the "Sign of the Plough" at 
Gardenville. In 1766 Robert Robinson obtained a license at the 
site of Pipersville. and as no further mention is made of the inn 
at the ford it was probably abandoned at that date. John Orr 
left to survive him a widow Jane, one son Thomas, a daughter 
Isabella Paterson, and two granddaughters, Rebecca Orr, daugh- 
ter of his deceased son Alexander, who died in Northampton 
township in 1753, and Rebecca Baker. The widow of his son 
Alexander married Joseph Addis, of Northampton. 

In the year 1764 Jan Hendrik Streiper and one Hannelever, 
great-grandsons of Jan Streiper of Kalden Kirchen, came to 
America and began proceedings to recover the land patented to Jan 
in 1703. claiming it had been conveyed without the knowledge or 
consent of his rightful heirs. The contest was carried through 
the courts between them and Logan and resulted in favor of 
the latter. 

In August, 1768, James Parker, who was acting as attorney for 
the Streiper heirs met them by appointment in Tinicum 
to examine the land and a diary kept by him during this trip 
gives an account of the persons then living on the tract as well as 
the items of expenses at ferries and taverns. His principal stopping 
place seems to have been at Bernard Sigman's who then kept an 
inn at what is known as Smithtown on the River road. Another 


Stopping place was Captain Tenbrook's ferry and Widow Hart's. 
He also mentions visiting John Gregg in Amwell, N. J., "late 
Sheriff of Bucks county," who then owned the Davis tract which 
he had leased to John Wilson for a term of five years. 

The names of the owners in 1768 as given by Parker were 
Henry Hoover, William Mains, Humphrey Laer, Michael Wor- 
man, Solomon Carryl, James Brooks, Henry Preston, Patrick 
Taylor, William Davis, Timothy Beans, Widow Ramsey, Bernard 
Sigman, John Cooper and Jacob Fox. Timothy Beans, who had 
purchased the Margaret Patterson Tract, was a native of War- 
minster and married Rebecca Paxson, of Solebury. He removed 
with his family to Fairfax, A^irg-inia, in 1785. John Cooper lived 
on the Edward Marshall tract, the famous walker having pur- 
chased a large tract in the London Company tract on which he 
died and is interred with many other old residents of Tinicum in 
a graveyard thereon that bears his name.* Most of the original 
settlers on the Streiper tract were the petitioners for the organ- 
ization of Tinicum' township in 1747 and many of them achieved 
distinction in the Colonial and Revolutionary wars. In 1747 
when the Indians were committing depredations all along our 
frontiers, a military company was organized in Tinicum for the 
defense of the Colonists with James McLaughlin as captain, 
James Davis as lieutenant and John Hall as ensign. This 
company saw active service on the frontiers of Northampton 
county as shown by the colonial records. John Hall was later 
a justice of the peace in Tinicum. In 1756 Patrick Davis, son 
of James, was first lieutenant and later captain of a company 
that did valiant service in the defense of the frontiers. He is 
frequently mentioned by Major James Burd in his journal as 
having rendered meritorious service. Returning to Tinicum at 
the death of his father in 1762, he was commissioned a justice 
of the peace but died in 1763. William Mains, and the Pattersons 
were active in the organization of the militia, and Captain Ten- 
brook saw active service in the French and Indian War. Among 
the early German settlers in Tinicum were Henry Killian, the 
father-in-law of Nicholas Wyker, who arrived from Rotterdam on 
November 30, 1730, and Michael Worman, son of Johannes Wor- 
man who arrived prior to 1740 and settled in Franconia township, 

* For full account of Marshall's graveyard, see Vol. II, p. 348. 


removed to Rockhill in 1745, to Bedminster in 1754, and to Tini- 
CLim in 1 761. John Worman was the father-in-law' of John 
Heany, who owned and operated the mill at Church Hill and of 
John Cooper before mentioned. 

Bedminster has always been a distinctively German township. 
In 1733, a tract of 6,653 acres was surveyed to William Allen, 
Esq.. in right of his purchase of 10,000 acres of William Penn, 
Jr. It embraced the whole central portion of the township and 
was divided into about 50 farms varying in size from 100 acres 
to 175 acres, and was sold on easy terms, mostly to Mennonist 
emigrants from the Palatinate ; the earliest deeds to the Germans 
are dated 1750, but the greater number of them bear date from 
1762 to 1768. 

The earliest deeds however refer to the grantees of 1762-3 as 
already in possession in 1750, showing that there was some scheme 
of sale which put the purchasers in possession long before they 
obtained a free title. This was a favorite plan of William 
Allen to encourage the settlement and improvement of his many 
vast tracts of land. Among the earliest settlers was Jacob 
Leatherman who arrived from Germany in the "Lydia," Septem- 
ber 29. 1741, then aged 32 years, with his wife, Magdalene, and 
two sons, Jacob and Abraham, the latter but two years of age. 
Six other children were born to him, three sons, Michael, Henry 
and John, and three daughters. Madalene, who married Jacob 
High, of Hilltown ; Catharine and Ann who died single. The 
land taken up by Jacob Leatherman consisted of over 300 acres 
lying in two tracts immediately north of the Mennonite meeting- 
house at Deep Run. Jacob Leatherman died February, 1769. 
His wife, Magdalene survived him several years. 141 acres of 
the land were conveyed by Allen to Jacob Leatherman for the 
eldest son in 1767, and the other tract, 162 acres, was conveyed 
to the executors of Jacob Leatherman. Sr., in 1770; the deed 
recites an agreement to convey, etc. Abraham Leatherman, the 
second son, died in 1823. aged 84 years. Tilman Kolb, Jr.. and 
David Kolb. probably sons of the Skippack Dilman Kolb. Sr., 
obtained deeds for large tracts here in 1754. John Booz, who 
arrived in the "Glasgow,"' September 9, 1738, purchased 250 
acres near the southeast corner of the tract. Adjoining him 
were W^illiam Moyer. David and Christopher Angeny. One of 


the largest purchases was by Abraham Swart^, ahas Black, who 
owned several tracts in the neighborhood of the Deep Run Presby- 
terian church. Ulrich Hockman, Jacob, Peter and Michael Ott, 
Frederick Sallade, Henry Stouffer, Henry Crout, Henry Kramer 
and Peter Loux were among other land owners in this tract ; 
all of these have left numerous descendants still residing in Bucks 
county. Henry Stauffer, the ancestor of our Bucks county Sto- 
vers, arrived in Philadelphia September 9. 1749; his wife was 
Barbara Hockman. An elaborate history of his descendants has 
been recently compiled by Rev. A. J. Fretz, of Milton, N. J. 

Between the Allen tract and 'the Tohickon was a strip of land 
surveyed principally to residents lower down the county. Eben- 
ezer Large had 500 acres on the lower boundary of Bedminster, 
surveyed in 1727. Among others were John Britain, Joseph 
Townsend, of Solebury, Charles Williams, Nicholas Dillon and 
Francis McFall. The last two owned the land lying between 
tliis point and Pipersville, the Durham road intersecting McFall's 
tract diagonally, the present village being located on this tract. 
East of McFall, and lying in the angle of the Streiper tract, were 
276 acres patented to Thomas Good in 1737 and conveyed by 
him to Nathan Preston and Thies or Tice Tinsman, Dinsman or 
Tenchman, (as the name was variously spelled), who arrived 
from Germany Septeniber 14, 1749. He also pwned about 100 
acres in the east corner of the Allen tract ; he had 'Sons, John, 
Adam and Peter. 

John Fretz, the pioneer ancestor of the Bucks county family, 
located on the eastern boundary of the Allen tract on land pat- 
ented to Bartholomew Longstreth, of Warminster. Adjoining 
the tract on two sides was a tract of 333 acres, patented to 
Samuel Eastburn in 1742. In the northeast corner of Bedmin- 
ster, much of the land was included in patents to Richard Hock- 
ley and Richard Peters, who, about 1760 conveyed various tracts 
to Hartman Tettemer, Bartel White, Philip and Adam Stein, 
Conrad Mitman and Casper Nagle. Along the Tohickon, north 
of the Allen tract, Ludwick Wildonger, who arrived September 
14, 1737, (a Revolutionary soldier,) Valentine Switzer, Adam 
Beysher, Rudolph Trach, Adam Klamfer, Henry Keller and Mich- 
ael Yost, Mathew Rea and John Rea, who migrated from the Eso- 
pus overland to Smithfield, now Monroe county, with the early 


Hollanders, were settlers in Bedminster, prior to its organization 
as a township. John and William Graham and William Armstrong 
from the north of Ireland obtained patents for large tracts of 
land on both sides of the Tohickon near Church Hill. Valentine 
Nicholas arrived in the ship Davy, October 24, 1738, and John 
and Jacob Nicholas in the Ship "Marlborough'' September 2^, 
1 74 1. All three located on the Tohickon in Haycock, adjoining 
land with Henry Keller, who arrived in 1737. George Kintner 
arrived September 2, 1749, and located in Nockamixon; his son, 
Jacob Kintner was sheriff of Bucks county in 1824. 

George Overbeck, who held the first license at Bucksville, was 
born in Germany 1715, and died August 15, 1798. He was an 
ensign of a Provincial company in 1748, of which John Wilson 
was captain and Thomas Blair lieutenant. He was also ensign 
of company of militia during the Revolution. James Hart, who 
for many years kept the old tavern near Wismer, was lieutenant 
of Capt. Charles Stewart's company in 1748 and his brother, 
William, ensign. 

Many of the early settlers in this vicinity are as well worthy of 
mention, having served in defense of the county and filled 
positions of trust meritoriously but time will not permit us to 
enumerate them. 

Keller Family History. 

(Tohickon Park, Bedrainster Meeting, October 6, 1903.) 

The Keller family are of German extraction, and are so numer- 
ous in eastern Pennsylvania that it is reasonable to believe that 
they are descendants of several different German immigrants. 
The lists of arrivals of Germans in Pennsylvania, give the names 
of over fifty of the name of Keller who arrived here between 
the years 1729 and 1807. 

The immigrant ancestor of most, if not all of the Kellers of 
upper Bucks, was Henry or Heinrich Keller, who arrived in 
Philadelphia on the good ship "Glasgow," September 9, 1738. 
From the records of Keller's Church we have the following: — 

"Heinrich Keller was born January 9, 1708, and died October 18, 1782, his 
father's name was Willhelm Keller and his mother's name was Gertraut, in 
Weierbach, out of Naumburch, Baaden, and came to America September 9, 
1738. On October 20, 1728, he was married to Juliana, born in 171 1; her 
father's name was Peter Kleindinst and mother's name Anna Maria, also 
out of Weierbach, Naumburch. Her father held an ofi&ce there." 

Their children, as shown by the same record, were : Johan 
Peter, born November 20, 1729, died September 15', 1738; 
Tohanes born Jan. 28. 1733, married Maria Drach, Oct. 30, 
1755; Anna Margretha, born June 2, 1735, married Solomon 
Gruver, Feby. 3, 1756; Maria Elizabeth, born Nov. 19, 1737, 
married Philip Stever Oct. 8, 1756; Elizabeth Barbara, born 
April 14, 1740, married first John Niemand in 1760, and second 
Michael Steinbach in 1769; Anna Maria born Nov. 5, 1742, 
married Adam Litzenberger April 24, 1770; John Heinrich, 
born June 20, 1745. died in 1748; John Peter, born July 13, 1747, 
baptized March 3, 1748; Dorothea, born Sept. 2, 1749, married 
Henry Steinbach, died March 27, 1816; Christopher, born Dec. 
15. 1751 died July 8, 1820; Heinrich, born May 10, 1755. 

Heinrich Keller probably made his way to the banks of the 
Tohickon soon after his arrival, though the first record of him 
that we have discovered as a landholder was in 1750, when he 


purchased of Thomas and Richard Penn 150 acres of land in 
Bedminster township, on the northwest side of the Ridge road, 
about one mile southwest of Keller's Church. This tract he con- 
veyed to Michael Yost in 1752. His residence at that date as 
shown by the deed was Bedminster. In the year 1734, a tract 
of 300 acres on the north side of the Tohickon, in Haycock 
township, was surveyed to Griffith Davis, who, with Elizabeth, 
his wife, conveyed the same to Henry Keller on Alay 10, 1757. 
On November 5, 1754, Henry Keller obtained a warrant for the 
survey of 21 acres and 136 perches at the northwest corner of 
the above tract and the draft of survey, on file at Harrisburg, 
fshows that the Davis tract was then in the tenure of Henry Keller. 
It is therefore probable that Henry Keller took possession of the 
tract soon after his sale of his Bedminster land in 1752, under 
an agreement to purchase that was not completed until the date 
of the deed 1757. This tract was directly opposite Keller's Church 
and extended over the Tohickon into Bedminster township at two 
or three points, caused by the curves of the creek, the lower line 
being straight instead of conforming to the courses of the creek. 
Of this tract of 300 acres purchased of Davis, Henry Keller and 
Juliana, his wife, 1772, conveyed about 225 acres in three practi- 
cally equal tracts to their sons Henry, Peter and Christopher. 
His son John had purchased a large tract adjoining his father 
in 1772 of David Graham. Henry Keller was a man of promi- 
nence in his community. Pie was the first constable of Haycock 
townsliip, and was frequently named by the court or selected by 
the parties in interest to assist in the settlement of estates. 

Henry Keller died October 8, 1782. aged nearly 75 years, and 
is buried beside his wife, Juliana, in the grave-yard at Keller's 
Church. His will, dated January 23, 1782, probated November 
I. 1782, devises to his wife 

"My dwelling house together with all other buildings as it is mentioned 
in a certain article between Peter Keller and Christopher Keller, to- 
gether with all incomes of my four sons, that is to say, John Keller, Peter 
Keller, Christopher Keller and Henry Keller, as it is mentioned in a 
certain article of agreement (together with her personal goods and his 
personal estate) and 100 pounds shall stand upon interest if she should 
want it, * * * all this she shall have so long as she shall remain my 


To his four sons he devises 75 pounds each and to his five 
daughters 50 pounds each. 

Of these children, Col. John, the eldest son, married October 30, 

1755, Maria Drach or Trauch, daughter of Rudolph Drach, who 
had settled on another tract patented to Griffith Davis, on the 
'South side of Tohickon, in Bedminster township. John Keller's 
residence from the dace of his marriage to 1772 is unknown. In 
the latter year he purchased 175 acres adjoining his father's tract 
in Haycock, on the west, and resided thereon until his death, 
when it was partitioned in the Orphans' Court and 140 acres ad- 
judged to his son Henry, who conveyed it soon after to his broth- 
er-in-law, John Ott, whose descendants of the name still own and 
occupy it. The balance of the land was adjudged to John Keller, 
the eldest son, and was again partitioned in 1813 among the chil- 
dren of John, Jr., then a justice of the peace of Haycock town- 

Col. John Keller died in 1792, and was survived by his wife, 
Mary, and six children, though there were nine children born 
to them, viz : 

John, born September 14, 1756, and died June 6, 1813. Eliza- 
beth, born January i, 1758; Henry, born January 15, 1760; 
Jonathan, born May 18, 1762; Mary, married to John Ott, Sr. ; 
Anna Magdalena, born June 12, 1768; Dorothy, born March 12, 
1770, and died in 181 1, married John Ott, Jr., in 1792; Michael, 
born November 2^, 1774; Jacob, born March 13, 1777. The offi- 
cial and military record of Col. John Keller will be given later 
in this narrative. 

Solomon Gruver, who married Margaret Keller, February 3, 

1756, was a son of Peter Gruver, one of the earliest German 
settlers on the Tohickon, in Bedminster. Solomon was a resi- 
dent of Richland and had at least three children, Philip Heinrich, 
born September 22, 1758; a child born in 1762; and Peter, born 
August 26, 1764. 

Philip Stever, who married Elizabeth Keller, October 8. 1756, 
was captain of a company in the Revolution. After the close 
of the war he settled on a tract of 300 acres patented tO' him in 
Haycock township. Many of his descendants are now residents 


of Bedminster and other parts of Bucks county. We have the 
baptismal record of but three of his children. 

baptized November 21, 1762. George, born October 6, 

1766; John Adam, born December 2, 1771 ; Elizabeth Barbara 
Keller married John Niemand, widower, March 4. 1760, and had 
two children, John Philip, born November 26, 1762 and Elizabeth 
Barbara, born Aug. 8, 1764. After the death of John Niemand, 
his widow, Barbara, was married to Michael Steinbach. son of 
John Christian Steinbach, May 23, 1769, and had one child, Eliza- 
beth, born April 2^^, 1770. 

Dorothea Keller married Henry Steinbach, but no marriage 
record can be found. They both lie side by side at Keller's Church. 
He was also a son of John Christian Steinbach, and was born 
April 15, 1750, and died July 27, 1795. Their children were: 
Christian, born August 11, 1775; Christian, born March 23. 
1778; Anna Maria, born July 20, 1780; John, born August 2, 
1782: Jacob, born January i, 1785; Johann George, born Aug. 
18. 1789: and Elizabeth, born ^larch 17, 1792. 

Anna Maria, fourth daughter of Heinrich Keller, born Novem- 
ber 5, 1742, married Adam Litzenberger, a shoemaker, at the 
house of Heinrich Keller, April 24, 1770. They had the follow- 
ing children: John, born June i, 1771 ; Alaria Catharine, born 
February 19, 1774; John Peter, born Alarch 19. 1776; Maria 
Philippina. born July 25, 1778; John, born January 19. 1781. 
died 1806; and Solomon, born July 11, 1784, died December 10. 
1857. buried at Keller's Church ; his wife was Susanna Koder 
and their son. Elias Litzenberger. still resides in Haycock town- 
ship, being in his 84th year. The descendants of Peter Litzen- 
berger are living in the vicinity of Allentown. 

Peter Keller, born July 13, 1747, who always lived in Hay- 
cock township was married three times, and his descendants far 
outnumber any of Henry Keller's other children. Most of 
them reside in the vicinity of Perkasie, Hagersville and Dublin, 
others around Allentown, and some have gone to Ohio and the 
West. His first wife was Sybilla (believed to be Funk). They 
had two children: Catherine, born May 17, 1772. and Barbara, 
born June 18, 1775. 

His second wife was Elizabeth Wimmer. daughter of George 


and lUizabeth Wimmer, born September 10, 1758. Their children 
were: Elizabeth, born August 20, 1776; Peter, born December 
14, 1782, died August 14, 1862; George, born May 8, 1783, died 
January 19, 1789; a child born May 28, 1789, and baptized Aug- 
ust 17, 1879. Peter Keller's first wife was Catharine Apple. 
They had a very large family, but only the names of Jacob, 
Henry, Mary and Elizabeth can be found on the records. 

Samuel Keller, formerly of Danboro, now in Philadelphia, and 
one of the county commissioners when the Bucks county court- 
house was erected, and his brother, Mahlon Keller, living at 
the Frog Hollow hotel, are positively identified with this branch 
of the family, being the sons of George by the second marriage. 

Christopher Keller, son of Heinrich, was married to Margaret 
Trauch February 17, 1778; she was born 1759 and died Febru- 
ary II, 181 1. Christopher lived all his life on what is now the 
J. Afflebach farm in Haycock township. In 1776 he served as 
an ensign of the Fourth Company of the Bucks County Battalion 
of the "Flying-camp," during the Revolutionary War. He had 
no children. 

John, born June 12, 1781, died February 25, 1842; Henry, born 
September 28, 1783, died July 9, 1831 ; Michael, born December 
9, 1786, died November 25, 1853; Elizabeth, born August 19, 
1788; Anna Catharine, born July 17, 1790; Samuel, born April 
20, 1792, died January 28, 1861 : Joseph born November 10, 
1794, died February 14, 1877; Sarah, born November 14, 1797, 
and Daniel, born April 10, 1802. 

John Keller, son of Christopher, was married to Mary 

and had the following children; Sarah, born January 7, 1806, 
married Samuel Frankenfield ; Elizabeth, born December 16, 1807, 
married John Landis; Catharine, born August 9, 1810, died un- 
married; Mary, born January 16, 1813, married EHas Nuna- 
maker, buried at Tohickon church ; Susanna, born April 20, 
1815; Robert, born September 5, 1817; Anna, born June 9, 1820. 
died unmarried. Margaret, born June 2y, 1822, married Jesse 
Koder ; John, moved to the West and raised a large family. 
Amanda, died unmarried; Robert and Harriet (unmarried) are 
still living at Keller's Church, and probably Mrs. Jesse Koder 
in Bedminster township. 


Henry Keller married Catharine Fox and had the following 
children : Mary, married William Myers ; Charity, married Levi 
Sumstone ; Catharine, married John Sassaman ; Elizabeth, mar- 
ried Peter Welder ; Isaac ; Charles : Jacob ; Henry ; Levi and 
David. Of this family, three are living: Levi, at Hatboro; 
Henry, near Wismer, and David, at Point Pleasant. 

Michael Keller, born 1786, died 1853, niarried Sarah Wimmer, 
who was born 1800, died 1874, and both are buried at Keller's 
Church. They had eight children : John, born 1822, died 1886, 
married Sophia Bosler : Elizabeth, born 1823, widow of Samuel 
Mitman ; Israel, born 1827, married Catharine Kepler; Hannah, 
born 1829, died 1887, buried in Doylestown cemetery; Stephen, 
born 1832, died about 1899, married Sarah Frankenfield ; Felix, 
born 1835. died 1901, married first Hannah Afflerbach, and second 
Amanda Apple; Reuben, born 1837, married Mary Geil ; James,, 
born 1840, married Ascha McCarty ; Elizabeth Keller married 
Henry Wambold and lived near Indian Creek church ; both have 
been dead many years, their only daughter married a man .by 
the name of Weikel. 

Anna Katherine Keller married Joseph Steely, they lived at 
Stockertown, Pa. They had two daughters, one being Mrs. 
Elizabeth Baker. Joseph Steely died and she married a second 
time to a man named Algard. They lived at Mt. Bethel, Pa., and 
had one son. 

Samuel Keller married Elizabeth Kulp, born 1794, died 1875. 
They lived at Applebachsville and are buried in the church-yard 
at that place. They had the following children : Mrs. Annie 
Gerhart. of Richlandtown ; Mrs. Mary Funk, Bloomsbury, N. J. ; 
Samuel, Bloomsbury, N. J.; Aaron, buried at Applebachsville; 
Hannah, buried at Applebachsville ; Eliza ; William, Jesse Elias 
who lived and died in Bethlehem, one of his daughters is married 
to Alfred J. Snyder, at Plumsteadville. 

Joseph Keller, born 1794. died 1877, always lived in Haycock 
township, married Anna Mary Applebach, who died in 1876, and 
both are buried at Keller's church cemetery. They had nine 
children: Ann Margaret, born, November 23, 1822, died 1902, 
married John Shisler ; Abraham, born September, 1823, died 
December 23, 1880, married Judith Myers for hvs first wife, and 


the widow of Franklin Stauffer for his second wife ; Catharine, 
born November 8, 1825, married Thomas Htilshizer ; Diana, born 
November 18, 1827, married Levi Stone; Tobias, born March 3, 
1830, died 1896, married Miss Gerhart : Joseph, born March 17, 
1832, died 1898, married Lydia Afflerbach; Sarah, born October 
8, 1834, married Jacob Hesh first, then Samuel Dotterer. Marie, 
born February 17, 1837, married William Sanies; Abednego, 
born May 14, 1840, married Eliza Afflerbach; this family is 
represented by Lewis Keller, the merchant of Bedminsterville ; 
Mahlon Keller, of Perkasie ; Abraham Keller, of Doylestown ; 
Eli Keller, north of Doylestown; Newberry Keller, at Garden- 
denville ; William Sames, above Plumsteadville ; Harvey Keller, 
near Keller's Church. 

Daniel Keller by his marriage had a daughter, Mrs. Angeline 
Gessler, and she had a son known as Dorsey Gessler, who mar- 
ried a Miss Cressman. 

Henry Keller, youngest son of Heinrich, born May 10, 1755, 
married Margaret, the widow of Adam Laudenslauger, of Hay- 
cock township. In 1783 he divided and sold his farm to his two 
brothers, Peter and Christopher, and his nephew, John, the son 
of his brother John, and moved to Hatfield township, Montgom- 
ery county, Pa. It is believed he had two sons. Samuel mar- 
ried Elizabeth Rotzel, and both are buried at Hilltown church. 
Their descendants live in Lansdale and that vicinity. A second 
son was Enoch, who lived and died near Lansdale, he left no 
family, he and his wife Charlotte are buried at North Wales. 

Of the prominent officers from Bucks county in the Revolution- 
ary struggle, none rendered the county more faithful and assidu- 
ous service than Col. John Keller, of Haycock, the eldest son 
of Henry and Juliana Keller. He was born in 1733, in one of 
the Rhine provinces of Germany and was therefore but five years 
of age when he crossed the Atlantic with his parents, in the 
good ship "Glasgow," in the summer of 1738. Of his pubHc life 
prior to the breaking out of the Revolution we have no knowl- 
edge. When in 1774, the clouds of war began to gather he was 
in the prime of life, about 40 years of age. 

Bucks county was among the first to organize its militia into 
companies and battalions. By 1775 twenty-four townships had 


organized companie'S. The first battalion was commanded by- 
Colonel Joseph Kirkbride and was composed of the companies 
of the townships of Newtown, Bensalem, Lower Makefield, North- 
ampton, jMiddletown, Southampton, Falls and Bristol. The sec- 
ond battalion, commanded by Colonel John Beatty comprised 
the militia of Buckingham, Wrightstown, Warrington, Hilltown, 
Plumstead, Solebury, Upper Makefield, Warminster and New 
Britain. The third battalion, commanded by Colonel John Kel- 
ler, of Haycock, comprised the companies of Bedminster, Nock- 
amixon, Tinicum, Rockhill, Springfield and Lower Milford. On 
the reorganization of the militia in May, 1777, Bucks county had 
five battalions, commanded respectively by Colonel Hugh Tomb, 
Arthur Erwin, John Keller, William Roberts and John Mclllvaine. 
The third battalion, commanded by Col. Keller comprised eight 
companies. The total forces thus organized comprised five lieu- 
tenant colonels, above named, five majors, forty captains, 119 
subalterns, 160 sergeants, 40 drummers, 40 fifers and 2791 pri- 
vates. Col. Keller's regiment had 551 men and was one of the 
largest. On July 31, 1777, two of his companies, commanded 
by Jacob Shoope, of Nockamixon, and Nicholas Patterson, of 
Tinicum, were detached and sent to Bristol. They were followed 
by the Rockhill company of 109 men commanded by Capt. David 
Shellenberger, which was sent to Billingsport, N. J. 

Tn May, 1780. another re-organization took place and Colonel 
William Roberts, of New Britain, assumed command of the 
third battalion, and Col. Keller was assigned to the second 
battalion, though comprising the same eight companies. Of 
these Col. Keller's brother-in-law, Captain Philip Stever, com- 
manded the Bedminster company, Captain Abraham Kachline the 
Rockhill company. Jacob Shoope, that of Nockamixon, Henry 
Huber, that of Milford. Christian Weigner. that of Tinicum. 
George Heinline. that of Durham, and David Mellinger, what had 
been the Springfield company. The lieutenant of the latter com- 
pany was John Fries, later notorious as the leader of the "Fries 
Rebellion." Colonel Keller's battalion was in active service in 
the fall of 1 78 1, then comprising 677 men, divided into eight 
companies and commanded by Captains Gawen Adams. Manus 


Yost, Elias Rader, Richard Stillwell, Daniel Hogeland, William 
Erwin and Robert Patterson. 

In addition to his military record, Col. John Keller has a 
no less distinguished civil record. He was elected to the Penn- 
sylvania Assembly in 1776, being the first of his nationality to 
serve in that capacity from Bucks county. In the following 
year he was returned as a member of the Supreme Executive 
Council and again in 1778. In 1784 he was again elected to the 
Council. He was also delegate to the first Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1776. From an account rendered by him' it appears 
that he acted as sub-lieutenant of Bucks county from March 10, 
1781, to April I, 1783. 

Col. John Keller the patriot and soldier, who had served his 
country long and well, did not live to see old age. He died in 
the year 1792, in his sixty-first year. 

John Keller, eldest son of Colonel John Keller, born Septem- 
ber 14, 1756, and died in 1813, was a justice of the peace in Hay- 
cock township. His signature was found on a deed of John 
Smith and wife, Mary, to John Buryer, dated April, 7, 1813. 
His wife was Margaret, and they had the following children : 
John Adam, born October 3, 1784, married Elizabeth Maust ; 
Mary Elizabeth, born October 30, 1785, married Jacob Kurtz; 
Heinrich, born May 14, 1786; Hannah, born February 19, 1788, 
married Anthony Amey; John, born May i, 1790; Anna Mary, 
born January 20, 1793; Sarah, born October 5, 1795; Samuel, 
born — ■ — 2^, 1801 ; William, born June 22, 1804; Anna Mar- 
garet, born May 30, 1806. 

It is said that there was a Mrs. Gerhart, Mrs. Dreesloch and 
Mrs. Kercher in the family, and it is supposed that the descen- 
dants of John Keller still live in the upper townships of Bucks. 

Henry Keller, son of Colonel John, as before stated, was ad- 
judged 140 acres of his father's land in the division. In 1804. 
he and wife, Magdalena, were living in Tinicum, when they 
conveyed 140 acres to his brother-in-law, John Ott, of Haycock, 
weaver. The greater part of the tract is still owned by the 
lineal descendants of Col. John Keller. 

Concerning the lands of Heinrich Keller, the immigrant, in 1818 
Christopher Keller, his son, sold the 93 acres owned by him to 


John Henry Keller. They, in 1843, sold to Charles Keller. In 
1846 Charles Keller conveyed to Michael Dech, he to Abraham 
Applebach. whose son, John H. Applebach, now owns a portion 
of it. 

The author desires to acknowledge the assistance of Thomas 
C. Atherholt. of Philadelphia, and Miss Mary E. Keller, of 
Doylestown in the preparation of this paper. 

The Newtown Library. 

(Doylestown Meeting, Jnnuary 19, 1904.) 

While we cannot claim that Newtown is the oldest town in 
Bucks county, we can justly claim that the Newtown library 
is the oldest public library in Bucks county. 

We have the minutes of the library from August 9, 1760, up 
to the present date. And that date August 9, 1760, has generally 
been held to be the date of the starting or founding of our li- 
brary. This, however, is certainly a mistake. 

The minutes of this first meeting clearly prove that there 
must have been some prior meetings, as the following will 
show : 

"The Library Company met at the house of Joseph Thornton, Esq., in 
Newtown, and chose the following persons to be Directors, Treasurer and 
Secretary of said Company, until the last Seventh day oi the week in 
October ensuing." 

On the same day the newly elected directors met and passed 
a resolution that the library of books, and the company's effects 
were to be kept at the house of Joseph Thornton, in Newtown, 
who was chosen librarian ; and that the stibscribers should meet 
and make their first payment to the company's treasurer on the 
last Seventh day in October next, being the time appointed for 
their annual payments to be made, and for the yearly elections 
to be held. 

At the meeting held on October i, 1760, it was ordered that 
any person inclining to join said library might sign the articles 
thereof, applying to P. Thornton. From these minutes it is 
clear that preliminary meetings had been held, articles of asso- 

* George A, Jenks, Esq., the author of this paper was born October 9, 1829 and died 
April 2, 1909. 


ciation or by-laws adopted, and that the association at that time 
had books and effects. When these prehminary meetings were 
held we cannot now tell. They were probably held some little 
time before the meeting of the members on August 9, 1760. If 
the persons who signed these articles had possessed the fore- 
knowledge that there would be in the hereafter a General Davis, 
and a Bucks County Historical Society, all of these interesting 
papers would doubtless have been preserved and we would now 
have the benefit of them ; and possibly know to what persons 
we are indebted for first suggesting a public library in Newtown. 

It is probable that the meeting on August 9, 1760, was the 
regular meeting for the permanent organization of the library, 
and the election of officers to serve until the regular meeting in 

At this meeting of the Library Company, being the first of 
which we have any record, the following persons were chosen 
as officers to serve until the last Seventh day in the month of 
October, ensuing, viz : Directors, Jonathan DuBois. Abraham 
Chapman, Amos Strickland, David Twining and Henry Marge- 
rum ; Treasurer, John Harris ; Secretary, John Chapman. On 
this same day the newly elected directors held a meeting at which 
only Amos Chapman, Amos Strickland and Henry Margerum 
were present. 

At the first, as well as at subsequent meetings the name on the 
minute book was only the "Library Company," and the word 
"Newtown" was not added until March 27, 1789, when it was 
incorporated under the name of "The Newtown Library Com- 

At a meeting of the directors on October i, 1760, it was order- 
ed that the clerk do set up advertisements, giving notice to the 
members of said company to meet at the house of Joseph Thorn- 
ton, in Newtown, on the last Seventh day in October, inst., to 
elect officers and make their annual payments, etc. At the 
meeting of the company on October 25. 1760. the officers were 
re-elected ; and on the same day the newly elected directors met 
and a resolution was adopted that not any of the present books 
should be kept out longer than six weeks. The librarian was 
directed to give a list of the books then belonging to the com- 

3i8 the; NEWTOWN library 

pany, and the price thereof to the committee at their next meet- 
ing, that they may be then able to settle with the purchasers 

At this same meeting the treasurer reported that the following 
persons had paid into his hands the several sums annexed to 
each of their names. These fees were each one pound. 1 
suppose Pennsylvania currency which, I take for granted, was 
the entrance fee. 

These names together with those who paid on November 9th, 
appear to be the original members of the Library Company: 
Mark Watson, William Buckman, John Harris, Isaiah Linton, 
Samuel Twining, Amos Strickland, Joseph Jenks, Samuel Smith, 
Benj. Doane, John Thornton, Stephen Twining, Thomas Jenks 
(my grandfather). William Chapman, Abraham Chapman, Jos- 
eph Galloway, Benjamin Hamton, Joseph Chapman, John Chap- 
man, John Gregg, John Watson and John Story. 

These subscriptions at ii each make a total of £21 but I 
cannot say whether this was for annual dues or advancement 
or gift to the Library Company. I should suppose that it was 
an advancement, as on the minutes of October 31, 1761, appears 
the following, viz : 

"This day the time of the company's articles for making their annual 
payment the following persons have paid into the treasurer's hands the 
several sums," 

Then follows fifteen names each credited with the payment of 
ten shillings which appears to have been the annual dues at that 
time. On the minutes of November 8, 1760: 

"It appears by the receipts produced to the clerk, this day, the following 
persons have paid into the hands of the treasurer the several sums annexed 
to each of their names :" 

£. s. d. 

Jonathan DuBois £1, and to be allowed in advance ii . . . . 2 o o 

Henry Wynkoop, ii and £2 3 o 

William Pearson i 

Henry Margerum, in advance 10 

Amos Strickland i 

David Twining, ii and advances 2s i 2 

John Harris, advances i 

Joseph Thornton, advances o 12 6 

Making in all 10 4 6 


The names of the parties included in the two above Hsts 
appear to have been the original members of the Library Com- 
pany. They have all long since passed away and sleep in un- 
known graves. From this act alone in founding our library 
(even though they did nothing more for the benefit of man- 
kind), it can be truthfully said of them, that the little part of 
the world in which they lived was the better for their having 
lived in it. They have passed away, but their work still lives. 
The present generation about Newtown has profited by it, and 
we hope many future generations will profit by what they did 
in this respect. 

That money was needed for the purchase of books is shown 
by the following extract from the minutes of November 9, 1760. 

"Resolved, That Jonathan DuBois be allowed to advance 20 shillings ; 
Henry Wynkoop, 40 shillings ; Henry Margerum, Amos Strickland, David 
Twining, John Harris and Joseph Thornton, 20 shillings each ; and that 
the sums be allowed to them out of their first yearly pa>ments according 
to the same advances." 

That these advances were needed is shown by the fact that 
the sum expended for book»s up to January 22, 1761, was ^31, 
4 s, 6 d, while the money received to that date, including these 
advances, was £ 30, 9 s. 

There is an interesting item in the minutes of this meeting, as 
follows : "Jo^S'than DuBois, Abraham Chapman and David 
Twining were appointed to go to Philadelphia to see on what 
terms they can send to England for books, or whether it would 
be more advantageous to buy them in town, and make return 
to the committee at their next meeting of what discovery they 
make " 

At the next meeting on November 24, 1760, there was no 
report from the committee, as far as the minutes show, but the 
following was passed: 

"Ordered the company's money be sent to England, for books, and that 
Joseph Galloway, Esq., be appointed to send the same, and that Abraham 
Chapman agree with him about it, and that he draws the money out of 
the treasurer's hands and deliver it to said Galloway." 

At the next meeting however on January 22. 1761, the fol- 
lowing resolution was adopted, viz : 


"It being found on further inquiry of the directors that it would be 
best to purchase the books in Philadelphia. And the money being put into 
the hands of Joseph Galloway, he purchased books to the value of £20, 
14s. And said Galloway, with Abraham Chapman and Henry Wynkoop, 
bought books to the value of £g, 15s., which books, as they stand in the 
annexed lists, was produced this day at an extraordinary meeting of the 
company and accepted of. and the directors and Abraham Chapman was 
discharged from the money the said books was purchased with." 

So you see that the open country village of William Penn 
received the profits on these books and the Newtown library 
cut loose from England, fifteen years before the Colonies pro- 
claimed their independence. At this meeting it was also ordered, 

"That if any one of the Library Company keep any one book longer 
than the time limited for the said book to be out. that he so keeping said 
book pay unto> the company's librarian for the use of the company, six 
pence per week, but if the book is returned within one week after the 
time limited is expired, his fine shall be exempted. And the librarian 
is not to let such person so keeping said book any book until he pays 
his fine, and the librarian is to pay such fines into the hands of the 
treasurer at the annual meeting." 

By this, it appears, that if the delinquent repented in one week, 
he was to be forgiven, otherwise the "whole pound of flesh" 
was to be exacted. 

Tt may be interesting to give the titles of the books purchased 
the first year ; this will enable us to compare the literary taste of 
our forefathers with our own. 

This list is as follows : 

Rollin's Roman History, 16 vols.; Burn's Justice. 3 vols.; Preceptor, 
2 vols. ; Rowling's Philosophy. 2 vols. ; European Settlements. 2 vols. ; 
Present State of Europe, i vol. ; Voyage to Senegal, i vol. ; Moral Mes- 
cellanies. I vol.: Roderick Random. 2 \ols. ; Dictionary of Arts and 
Sciences. 4 vols. ; Leland's View of Bolenbrook. i vol. ; Life of Oliver 
Cromwell, i vol. ; Peerage of England, i vol. ; Dignity of Human Nature, 
I vol. ; Swift's works. 8 vols. ; Paradise Lost, i vol. ; Harvey's Medita- 
tions. 2 vols. ; Salmon's Gazeteer. i vol. : Salmon's Grammar, i vol. ; 
Young's Works. 4 vols. ; IMonitor, 3 vols. : Row's Letters, i vol. ; Rowley's 
History of England. 2 vols. ; Watt's Logic, i vol. ; Locke on Human Un- 
derstanding. 2 vols.; Illiad. 4 vols.; Odessey. 4 vols; Pope's Works, 11 
vols. ; Cato's Letters, 4 vols. ; Pilkington, 3 vols. ; Naval History, 4 vols. ; 
Life of Peter the Great, i vol. : ]\Iedulla. i vol. ; Bolingbrook on Parties, 
18 vols. 

At the annual meeting in 1761 twenty-seven members paid 
their annual dues. 


As Joseph Thornton had moved from Newtown, the directors 
on February lo, 1761, appointed the books to be kept at David 
Twining's and he to be Hbrarian until the next annual meeting. 

We have now reached a point where the library had been placed 
in good working order. And I will pass over the minutes 
rapidly, only giving such item.s as may be of general interest. 
The minutes show regular annual meetings ; also meetings of 
the directors to, and including the meeting of April 19, 1874. 
With the exception of the minutes of two meetings there is 
nothing special during that period. 

At the meeting of the directors on November 26, 1771, we find 
the following rule which has been continued to the present 
time : 

"Many oi the members living at a great distance from the library, 
having complained they labored under great inconvenience by not being 
permitted to take out more than one book at a time. It is therefore di- 
rected that for the future the members may take out two volumes 
at a time." 

On May 14, 1772, it was ordered that the library be continued 
upon the following terms, viz : 

"The original subscribers to pay five shillings ye year, for the space of 
ten years, to continue from the 27th of October, 1771, those who have 
come in after the first subscription to pay ten shillings for the space of ten 
years from the time of subscribing, and then five shillings until another 
ten years are expired." 

After the meeting on October 29, 1774, there was no other 
meeting until October 25, 1783. This included the time of 
the Revolutionary War. At this October meeting we find the 
following minute, viz : 

''In consequence of notice given by the former directors through Henry 
Wynkoop, their secretary, the Library Company met and this being the 
time fixed by their articles for the annual election, the following persons 
were chosen directors, treasurer and secretary, viz. : David Twining, 
Thomas Jenks, Timothy Taylor and Henry Wynkoop, directors ; David 
Twining, treasurer, and Henry Wynkoop, secretary." 

In the minute of November i, 1783, we find the following: 
"Whereas, upon examining the state of the library it appears that a num- 
ber of books are missing, and there is too much reason to apprehend 
that during the late public commotions some volumes may be lost, 


Ordered that the librarian request the members respectively to bring in 
the boioks in their possession, that the real condition of the library may 
be precisely ascertained." 

"Commotions" appear to be rather a peculiar word with which 
to describe our successful struggle for independence. More 
especially, as these commotions had been sufficient to prevent any 
meeting of the company or of the directors, during the whole 
of this period. The secretary appears to have made no report 
in regard to the books. 

At the meeting on December 12, 1783. on complaint of new 
members, the terms of admission of new members during the 
year were fixed at £6, 5 s. 

An annual meeting was held on October 27, 1787, and the 
officers elected as usual. A meeting of the directors was held on 
April 19, 1788, and the usual routine business was transacted. 
Nothing unusual appeared. Yet on September 27, 1788, we find 
this minute, which I give in full : 

''A meeting of the directors. Present, David Twining, Joseph Chap- 
man, Thomas Jenks and Henry Wynkoop. In consequence of notifica- 
tion thirty-three of the members of the library company appeared at the 
library room, either by themselves or by proxy, and having come to a 
conclusion to dissolve the present company and to dispose of the books at 
public sale for the purpose of making distribution of the proceeds in pro- 
portion to what each member has actually paid, Joseph Chapman. David 
Twining, Thomas Jenks, Francis Murray, Daniel Martin and Henry Wyn- 
koop were appointed to superintendent the disposal of the books and the 
making of the aforesaid distribution." 

We have no report of this committee or of any sale or dis- 
tribution. It however appeared as if this sale had been ordered 
without due consideration, and that the members, or most of 
them repented of their action. In the minute book under date 
of November 18, 1788, we find this minute, which it is also 
necessary to give in full in order to clearly understand the 
situation of the company at that time. 

"At a meeting of the new Library Company at Newtown in the Grand 
Jury room, in the Court House, on the 18th of November, 1788, present 
Henry Wynkoop, Francis Murray, Thomas Jenks, Daniel Martin, William 
Buckman, James Boyd, William Linton, Samuel Benezet, Abraham Du- 
Bois. Samuel Torbert, David Feaster, Henry Winner, James M. Raguet, 
William Ewing. Henry W. Blackley, Andrew McMinn, Helena DuBois, 


by her son Henry DuBois, James Hanna, Mark Hapenny, who agreed to 
associate themselves into a Library Company, by such name, stile and title 
as the Directors shall appoint, together with Joseph Chapman, Joseph 
Thornton, Jr., Seth Chapman, Abraham Smith, Isaac Watson, Benjamin 
Thornton and James De Normandie. on the following conditions, viz. : 
Each member to pay twenty shillings entrance and ten shillings per an- 
num towards the support of said library. And, whereas, sundry of the 
members were likewise members of the old company and consequently en- 
titled to stock. It is agreed to deposit the same in this library for the 
use of the company and to be considered as so much advanced until ab- 
sorbed by the above twenty shillings entrance, and ten shillings per an- 
num, their annual payments then to commence in common with the other 

"It was likewise agreed to make an application to the Legislature for 
an act to incorporate this company. Agreed that five persons be annually 
chosen by ballot on the last Saturday of October, between the hours of 
two and five in the afternoon, as directors, three of whom to be a quorum, 
and one person for Treasurer, the duty of which directors shall be at all 
times to attend to the well ordering, good government and general interest 
of said institution, and when incorporated, to enact by-laws for that 
purpose. The duty of the treasurer shall be to receive all monies due 
or that shall become due to said company, to pay the same in discharge 
of the orders of the directors and to render accounts annually to them." 

An election was held and the following persons were elected 
directors, viz : Henry Wynkoop, Thomas Jenks, Francis Murray, 
Samuel Benezet and Abraham DuBois. 

Though in the minute this is called a "new Library Company," 
it was practically the old company. The books and other property 
certainly had not been disposed of, nor the money distributed, 
as in that case the old members would certainly have no stock 
to turn in. The committee appointed on Sept. 27, 1788, were all 
parties to this meeting. Of the members of the company as 
shown by the list present at the meeting of January 19, 1789, 
twenty-seven were old members and twenty-seven were new ones. 
The catalogue of books in the library as published in 1828 con- 
tained the names of 45 of the books first purchased for the 
library in 1760 and 1761. It is evident therefore that this "new 
Library Company" as it was called was only a re-organization 
of the old library. 

The act chartering this company under the name of "The 
Newtown Library Company," was passed Ad^arch 27, 1789, and 
was signed by Richard Peters, speaker, and Peter Zachary, clerk. 


of the General Assembly. The act gave the company full 
power as a corporation, with the right to receive and hold lands, 
tenements, etc.. of the clear yearly value of i 500. 

The reorganizing meeting of November 18, 1788, was held 
at the grand jury room in the court-house. Before that time the 
library had been kept at the house of David Twining who had 
been librarian since February 5, 1761. He received for his ser- 
vices and the keeping of the library at his house the sum of 
i I per annum. His name does not appear in the list of members 
in 1789. Whether he had died or did not continue in the re-or- 
ganized company does not appear. 

At the meeting on December 8. 1788, William Linton was 
appointed secretary and librarian. And it wa6 ordered that 
the library should be open every Saturday afternoon. This was 
continued until a comparatively recent date. The library appears 
to have fairly prospered from, the date of re-organization, and 
1 will hastily go over the minutes, giving none of the routine 
business, only stating such things as may appear interesting. 

On December 4, 1790, the by-laws were finally approved and 
the secretary was directed to furnish a copy thereof, with the 
act of incorporation, catalogaie of books, and names of the mem- 
bers, which were put in the hands of Henry Wynkoop and 
Thomas Jenks to be printed, and the treasurer put into the hands 
of Henry Wynkoop £ 15, for the purpose of purchasing books, 
printing by-laws, etc. 

At a meeting of the directors on March 25, 1791, Henry W^yn- 
koop produced 200 printed copies of the charter, by-laws, etc., 
which had cost £5, 5 s, 9 d. No copies of this catalogue are now 
in existence as far as can be ascertained. 

The earliest printed copy of any charter, by-laws, list of books, 
and members now in existence as far as known, was printed by 
James Kelly, Doylestown, in 1829. This catalogue shows that at 
that time there were 29 members, and 830 books in the library. 

My grandfather, Thomas Jenks, had been a director from 177.] 
to 1797. at the election in 1797 he was not re-elected. 

On December 3, 1802. James Heath was appointed librarian 
and treasurer, in the place of Abraham Chapman, resigned. In 
1806, it was reported that the library consisted of 456 books. 


At the meeting on February 13, 1806, I find the following entry: 
"Samuel Heath is to receive the sum of sixteen dollars for removing 
the library from its present place into his own house and the taking care 
of the library until the last Saturday of October next." 

The meeting for reorganization had been held in the grand 
jury room. No minutes from that time made any mention of 
the place of meeting, only saying "in the library room.'' 

On March i, 1806, Samuel Heath reported that he had re- 
moved the book cases to his house. On that date it was resolved 
that no person should be made a member until he had paid 
down $5.00, and on January i. 1807, the price of a new share 
was fixed at $6.00. 

The minutes are missing from 1808 to 1813. 

At the annual meeting held April 18, 1818, the officers were 
elected. Among the directors appeared the name of my father, 
Dr. Phineas Jenks. Asa Gary was appointed librarian. Trouble 
appears to have arisen about this time, as the following appears 
on the minutes : 

''It being stated to the directors that some person or persons, without the 
knowledge or direction of the former directors, have taken the liberty of 
removing the library to another situation. On motion it was resolved 
that the present librarian call on those persons to know by what authority 
the library was removed, and with information that the directors ex- 
pect the books and cases returned again to the old court-house." 

Where the library had been removed to does not appear. But, 
at a meeting of the directors on May 2d, of that year, John 
Linton, Dr. Phineas Jenks and Abraham Bond were appointed 
a committee, with the librarian to remove the library from the 
present situation into the court-house, and arrange the books in 
their proper places, and make out a catalogue of the present 
books. The committee met, removed the books to the court-house 
and made the catalogue. 

At the meeting on November 18, 1819, a resolution was passed 
to fine any director not attending any meeting of the board 
in the sum of 25 cents. At a meeting on October 19, 182 1, my 
father, Dr. Jenks, was fined for keeping a book twelve weeks 
over time. I do not doubt but that he remembered this lesson 

Until 1824 the library owned no library building. On May 
29, 1824, the following resolutions were passed: 


"Resolved that it is expedient to build a house for the library. Re- 
solved, that the site be iixed for building on Isaac Hick's lot. Resolved, 
that we draw up a subscription to raise funds for the building of a house. 

Resolved, that the secretary take the subscription paper and take it to 
absent members." 

On June 12, 1824, the committee reported that the members 
had subscribed $50.25, and the committee was directed to keep 
the paper and get further subscriptions. At this meeting it was 
resolved that the building should be 15 feet square, and 9 feet 
high, and be lined with half-inch boards and sealed, to have a 
chimney and three windows of 15 lights each, the front of the 
building to be stained. 

And this palatial building was used as a library until the 
new building was erected on a lot at the northwest corner of 
Court street and Centre avenue. Isaac Hicks, the old, well- 
known justice of the peace in Newtown, for many years, donated 
the lot fifteen feet square, at the northeast corner of his property 
on Court street, and conveyed the same to the Library Company. 
On October 30, 1824, the directors passed the following: 

"Resolved, that in consideration of a donation of land made by Isaac 
Hicks, Esq., to the Newtown Library Company, he be entitled to the use 
of the books during his life gratis, subject to the by-laws relating to 
the keeping of the books out of the library." 

So we see Isaac was rewarded for his good work during his 
lifetime, and did not have to wait for his reward until after his 

At a special meeting on May 14, 1825, Dr. Jenks was called to 
the chair ; the committee reported that they had not raised money 
enough by subscription to pay for the library house, whereupon 
it was resolved that the directors be requested to draw their 
order on the treasurer in favor of the building committee for 
the amount of the debts owing by the company for the erection 
of the library house. On October 29, 1825, an order was drawn 
on the treasurer in favor of the building committee for $39.85. 

On November 6, 1825, it was resolved, 

"That the admittance money for shares in the Newtown Library Com- 
pany shall hereafter be $5.00, in consideration of the expense of erecting a 
suitable building for holding the books of said company." 

The members of the company appeared to wish to have a neat 


building- and at a special meeting of the company, date not given, 
it was resolved, 

"That Thomas Goslin is appointed to paint the front of the library- 
house white and all the window shutters and door to be painted green, 
the remainder of the woodwork to be white-washed, for which he is 
to have $3.00." 

The company, like most persons, wanted to present a fan- 
front at least. I remember "Tommy" Goslin, as we boys then 
called him. We all liked him, and he liked the boys. He was 
a carriage painter. Thomas was also directed to point or dash 
all the stone part of the library building, being the foundation 
walls, and be paid out of the funds of the company. John 
Buckman was to provide suitable step stones and fix them. 
Chapman Buckman (we boys used to call him "Uncle Chappy") 
was to provide two good posts, and set them part way in the 
ground for hitching posts. 

It appeared, however, that Tommy GosUn did not attend to 
his duty promptly, and on the minutes of November 3, 1827, we 
find the following: 

"And as there has been an appointment to paint and white-wash the 
library house, which hath been neglected some time, the directors ap- 
pointed Thomas Goslin to paint and white-wash the said library house 
within six weeks from this date or be fined for the same, at the dis- 
cretion of said directors." 

The fear of this fine appeared to stir Thomas up to a sense of 
his duty, and he presented a bill for $8.25 for work done at 
library house, which was ordered to be paid to him. 

And now the library building was finished. Many now living 
remember it well, with the painted sign over the door, with the 
portrait of Benjamin Franklin and the name "Newtown Libra- 
ry," surrounding it, which sign we now have in the present library 
building. I think that it was painted by Edward Hicks, a noted 
Quaker preacher and painter of Newtown. 

The minutes from November 9, 1833, to January 11, 1845, ^^^ 
missing It, however, appears as though nothing more than 
the usual routine business was transacted during that period, 
as the meeting on January 11, 1845, was for the purpose of se- 
lecting books. At the meeting of the directors on March 3, 1845. 
only routine business was transacted, with this exception, that 


the name of a distinguished citizen of this county appears. I 
refer to Hon. Edward AI. Paxson, ex-Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania, who was then the editor and proprietor of the Newtown 
Journal, a newspaper then pubhshed in Newtown. The minutes 
were as follows. "On motion, it was ordered that the proposition 
of Edward M. Paxson to strike off fifty copies of the catalogue 
of books for a share in the library and five dollars be agreed to. 
and that I. Hicks and J. Paul be a committee to attend to it." 
And it appears by the minutes of April 18, of that year, "that 
catalogue had been printed and they had paid Edward M. Paxson 
five dollars and presented him with a share in the library." T 
wonder whether my friend, the Judge, remembers this incident ! 

My name first appears on the minutes of a meeting held No- 
vember 24, i860, when I was appointed one of a committee to 
purchase books. I had gone to Philadelphia to college and re- 
mained there reading and practicing law, until i860, when I 
returned to Newtown. Until that time the books had been num- 
bered consecutively, no division according to subjects, or arrange- 
ment of the books in separate classes, and the subscribers had 
dwindled to about thirty. 

At the meeting on December 15. i860. Charles Willard. Thomas 
J. Janney, Emmor K. Janney, Dr. G. T. Heston and myself were 
appointed a committee to re-number, re-arrange and re-catalogue 
the library books in such manner as we should deem best. The 
librarian was directed "to prevent the further circulation of the 
books until otherwise ordered by the directors." I remember very 
well the job we had undertaken, and the work we had to do. 
After grave deliberation we determined to divide the books into 
eight divisions, viz : History, politics, biography, science, fiction, 
poetry, travels and miscellaneous, and divide the library into 18 
sections, devoting one or more sections to each division, com- 
mencing each division with No. i. 

We then took all the books from the shelves and placed them 
on the floor and commenced dividing them in accordance 
with the above plan, placing each division apart from the others. 
It was then the miscellaneous section showed its importance, for 
whenever we had doubt as to what section a book belonged, we 
solved the doubt by putting it among the miscellaneous and a 


considerable number of the books went into that section. Then 
we took each section separately, numbered and catalogued each 
book, placing them in proper order in their proper division. It 
is needless to say that we were glad when our work was com- 

• We found that there were 434 complete volumes and 70 
volumes of incomplete works in the library. On January 18, 
1861, we made our report to the directors, which was accepted 
with thanks, which each one appropriated to himself, and the 
library was formally opened by the board of directors. 

This action in re-arranging the books, as above mentioned, had 
a good eiTect, and our library has steadily increased in mem- 
bers since that date. I was first elected a director of the com- 
pany in October, 1861, and have held that honorable office ever 
since. In October, 1866, I was advanced to the office of presi- 
dent, which, with the exception of five or six years, I have held 
ever since. 

I now come to an epoch in the history of our library. At the 
Ii2th annual meeting of the company, held Oct. 6, 1872, women 
were for the first time elected directors, and Miss Sallie E. 
Bunting (now Mrs. Thomas C. Knowles), and Miss Mary Eyre 
(now Mrs. Thomas Thompson), were the parties then elected. 
Since then two of the directors have always been women. At 
the present time (1904) the offices of secretary and treasurer are 
also filled by women. It was a good day's work for the library 
when we adopted this course and our library has profited by it. 

I tell you it is nice to be the boss over such active, intelligent, 
competent, efficient and honest women. When I appoint them 
on committees I pay no more attention to the matter, as I well 
know that their work will be promptly and faithfully done. I 
can sincerely and earnestly advise other library companies to 
follow our example in this respect. 

The library continued to prosper and when the old building 
became too small, the purchasing of a new lot, and erecting a new 
building were seriously considered. 

At a special meeting of the company, held at my office, 
February 18, 1882, Jesse Leedom presented a deed donating 
the lot on which the present library building is erected, situated 


at the northwest corner of Court street and Centre avenue (for- 
merly Sulhvan street), provided a hbrary building was erected 
within two years from the date of the deed, February 8, 1882. 
The gift was accepted and a committee appointed to solicit sub- 
scriptions. The committee worked vigorously, fmd by the sub- 
scriptions, the proceeds of a lecture given by General Davis, and 
the proceeds of two entertainments in Newtown hall, the neces- 
sary money was raised, and the building erected and furnished 
at a total cost of $1,642.41. and in the fall of 1883 the library 
was moved into the new library building. 

The old building and lot was some time afterwards sold to Mr. 
S. C. Keith, owner of the White Hall hotel, who tore down the 
building and moved part of his stable to the lot. 

From that time forward the history of the library can be con- 
sidered as modern history, not necessary to be commented upon 
in this paper. In looking over the minutes I find nothing more 
than routine business transacted since the removal of the library 
to the new building. 

There are two matters of which I should speak in justice to the 
persons who remembered the library and the cause of education 
in their wills. 

Mary Anna Williamson, of the borough of Langhorne, by her 
will, dated October 22, 1886, gave to the Bucks County Trust 
Company, in trust, the sum of $10,000, which they were di- 
lected to safely invest and pay the interest on the same as follows, 
viz : "To the Langhorne Library building the interest on $4,000 
thereof. To the Yardleyville Library Company the interest on 
$2,000 thereof. To the Newtown Library the interest on the re- 
maining $4,000 thereof." 

To these legacies were attached the following proviso : "The 
said interest, when received by the said library companies to be 
used and applied by them respectively in the purchase of books 
of a standard and useful character and to the exclusion of the 
light sensational useless and pernicious publications of the day." 

Joseph Barnsley, of Hartsville, about the same time, died and 
by his will the sum of $15,000 was left to his executors, in trust, 
to invest the same and pay the income thereof to his widow dur- 
ing her life and after her death to pay the said sum of $15,000 
to the Newtown Library Company for the purpose of estab- 


lishing a free reading room, with the power to use $5,000 there- 
of for the erection of a suitable building. 

The Newtown library now has 146 members, and from 4,000 
to 5,000 books on its shelves. The library is open every Wed- 
nesday and Saturday afternoons and evenings for the use of its 

This then is the result to the present time of our library which 
was established in 1760. And we cannot now estimate the great 
number of persons who during this long period have been bene- 
fited by the work of the founders of the Newtown library. Well 
may it be said of them, that their works have lived after 
them; and the intelligence of the community in and near New- 
town has been improved as the result of their labors at that time. 
Nothing more useful can be done than the improvement and 
education of the minds of the individuals composing the State 
or community. And thus our Legislature thought when the act 
of incorporating our library was passed. 

In the preamble to that act we find the following : "And where- 
as, public libraries by diflfusing useful knowledge are beneficial 
to the Commonwealth, as well as to individuals, and merit the en- 
couragement of the Legislature ; therefore, be it resolved, etc." 

I hope this paper has not been too long, but I feel a deep 
interest and have great pride in our old library, from the found- 
ing of which to the present time members of my family have 
been members, and for many years directors of it, and I hope 
to continue my efforts for its success and usefulness as long as 
I am allowed to remain on this earth. If I have been too diffuse, 
let this be my excuse. 

Historical Reminiscences of Pineville and Vicinity. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January 19, 1904.) 

What a great amount of history the early settlers of this 
•neighborhood might have preserved, had they recorded it, but 
they knew it and were content. Consequently, a great deal of 
history that would be very interesting to us is lost. 

We, too, may know of events and facts that may be interesting 
to future generations, and if so we should record them. The 
hi-story of this section, however, has probably been written 
better than that of any other part of the country, leaving appar- 
ently but little of importance to note. 

Among the Indian villages that can be located, other than bv 
their stone implements, there was one on or near the west end 
of Bowman's hill, that was marked by many tortoise shells. 
These tortoise shells w^ere seen by Rebecca Lewis while young, 
and in her own expression "there were rack-wagon loads of 
them." Admitting the extreme limit of these shells to last fifty 
years, this village must have been there when the white people 
settled in the neighborhood. 

Rebecca Lewis married Peter Catell of whom a short but 
pathetic story may be told. Peter was born in New York of 
French parents : the family returned to France and later again 
embarked for New York. On their way to America, his parents 
were taken sick and died. Peter remembers seeing them thrown 
overboard and when asked his name by the sailors, replied, "Peter 
can't tell," and was ever after known as Peter Catell. 

In the district under consideration there can yet be located 
several Indian fields. One of these, in the most primitive condi- 
tion may be seen on Wilson Woodman's farm, about 25 feet 
northeast of the southwestern boundary line and about 200 yards 
southeast of the public road. This field is somewhat grown up 
with timber but formerly contained about 2>4 acres of cleared 
land. According to reliable tradition several Indians were buried 
in the timber land near the south side of this field. 


A little farther to the south of the place where the camp was 
located, Mary Worthington, (who was born in 1765 and after- 
ward married Benjamin Smith and Hved on the farm,) remember- 
ed seeing the wigwams. On cold winter nights the Indians 
would come to the Worthington house and sleep on the floor, 
with their feet next to the fire on the hearth. 

These Indians, with the exception of "Indian Billie" and his 
wife, Polly, were among those who went West with Isaac Still. 
Billie and Polly were too old to go, and therefore remained and 
lived on the charity of the neighborhood. Polly went around 
with a brief containing four verses, only one of which can be 
repeated : 

"I am Indian Billie's wife, 

Who loves me better than his life. 

It is even said by some. 

He loves me most as well as rum." 

Billie's tomahawk or ax is now in possession of Mary Wood- 

Another of these fields containing about 5 acres is located in 
the northern part of Watson's and Buckman's land, formerly a 
part of the Hampton farm. Near the centre of this field there 
used to be some chestnut trees which were cut down about 1830. 
I ploughed that field almost every year from 1875 to 1880, which 
was practically all the farming that has been done on it in the 
memory of the oldest people. Few fields have I ever ploughed 
more dearth of Indian relics. 

In the memory of those now living there used to be a field 
containing about 2J/2 acres on Eleazer Doane's farm, on the 
southern slop of Jericho hill, near a good spring of water and the 
eastern line of the farm; also one on Hettie Ann Williams' farm 
at the foot of the same range and about 100 to 150 yards east 
of the Windybush road. This field has entirely grown up with 
timber. There was also another on Harry Large's farm at 
Pool's Corner, near the east line of the farm and about 150 to 200 
yards south of the road lying north of the farm. There was stili 
another on Henry Watson's farm, in Buckingham, a short dist- 
ance below the source of Mill creek and on the east side of the 
stream. There is also evidence of there having been an Indian 
camp near this field. 


One coincident with these fields is that they are near the Hne 
of the farms which makes it appear that the Hnes were run to 
take them in or leave them out. 

Perhaps the best defined Indian-path in Bucks county r^till in 
a fair state of preservation is one over the Buckingham mountain. 
This leaves the public road leading from Pineville to Bycot station 
about 30 or 40 yards above the cross roads, bearing to the 
right and crossing the road about half way down the mountain 
on the north. Another Indian-path ran from Jericho to Lurgan. 
This path crossed or left the public road about two-thirds of the 
way up the south side of the hill and ran from there northeast 
to the big rocks or "Fox Rocks," and from there to Lurgan. 

Indians were encamped at these rocks after white people settled 
in the neighborhood. Without doubt this path led from this 
camp to the one on or near the west end of Bowman's hill. This 
path could be traced through the woods as late as i860. 

There was an Indian-field on top of the hill and near the "Fox 
Rocks," but this is now grown up with trees large enough for 
building purposes. In the Indian-path and near the "Fox Rocks" 
Samuel Merrick trapped one of the last bears killed in that 
neighborhood. A path said to be an Indian-path which was 
almost connected with the one thar led to Bowman's hill, led 
west along the south side of Jericho hill. White children trav- 
eled this path to the school-house that used to stand on the farm 
now owned by John M. Darrah. 

A story may be told in connection with this old school-house. 
A boy who attended the school had the misfortune to lose his 
mother, and his father took it upon himself to marry again. The 
lady's name was Hannah. This boy did not take kindly to his 
step-mother, Hannah, and wrote on the school-house door: "When 
the children of Israel wanted bread the Lord sent them manna, 

but when old (giving his father's name) wanted a wife. 

the devil sent him Hannah." 

In the purchase of land of the Indians, in 1662, we are told the 
corner white-oak stood near the head of a creek and by a path 
that led to an Indian town called Playwicky. From this we may 
know that the head of the creek, the white-oak and the Indian 
path were all close together. John Watson has told us that the 
white-oak stood on the Hampton farm. There are two streams ris- 

re;miniscences of^ pinevii,Ive; and vicinity 335 

ing on the Hampton farm ; one is a branch of Knowles' creek and 
the other flows by the Anchor. The last mentioned rises so grad- 
ually no one can tell just where it does rise. So the corner white- 
oak must have stood at the head of the other stream. 

Just at the head of this stream stands one of the largest white- 
oaks in the neighborhood, measuring about 52 inches in diameter. 
I find the tree has grown four inches in diameter in the last 25 
years. Growing at that rate, the tree must have been 16 inches 
in diameter at the time of the purchase. Then if this is the corner 
white-oak marked "P" from^ what we have been told, the Indian- 
path that led to an Indian town, Plavwicky must have been close 

Let us see how we can locate it. Up to 1876 there was a lane 
that reached all the way across the Hampton and Lacey farms. 
Commencing on the east side of the Hampton farm and about 100 
yards from the road, leading from there west and passing 30 
yards south of the big white-oak, and near the house and on to the 
public road near the buildings on the Lacey farm, almost exactly 
where Dr. Smith said, that according to tradition, Playwicky was 

Isaac Chapman, in his early history of Wrightstown, says the 
early settlers traveled along the Indian-paths ; is it therefore not 
reasonable to believe this lane was the path that led to Play- 
wicky? There being no public road it was common for early 
settlers to build their first house near a good spring of water when 
it was possible to do so. Then, why did the Hestons build their 
house where they did and carry their water so far, if it was 
not to be near and have the advantage of this path ? 

Some may claim this was a lane to the public road. If so, why 
did they go half way and turn and travel along the park line 
almost parallel with the roads? Besides, the Hestons lived there 
fifty years and the Hamptons forty years before the road was 
laid out. Why did they go west and cross two streams when by 
going more to the south they need not have crossed any? The 
Hestons and Hamptons were Quakers. Then, why did they make 
their first lane to run east and west when their meeting and 
older settlements lay more to the south? My answer is that 
a well worn Indian-path passed in front of their door, and it was 

33^ re;minisce;nce;s of pinevii^le and vicinity 

easier to travel this path, though it was somewhat indirect, than 
make a new road. 

Wild pigeons flew in large flocks over this district in 1830, 1844 
and again in 1848 or 49, some of these flocks were so large that 
both ends could not be seen at once. 

In 1830, quite a good many farmers were engaged in catching 
pigeons. Amos Jolly caught them in great numbers in the Indian 
field on the Hampton farm. In 184.1, William Tomlinson caught 
many on Jericho hill. Late as 1830 wild pigeons built nests and 
reared their young in trees on Jericho hill. 

About the last week in August, 1858, great numbers of sea 
plovers passed over this neighborhood. Their main course was 
from east to west. They were nearly as large as pigeons. This 
flight of birds was very strange. Old people then knew but very 
little, if anything, about them and they have not passed this way 
since. The moth mullein soon after made its appearance in this 
neighborhood and as nearly all farmers then raised their own 
grass seed, it is thought by some that these birds brought the 
seed of this weed here. 

There are several family graveyards in this district. One on 
the land owned by Caroline Worthington, on the northwest side 
of a stream that flows into Robin run, about a mile west of 
Wycombe. Though it is said that 25 or 30 persons were buried 
there, not more than one-fourth that number of graves are 
marked at present. Hickes' and Radclifife's are among those that 
are buried there. "Indian Billy" and his wife, Polly, were also 
buried there. The graveyard at one time was walled in, but 
the wall has since been torn down and hauled away. There is 
another family graveyard on the John Walton farm, on the top 
of Jericho range. Here six Tregoes, the early settlers of the 
farm were buried and a John Trego, said to be in no way related 
to the other family of that name. There is also a family grave- 
yard on the Hettie Ann Williams farm in Upper Makefield, 
where a number of graves were at. one time marked, at present 
however only two are marked. The farmer's plow is encroach- 
ing and probablv in a short time this graveyard will be known 
only in history. 

When Washington's army came to Upper Makefield in 1776, 
a portion of it encamped on the Merrick farm almost opposite 


•and near where the Pineville road intersects the Newtown road. 
They commenced to burn Merrick's fence. Merrick told General 
Green that he would haul them wood if they would stop burning 
his fence, which was done. They slept with their feet next to 
a fire, yet it was so cold that a bucket of water, set between them 
and the fire, was frozen over in the morning. 

There was another camp near the bridge that crosses Knowles' 
creek on the road to Brownsburg, and also another camp in the 
woods north of Brownsburg between the river and the road and 
near the township-line. The house owned by Aaron McCarty 
was Washington's headquarters while visiting the camp. The 
soldiers that died in camp were buried on the river bank, a little 
to the north of this camp. While we spend thousands on other 
burial places this one is almost entirely neglected. It would be 
safe to say but very few people now living have visited it. 

There were some Revolutionary soldiers buried on the river 
bank on the VanHart farm below Taylorsville, north of and near 
a small stream of water that empties into the river there. 

Pineville was so named from a cluster of pine trees that stood 
about 150 yards south of the cross roads. These trees were cut 
down about 1846. The forging of the iron work for the county 
jail at Doylestown, erected in 1812, was done at Pineville. The 
iron was hauled from Bethlehem in farm wagons. 

The wooden bridge that spans the Neshaminy on the road from 
Penn's Park to Richboro is known as the chain-bridge, because 
a chain-bridge once spanned the stream at that place and was 
taken down about 1830. The chains on which the bridge was 
suspended passed over a frame tower built on a pier in the centre 
of the stream, the links of the chain varied in length from three 
feet to ten or twelve feet long and were made from bars of iron 
2Yx inches square. 

The Hestons and Wiggins were among the early settlers of 
this neighborhood. They came from Barnstable Bay, Massachu- 
setts, each being surprised to find the other here. Benjamin 
Wiggins, the first, was a great hunter ; even after he became old, 
he would go with the Indians in the fall of the year to the moun- 
tains on a hunting trip. When winter set in. with his clothes 
all tattered and torn, he would return to the home of his son 


who was a thrifty farmer residing a mile and a half east of 
Pineville, and with whom he lived. His gun is now in possession 
of Dr. Benjamin W. Home. 

Zebulon Heston came from England to Barnstable Bay 1684. 
He was a freeholder in Mercer county, N. ]., in 1703. He sold 
his property there in 1707 and in 1711 bought a farm in Wrights- 
town which Frank Doane now owns. In 17 19 he bought the 
farm now owned by John M. Darrah in Upper Makefield. This 
he bequeathed to his son, Zebulon, whose daughters carried sand 
in bags on horseback from the Delaware river, a distance of about 
three miles, to build a portion of the present house. His son, 
Jacob, bought and occupied the farm now owned by Samuel 
Piatt, near Pineville. 

Three of Jacob's sons, Edward, Thomas and Isaac, served in 
the Revolutionary army. Edward and Thomas rose to the rank 
of colonel. Isaac and Thomas were extensively engaged in the 
plumbing business in Philadelphia at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion, but when the British army took possession of Philadelphia 
in September, 1777, everything was lost, their furniture and other 
property were confiscated. Isaac refusing to swear allegiance to 
the king, was compelled to flee from the city, and pretending to 
take a walk on the Sabbath with his wife and two small children 
he managed to get to Bucks county, where he lived in an old 
school-house for a season. Being in destitute circumstances it 
is probable that he found refuge near his own people in the 
neghborhood of Pineville. 

It was Edward's misfortune at one time whih reconnoitering 
the enemy's movements to be taken prisoner by a troop of British 
horse, one of whom made a desperate blow with his sword 
designing to take off his head. Edward stooped to escape the 
blow but the sword took off a piece of his scalp the size of a 
silver half dollar. He surrendered and was afterward sent to 
Long Island where he was detained for 7 months as a prisoner 
of war, but escaped on a dark, foggy night, knowing his course 
by hearing the roosters crow on the opposite shore. He filled 
several important public offices and in the biographical sketches 
of great men of the United States, published in 1824, he was 
reckoned among them. A small portion of his military equipment, 

reminisce;nces of pineviIvIvE and vicinity 339 

an official paper and letters written to him by his wife while he 
was a prisoner of war, are in possession of the writer. 

These three brothers, Edward, Thomas and Isaac, were Quak- 
ers, and for taking part in the war were disowned by their 
meeting. They with Enoch Betts, John Chapman, John and 
Abner Buckman, Thomas Ross, Joseph and James Pearson, Sam- 
uel Smith and others built a meeting-house in Philadelphia where 
they went to worship and called themselves free Quakers, nick- 
named fighting Quakers. 

Jesse Heston fearing his cattle might fall in hands of the 
British hid them in a cluster of green briars along a spring gutter 
about 50 yards from where it crosses the line of the farm now 
owned by Margaret Keyser. Some of these briars are still 

For the same cause John Warner hid his cattle behind rocks and 
beneath the shady spruce at Dark hollow. Some horses were hid- 
den in Cavey hollow, in Upper Makefield, on land now owned 
by Hettie Ann Williams. Is is said that during the Revolution 
Tories and robbers had a cave and rendezvous there, hence the 
name Cavey hollow. It is probable that the horses hidden there 
were stolen by the band of robbers that rendezvoused there. John 
Tomlinson's son was with them when they stole a horse from 
William Simpson which they swam across the river into New 
Jersey. They also stole two horses from James and Israel Ander- 
son, of Buckingham, one from widow Keith, one from Colonel 
Hart, and several others. 

On the Saturday before the robbery of the county treasury 
at Newtown, in 1781, the robbers who had assembled at John 
Tomlinson's were in his barn cleaning their guns. On that da^^ 
Jesse Vicars went to Newtown with John Tomlinson to get John 
Atkinson to mend a gun lock. Sunday morning these bandits 
were to the rendezvous in a woods not far off. Solomon Vicars 
was directed there by John Tomlinson and found the following 
named persons there: Jesse Vicars, Moses and Aaron Doane. 
John and Caleb Paul, Ned Connard, and two men by the name of 
Woodward from New Jersey. In the afternoon Mahlon Doane, 
Robert Steel. Jeremiah Cooper, of Jericho, and several others came 
in. Mahlon Doane was supplied with gun-flints for the occasion 
by Amos White. John Tomlinson carried food to them that day 


and was with them the evening of the robbery just before they 
set off, he was not with them at the robbery but drew his full 
share of hard money at the school-house at Wrightstown, where 
the money was divided. He entertained other robbers, concealed 
British prisoners and carried one-half of a hog to the British 
while they were at Philadelphia, traveling at night and hiding in 
the wood during the day. He was hanged October 17, 1782, and 
was buried on the hill overlooking Cavey hollow and a few feet 
north of the east corner of my farm. Flowers that are said to 
bloom but once a century have bloomed o'er his grave. His prop- 
erty was confiscated March 12, 1783. 

The Friends' meeting at Wrightstown forms a portion of the 
history of this neighborhood. During the Revolution soldiers 
were quartered in the meeting-house, and also some in the school- 
house that stood a little to the northwest of the present store 
property, the road now passing over the site, but at that time it 
passed nearer the meeting-house and by the tan-yard that was 
a little below the present toll-gate. Prior to 1845 there were 
no marble headstones in the graveyard at that place. About the 
year 1790, a young man living near Pineville had a vest made 
of ground squirrel skins with tails hanging down. This he used 
to wear to meeting. 

One of the finest wagons that used to come to Wrightstown 
meeting about 1820, was owned by Jonathan Heston. It was 
a two-horse carriage weighing about 900 to 1,000 pounds, having 
four wooden springs in the shape of a semicircle about 15 inches 
in diameter with leather straps passing over them from front to 
back, the body hanging on the straps. 

There may be some who would wonder why the Friends' meet- 
ing sold the burying-ground and building situated a little to the 
west of Penn's Park. It was rented to a man that spent much of 
his time at hotels, worked for a member of the meeting who, 
with others, threw their influence in favor of the poor tenant. 
The meeting had to pay for the repairs as it could get no rent, 
the lot was sold to get rid of their trouble. In this burying-ground 
some of the earliest settlers of the neighborhood were buried. 

After enduring great hardships and privations they bequeathed 
their land to their descendants, yet there is no room left for the 
repose of their bones. 

Law Governing the Settlement of New Countries. 

(Doylestown Meeting, January i8, 1904.) 

The settlement of new countries is governed by a law as well 
defined as commerce or finance. From the earliest time that the 
human family went abroad to found colonies down to the present 
day, civilization has traveled up the valleys of rivers and their 
tributaries, while the wealth developed by labor and capital, has 
flowed down the same valleys to the sea. This law was observed 
by our ancestors. Planting themselves on the Delaware, they 
gradually extended up its valley and the valleys of the Poques- 
sing, Pennypack and Neshaminy and penetrated the interior. 
At the end of the second year after Penn's arrival, we find set- 
tlers scattered here and there through the wilderness, as high 
up as Wrightstown, Warrington and Upper Makefield. 

Bucks county was settled by three distinctly marked races, 
whose peculiarities are seen in their descendants, the English, 
the Germans, and the Scotch-Irish. A fourth race, the Welsh, 
followed the other three, and settled some portions of the upper 
and middle sections of the county, but their descendants are 
not so distinctly marked. They were generally Baptists, and, 
while they did not introduce that worship into the county, they 
added largely to its communion and strength. This mixture of 
peoples gives our population a very composite character. The 
first to arrive were the English, mostly Friends, who immediately 
preceded, came with or followed William Penn and settled in 
the lower parts of Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks. They were 
the fathers and founders of the Commonwealth, and have left 
their lasting impress on our society and laws. They were fol- 
lowed by the Germans, who transported the language and customs 
of the Rhine to the Schuylkill, the upper Delaware and the Lehigh, 
and were of several religious denominations, the Lutherans, Re- 
formed and Mennonites predominating. 

The Germans came close upon the heels of the English Friends, 
who had hardly seated themselves on the banks of the Delaware, 


when the language of Luther was heard on the Schuylkill. As 
early as 1682-83, a few settled where Germantown stands and 
to which they gave its name. They were followed by a number 
of German Friends from Gersheim, near Worms, in 1686. They 
came in considerable numbers soon after 1700. In the fall of 
1705, two German agents came to view the land and went pretty 
generally through the country, but returned without buying. In 
the winter of 1704-5, Penn writes to James Logan that he has 
an hundred families preparing to go to Pennsylvania, which will 
buy thirty or forty thousand acres of land. In the summer of 
1709, Penn announces to Logan the coming of the Palatines 
(Germans,) and charges him to use them with "tenderness and 
care;" says they are "a sober people, divers Mennonites, and will 
neither swear nor fight," a recommendation with the found.er. 
Tender and considerate William Penn ! He wants these strangers 
treated with "tenderness and care," when they come to their 
new home in the wilderness on the Delawere. Between 1708 and 
1720 thousands of Germans arrived from the Palatinate. 

About 1711, several thousand Germans, who had immigrated to 
New York, left that Province and came to Pennsylvania, because 
they were badly treated. After this no more Germans would 
settle there. In 171 7, James Logan deprecates the great number 
of Germans that are coming, which, he says, "gives the country 
some uneasiness." He writes in 1714 that Sir William Keith, 
the Governor, while at Albany two years before, invited the New 
York Germans to come to Pennsylvania to increase his political 
influence ; fears they may be willing to usurp the country to 
themselves ; and. four years later, he is glad the influx of strangers 
will attract the attention of Parliament. There may have been 
genuine fear, on the part of the authorities, which complained that 
the Germans were bold and indigent, and seized on the best 
vacant tracts of land without paying for it. To discourage their 
coming, the Provincial Assembly laid ?. tax of 20s. a head on each 
newly arrived servant. The government had become so jealous 
of the Germans and other immigrants, not English, by this time, 
that all attempts at naturalization failed until 1724, under the 
administration of Governor Keith. 

The third race to arrive was the Scotch-Irish, as they are 
generally called, but properly Scotch and not the ofifspring of the 


marriage of Gaelic and Celt. They were almost exclusively 
Presbyterians, the immigration of the Catholic-Irish setting in at 
a later period. The Scotch-Irish began to arrive about 1716-18. 
Timid James Logan had the same fear of these immigrants that 
he had of the Germans. They came in such numbers, about 1729, 
that he said it looked as if "Ireland is to send all her inhabitants 
to this Province," and feared they would make themselves masters 
of it. He charged them of possessing themselves of the Cones- 
toga manor, ''in an audacious and disorderly manner," in 1730. 
The 20s. head tax, laid the year before, had no effect to restrain 
them, and the stream flowed on in spite of unfriendly legislation. 
No wonder; it was an exodus from a land of oppression to one 
of civil and religious liberty. 

The Scotch-Irish have a history full of interest. In the six- 
teenth century, the province of Ulster, in Ireland, which had been 
nearly depopulated during the Irish rebellion in the reign of 
Elizabeth, was peopled by immigrants from Scotland. The off'er 
of land, and other inducements, soon drew a large population, 
distinguished for thrift and industry, across the narrow strait 
that separates the two countries ; they were Presbyterians and 
built their first church in the county of Antrim, in 1613. 

The population was largely increased the next fifty years under 
the persecutions of Charles II, and James II, in their efforts to 
establish the church of England over Scotland. There had been 
but little intermarriage between the Irish and these Scotch-Sax- 
ons and the race is nearly as distinct as the day it settled in 
Ireland. In the course of time persecution followed these Scotch- 
Irish into the land of their exile, and, after bearing it as long as 
became men of spirit to bear, they resolved to seek new homes in 
America, where they hoped to find a free and open field for their 
industry and skill, and where there would be no interference 
with their religious belief. 

Their immigration commenced the first quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century; 6,000 arrived in 1729, and, it is stated, that for 
several years, prior to the middle of the century, 12,000 came 
annually. A thousand families sailed from Belfast in 1736, and 
it is estimated that 25,000 arrived between 1771 and 1773. Nearly 
the whole of them were Presbyterians and they settled in Pennsyl- 
vania. Many came into Bucks county in quest of homes, and in 


a few years we find them in several sections, from the Neshaminy 
to the mountains north of the Lehigh. They were the founders 
of all the old Presbyterian churches in the county. We had no 
class of immigrants that excelled them in energy, enterprise and 
intelligence in peace, nor more courageous in war. They were 
among the leaders in the council chamber and in the field in the 

A considerable number of Hollanders settled in the lower 
section of the county in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, 
principally on the Neshaminy and its branches, but their de- 
scendants have quite lost their racial characteristics in the hotch- 
potch of many peoples. These several races came to the wilds 
of Pennsylvania for a two-fold purpose, to better their worldly 
condition and for freedom to worship God. William Penn was 
favorably impressed with the Swedes, whom he found inhabiting 
the Delaware and its tributaries. He wrote to England flattering 
accounts of their treatment of himself and the English colonists. 
He says they were principally given to husbandry, but had marie 
very little progress in the propagation of fruit trees ; they were 
comely and strong in body ; have fine children and plenty of them ; 
and he sees "few young men more sober and industrious." 

It must not be inferred, from what we have said, that 
the English and cognate races were the earliest settlers on the 
Delaware. The Dutch were there as early as 1609-1630, and 
the latter year established a trading-post on a small island in the 
Delaware just below Trenton. Down to 1738, the Dutch held 
undisputed sway on the Delaware. They were followed by a 
small Swedish colony under Peter Minuet, near where Wilming- 
ton stands and subsequently on Tinicum island. The English, 
destined to be the governing race on the Delaware, from the 
mouth to its source, did not make their appearance until 1640. 
Wlien Penn arrived, 1682. the entire population on the Delaware 
and the creeks emptying in it was about three hundred. 

The story of Penn's settlement and his colonists is too familiar 
to be rehearsed to you. 

Robert Morris Founder of Morrisville. 

(Centennial Celebration at Morrisville, May 24, 1904.) 

It is with no ordinary sense of pride that we meet together on 
this ground, hallowed by the memory of him whose name is borne 
by this ancient Pennsylvania borough ; look out upon the green 
slopes of these hills and the rippling surfaces of this noble river 
and all the vernal beauties of the acres that sweep around us — 
and that he looked upon with an owner's interest and satisfac- 
tion; and interrupt the accustomed pursuits of our busy lives to 
recall the services of one of the greatest of the patriv)t-. of the 
i^merican Revolution. 

I have come this morning from a city which for nearly sixty 
years was the home of Robert Morris, the city in which he 
achieved his most important triumphs and suffered his gigantic 
defeats. From Philadelphia he was elected and re elected to the 
Continental Congress. From that city he was taken to direct 
the United States finances and provide the funds that brought 
our war with England to an end ; from that city, too, he was sent 
to the United States Senate. In Philadelphia he amassed, enjoyed 
and lost by speculation a great fortune, to languish in the end for 
three years, six months and ten days in a debtors' prison. The 
most distinguished of Philadelphia's citizens of that time, barring 
none unless it be Benjamin Franklin. We have yet, to our 
great discredit erected no monument to commemorate his services, 
and it is with peculiar pleasure thnt those who reverence his 
name have viewed the preparations you have made through the 
generosity of one of your townsmen, for the unveiling of the 
statue to-day in this borough which shared with tlie great c:ty 
so near your gates the feeling of pride in the successes and 
distinctions of his useful life. 

Mr. Morris was born in Liverpool, England, January 20, 1734. 
He arrived in America when a lad of about 13 years of age. 
His father, also Robert Morris, had preceded him as the Ameri- 
can agent of a firm of English tobacco merchants, and the boy, 



left at home with a grandmother, of whose kindnesses he was 
afterwards often heard to speak, at the age of 13 was con- 
signed to the care of a captain of one of the tobacco ships for 
the voyage across the sea to Maryland. He was put to school 
in that State, and later in Philadelphia, whither he came, and 
where he remained until his death. Here he was commended to 
the attention of Robert Greenway, who upon his father's death 
became his guardian. His father lost his life from injuries sus- 
tained by a shot prematurely discharged by a gunner on a ship in 
Oxford harbor ; the surgery of that day was so wretched that 
the wound, though it would now be considered slight, quickly 
developed symtoms of blood poisoning, and before the boy could 
reach Maryland his father was dead, and buried in White Marsh 
churchyard in Talbot county. 

Robert Morris was now in a new world without known kin and 
practically friendless. With an insignificant inheritance, the 
residue of an estate reduced by numerous small bequests, and 
his native business acumen, he was compelled to choose an occu- 
pation. He therefore entered the employ of Charles Willing, who 
in 1854, desiring to escape further active part in his business, and 
perceiving the value of young Morris (then 21 years of age) to 
the firm, suggested a partnership with his son Thomas. Thus 
was established the mercantile house of Willing & Morris, for 
more than thirty years, the largest importing and exporting con- 
cern in Philadelphia, and one of the richest and most enterpris- 
ing in the American Colonies. Their ships carried merchandise 
to and from all countries, and it was no idle boast when Mr. 
Morris remarked, in reviewing his unusual life, as the twilight 
shades settled about him, "I have owned more ships than any 
man in America." His vessels under sail in the same sea would 
have comprised a great fleet, and their operations gave him com- 
mand of an ample fortune. He and his partner were accounted 
wealthy men long before the outbreak of the Revolution, and, in 
identifying themselves actively with that movement, were valued 
accessions to the patriot ranks in Philadelphia, where so many 
citizens of substance were still openly avowing their sympathies 
for Great Britain. 

It called for some sacrifice and renunciation on the part of an 


Englishman who, with affectionate feeling in the shadow of his 
years, still spoke of his native country as "dear old England," 
and a merchant — though this view was contrary to some ac- 
counts — who had much to lose by a war between Great Britain 
and her Colonies, to ally himself prominently with the Revolution- 
ists, or as we say reverently, the American patriots. Mr. Mor- 
ris acted with boldness and decision in this matter, as was isual 
with him in all matters, calling for a choice of alternatives. He. 
was one of the committee from Philadelphia who, in 1765, visited 
John Hughes, appointed upon Franklin's recommendation to sell 
the odious stamps, and secured from that officer, (who at the 
time was in bed with a grave sickness,) a pledge that he would not 
be an instrument to collect this tax from his unwilling fellow- 

Robert Morris was early sent to the Continental Congress by 
the Pennsylvania Legislature, where his counsels were strongly 
against a complete rupture with Great Britain. He voted against 
the Declaration of Independence as untimely, and as likely to 
defeat that object which the Whigs of America so zealously 
desired to attain. Of all the members of the Pennsylvania dele- 
gation who voted adversely upon the question of separation from 
England, he alone commanded enough popular confidence to be 
returned to Congress at the next ensuing election, and once 
embarked for the war he was a most uncompromising advocate of 
its prosecution by every measure which would clear the country 
of British troops and establish American liberty. 

He was at once engaged in service of the greatest importance. 
One of the unhappiest periods of the war — a crisis it was diffi- 
cult to survive — was experienced in the winter of 1776 and 
1777 when Washington was operating in this neighborhood, near 
Trenton. Howe threatened Philadelphia, and Congress had fled 
to Baltimore, leaving Morris at the head of a committee in the 
capital of the war-torn Colonies to hurry forward the work upon 
uncompleted ships at the Delaware yards, and, if possible, send 
them to sea before the British should descend upon the city. 
Morris, in truth, was that committee. With the loyal support of 
his friend, John Hancock — another capable business man who 
understood the impracticability of too much consultation and dis- 
cussion when great objects were to be attained — he was for the 


time being, the entire American government on its civil side. 
Whatever he may have done in strengthening the defenses of the 
city, arranging with his exceptional experience as a shipmaster 
for the quick despatch of the fleet down the bay to safety in the 
open sea, in directing the citizens as they departed with their 
movable goods to places of refuge in Lancaster, York, and other 
parts of the State, it is not easily conceivable that any smaller 
character could have secured upon a few hours notice, on his 
private credit, the sum of $50,000 to forward the operations of 
General Washington. That it was this money, procured by Mr. 
Morris' single-handed exertions which induced the troops whose 
time of enlistment had expired with the year, to continue in the 
service, and which enabled the Commander-in-chief a second time 
to steal up behind the British and Hessian forces near Trenton 
and administer the defeat that effectually protected Philadelphia 
from occupation by the enemy during that winter, may readily 
be demonstrated. This service Washington never forgot, nor 
should any American of this day value less the title to national 
gratitude won by Mr. Morris on that occasion. 

The winters at Trenton and Valley Forge having ended, no 
other season was gloomier or more critical than 1781 when, after 
five years of more or less unfruitful struggle, the public Conti- 
nental currency had come to have so little value that it was used 
to plaster the walls of barber-shops and to kindle fires under 
oft'ensive Tory gentlemen. France had declared that she would 
supply no more money to her American allies. The Whigs of 
most talent and ability, who when the war began had come for- 
ward generously to offer their services to their country, had left 
the national council-halls to resume the direction of their private 
affairs, long sorely neglected. The sessions of the Continental 
Congress were slimly attended by men of no great degree of 
attainment, and their acts commanded little public confidence. It 
was at this juncture that Robert Morris appeared, being again 
called to the head of the government to occupy a new office, 
especially created to tempt him back into the public line, the 
Superintendent of the United States Finances. A single official 
was now to take the place of the old treasury board, whose mem- 
bers consumed their energies in the fruitless discussion of ques- 


tions which they but imperfectly understood and were powerless 
to enforce their numerous resolves. 

Not content with any partial authority, Morris absorbed several 
other offices and made himself at once the head of the marine and 
commissary departments. Indeed, as the unfriendly Governor 
Reed observed, "He exercised the powers really of the throe 
great departments, (war, foreign affairs, and finance) and Con- 
gress have only to give their fiat to his mandates." Once more 
he bore almost the entire responsibility of government upon his 
own shoulders. The war department had no more important task 
than to secure pay and subsistence for the troops and the foreign 
office had no duty to perform so necessary as the work of extort- 
ing money from European governments. 

Morris took all these lines of business into his own hands — vis- 
ited Washington's camp ; coaxed from the States, under threat of 
military seizure, food for the soldiers and horses that were soon 
put in motion in New York for the descent upon Yorktown; 
borrowing the money from Rochambeau to pay the mutinous 
troops which if unpaid would not go farther south than the Head 
of Elk; drew bills upon Franklin at Paris, Jay at Madrid, and 
John Adams at the Hague, and sent them skurryin^^- to public and 
private treasuries to find the money to prevent the dishonor of pro- 
test ; conveyed specie from Boston by ox train to fill the tills of the 
new Bank of North America in Philadelphia ; issued his own notes 
in anticipation of the collection of taxes in the impotent States; 
sold tobacco in Europe ; dispatched his agents to the Carolinas 
for indigo and skins ; and sent ships to Cuba with flour to be dis- 
posed of for cash to the Governor of Havana. 

From May, 1781, when the credit of the country was at the 
lowest point, until November, 1784, when peace was assured and 
the army had been disbanded, Morris administered the office of 
finance with a hand as successful as it was imperial. His justi- 
fication was found in the triumph of his daring policies ; in the 
life-long and warm friendships of Washington, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, John Jay, Gouverneur Morris, and the entire Federalist ele- 
ment ; in the respect of the people at large who revered his name, 
and who sent him to the Constitutional Convention, and later to 
the Senate of the United States from Pennsylvania to serve for 
six years as the principal pillar of Washington's administration. 


Through his diary and letter-books which were but recently 
made accessible to the public, and now repose in the Congression- 
al library at Washington, we receive glimpses of a character which 
was large, generous, and lovable, one that each man and woman of 
us would recognize wherever we should meet its like for honesty 
and worth. His enemies were malignant and pursued him re- 
lentlessly until the end of his political career ; but to all of them 
his effective response was faithful service and an indifferent atti- 
tude in the face of insult, except when he was most deeply stung 
by their unjust aspersions upon his morals as a public officer. "I 
am not ignorant," he once wrote to a friend, "that many people 
employ themselves in defaming men whom they do not know and 
measures that they do not understand. To such illiberal char- 
acters the best answer is to act well." 

Robert Morris was the master of a direct and lucid literary 
•style. His writings are sprightly, epigrammatic, and frequent- 
ly humorous. In his letters to the States with which he so elo- 
quently pleaded for money to prosecute the war he said : 

"Men are less ashamed to do wrong than vexed to be told of it. 

"We are not to expect perfect institutions from human wisdom and 
must therefore console o.urselves with the determination to reform errors 
as soon as experience points out the necessity for and the means of 
amendment. A whole people seldom continue long in error. 

"This language may not consist with the ideas of dignity which some 
men entertain. But, sir, dignity is in duty and in virtue, not in the sound 
of swelling expressions. Congress may dismiss their servants, and States 
may dismiss their Congress, but it is by rectitude alone that man can 
be respectable. 

"Difficulties are always to be distinguished from possibilities. After 
endeavoring by your utmost exertions to surmount them you will be 
able to determine which of them are insurmountable. 

"Men are more apt to trust one whom they can call to account than 
three who do not hold themselves accountable, or three and thirty who 
may appoint those three. 

"The moral causes that may procrastinate or precipitate events are hid- 
den from mortal view. But it is within the bounds of human knowl- 
edge to determine that all earthly things have some limits which it is im- 
prudent to exceed, others which it is dangerous to exceed, and some 
which can never be exceeded." 

No one at that time was, and no one since should have been 
unmindful of Morris' great services to the country, not only in 
lending to the public his personal credit and financial skill, but 


also in steadfastly upholding the dignity of office by his private 
entertainments at his city and country homes at a time when the 
prestige of the Colonies was at a low ebb in the sight of the 
French and the Dutch, from whom we were seeking large loans 
of money ; in the sight, too, of Americans who would have 
thought him a much less potent financier if he had enjoyed his 
wealth less showily. 

That he later miscalculated the momentum of the economic 
prosperity of the Republic he had done so much to found, and 
overlook the dire consequences of the Napoleonic wars, was no 
more than a misfortune brought on by his bold and optimistic 
nature. That he should have lost his fortune by land speculation 
including 7,234 building lots in the new District of Columbia; 
two or three million acres of land in Pennsylvania now produc- 
tive of large quantities of coal and petroleum ; six million acres in 
Virginia, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Kentucky; and two or 
three of the finest mansions ever up to that time erected on the 
American Continent, is less a reflection upon the man than upon 
the singular state of the times. It would probably have occurred 
to a few men with the ability to accumulate this great amount of 
property at a few cents per acre that a time might come when it 
could not be sold or mortgaged somewhere in the money centres 
of America or Europe for a sufficient sum to pay the interest 
charges and taxes. To predict that it would have inestimable 
value before many years should elapse needed no rare gift of 
foresight. Yet this unexpected time did arrive, and very soon — 
when no conceivable endeavor that he, his sons, and his other 
agents were able to put forth could save him from the rapid and 
complete dissolution of his fortune. 

Everything must go to satisfy his creditors; and they were 
still clamorous for millions more when the harsh bankruptcy 
laws were enforced against him by some of the more implacable of 
his enemies, who cared not for his public services or the true 
worth of his character, though his accounts with them were 
relatively small. On February 16, 1798, his time was at hand. 
In the evening he wrote to his unfortunate partner, John Nichol- 
son, from his mansion at the Hills on Schuylkill, "If writing 
notes could relieve me you would do it sooner than any man in 


the world, but all you have said in these now before me, num- 
bers 5 to 9, inclusive, amounts, when summed up, to notliing. Aly 
money is gone. My furniture is to be sold. I am to go to prison 
and my family to starve. Good night." 

His long term in Philadelphia prison left him a broken down 
old man. He was released in i8oi, to live for five years more, 
a pensioner upon the bounty of his relatives and friends. It is 
often said that for his countrymen to have permitted the State 
of Pennsylvania to inflict such a penalty upon one who a few 
years before had been the most honored and distinguished of all 
its patriots, except Franklin, was a great national disgrace. General 
Washington plainly regarded the event in this light, or he scarce- 
ly would have visited his old friend and military coadjutor in 
the prison-house. Thomas Jefferson, although a political adver- 
sary, miist have been of a similar opinion, else he would not have 
expressed a desire that Morris should be freed to become secre- 
tary of the navy in his cabinet. Nor can more than a few of 
the people of Philadelphia have considered such treatment de- 
served, when a large body of mechanics offered to contribute 
their savings to a fund to release the "Revolutionary financier" 
from his confinement, which became the more irksome through 
the ravages of the fatal fever that swept the city during these 

It must be remembered, however, that the law of that day in 
all the States prescribed imprisonment as the eventual penalty 
for the man who could not pay his debts, and ]\Iorris' were so 
enormous — certainly not short of three millions of dollars — that 
no one person or body of persons at that unhappy season could 
well have assembled enough money for his ransom. 

We raise a hand to-day in one place, and it is a place in which 
the act is performed with great fitness, to atone for this long 
neglect, to honor the name and recall the achievements of our 
great financier. If it be the first, it certainly will not be the last 
public memorial to a great and good man to whom the Republic 
owes a debt it has never yet discharged. We have our monuments 
everywhere to Washington and Franklin : the very children know 
their names. Morris merits at our hands not less than they. 
What Washington achieved upon the battlefield in gaining mili- 


tary victories, and Franklin at European courts in winning for- 
eign sympathy and support, the financier accompHshed in Phila- 
delphia in finding the money and credit at the most critical stages 
of our great contest for independent nationality. This borough 
to-day in celebrating the deeds of its founder again appeals for 
justice to the name and memory of one of the greatest of our 
Revolutionary figures. 

As we scan this favored scene it is only human nature to 
contrast the present aspect of that which is here spread out 
around us with another picture, and consider what it might have 
been if Robert Morris had achieved his purpose to make these 
river shores the site of the capital of the United States. It was 
but a throw of the dice. The capital in 1790 might have been 
located upon the Delaware, Susquehanna, or the Potomac. Here 
at the Falls the boats from the lower Delaware stopped and 
discharged their cargo. Through this place stage-coaches, wag- 
oners, and post-riders passed on their way from Philadelphia to 
New York. At first the owner of but a small tract Mr. Morris 
increased his holdings until he came to possess 2,500 acres, divid- 
ed into fourteen farms. He found here at the time of purchase, 
or later himself established in this vicinity, a grist-mill, a slitting- 
mill, a rolling-mill, a trip-hammer, a wire-drawing plant, a snuflf- 
mill, a mill for grinding plaster-of-parie, a hat manufactory, a 
stone-quarry, a forge, and a malt-house, altogether called the 
Delaware works. In the river there were shad fisheries, and 
ferries conveyed passengers and freight to and from New Jer- 
sey. A town had been begun about a large mansion which 
]\Ir. Morris built for the use of his own family, and which 
was occupied for several years by his eldest son, Robert Mor- 
ris, Jr., who was put in charge of his father's interests at 
that point. This house, like Morris' home in Philadelphia, 
was equipped with ice-houses, then a novelty in the Colonies. It 
was surrounded by beautiful gardens and there were stables, at 
the time reckoned to be among the finest in America. The owner 
often came here personally to inspect his properties and supervise 
the operations of his agents, and in 1795 he built a large engine 
in his mills, one of the first to be erected anywhere in the coun- 
try, importing an English machinist to execute the work. It 


was to this incident that he alluded, when suffering keenly 
from his financial distresses, he wrote to Benjamin Harrison, of 
Virginia, "I am, as you say, beating hard up against wind and 
tide, and I fear I shall be obliged to have recourse to steam to 
get along, for I am building a steam engine at Morrisville." 

But this site, well adapted as it was, to serve as the seat of 
Federal Government, was not selected. The choice, for reasons 
that reflect in no way upon the natural enjoyments of this neigh- 
borhood or the political diligence and tact of Robert Morris, fell 
to the South, and the great Capitol and other government build- 
ings that we might have had in our presence here to-day were 
erected in a wooded wilderness on the banks of the Potomac. 

The household goods of the presidents are not shattered in 
transit over the "infamous roads," as John Adams' were when he 
removed from Philadelphia in 1800 to take up his residence in 
the uncompleted White House in an uncleared forest. "It is a 
beautiful spot capable of every improvement," his wife Abigail 
Adams sarcastically wrote to a friend, which is suggestive of 
what another observer said of Washington at this period of its 
history. After reciting many of the discomforts of life in the 
new Capitol, he summarizes his impressions by recommending 
it as "the very best city in the world for a future residence." 

Morrisville and its surrounding country offered a better site 
for the Federal city, as many citizens of Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, New York, and the New England States then believed, 
and as many think now, but regrets are unbecoming and reproach- 
es idle. 

On this anniversary we may only allude in passing to the 
chance that prevented this from being the city of Washington in 
the District of Columbia. It was no less a destiny that its 
founder had in view for this town. It was but one of the 
cherished enterprises of a man of bold designs and large purposes. 

But his title to our gratitude rests upon no unaccomplished 
objects of a minor kind that come to make less full and satisfy- 
ing the cup of life that is deeply steeped in ambition. His fame 
is established upon firmer foundations. 

We gather here to honor his name and commemorate his 
works as the fitting compeer in manhood, patriotism, and states- 
manship of Washington. Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, and 


Jefferson. This bust will be the lasting token that here for 
long was centered much of the love of earth and many of the 
commercial interests and aspirations of one of the greatest of 
our nation's benefactors, a pure-minded, untiring servant of the 
American Republic in its crucial yeans. 

Morrisville the Capital. 

(Centennial Celebration at Morrisville, May 24, 1904.) 

As measured by a human lifetime an hundred years marks a 
wide period, but in the worlds history and in the affairs of com- 
munities the time is but momentary and must indeed be eventful 
to gain a page's notice upon the great record of lasting history. 

To-day the little borough of Morrisville celebrates its one 
hundredth anniversary, indicating that her inhabitants must find 
something in the achievements of the last century to be proud of. 
But the historian will frankly ask, what is there to record? What 
of enterprise, achievement and progress is there to point to for 
this century of time? Has this borough, with all her recognized 
advantages of position, improved her opportunities? Has she 
advanced or receded? Since her christening, other places with 
less advantages, and then unknown have grown into great centres 
of industry and wealth. 

If the truth must be told, some one will say, Morrisville, situated 
advantageously upon the banks of one of our noble rivers, lying 
nearly midway between two of our greatest cities and upon the 
greatest artery of trade and transportation of the new world, 
appears to have been content to doze through a century of time, 
permitting these waters, laden with great capabilities to evolve 
industry and wealth, to roll by to the sea unharnessed and unused, 
that for thirty days of each year it may enjoy the flavor of the 
toothsome shad, watch the lubberly leaping of the infrequent 
sturgeon or knaw the flesh of the boney herring. The same 
place which a century ago aroused the interest of Bonaparte, Mor- 
ris, Moreau, Clymer and others great in the worlds history has 
stood unmoved. 

Even old Trenton, starting the century with no point of interest 


Other than the fact that by the accident of a drunken brawl by a 
stupid Dutch General, it became the scene of a decisive action 
that was a turning point in the country's history, regards her 
neighbor with indifference. 

During this century the Pennsylvania canal, with opportunities 
for wealth and industry has come to serve its useful purpose 
and is departing to give place to newer methods, without Morris- 
ville profiting or being excited further than to once complain, by 
indictment, that the waters oozing from the canal created stagnant 
pools unpleasant to the senses of the sleeping burghers. Then 
there has been the navigable river with its steamboats, and the 
railroad, all carrying their wealth across the stream. Thus she has 
fought the canal and the railroad, and neglected her riparian 
advantages when elsewhere the same forces have been welcomed 
;as assurances of wealth and progress. 

It seems to be that relying with too much confidence upon her 
great natural advantages which excited the interest of powerful 
influences and brought promise of great results, her inhabitants, 
first, inspired with high hopes, in the end, were doomed to serious 
disappointment and angered ; in a blind and helpless sort of way 
struggled against the very forces which would have benefited her. 
T3ut unfortunate or discouraged at the loss of promised oppor- 
tunities Morrisville has a history and with it has lived through 
an hundred years of faith in her future. To-day she celebrates 
over that history, and undaunted, clings to her faith and cherishes 
more substantial hopes than ever before, that her merits are to 
receive their due reward. New blood courses through her arteries 
and wide awake, she is grasping every opportunity that appears. 
With whatever regret she to-day records what might have been, 
she buckles on her armor to fight for what she believes can and 
will be. Few of the present generation may recall that this 
locality, the scene of the organization of the first Monthly Meeting 
of Friends in Bucks county, and the chosen home of the founder 
of our Commonwealth almost reached the distinction of being 
selected as the seat of Penn's great city, was nearly chosen the 
Capital of the United States, was the first seat of our county 
government, and by accident, failed of becoming the rallying 
point of the faithful followers of the most remarkable man in 
historv. There is strong historical ground for the assertion that 


when William Penn proposed to lay out his new city, his agents 
with his approval selected Pennsbury as the site of the Capital 
town. Watson, the historian informs us, that "Samuel Preston 
says of his grandmother, that she said Phineas Pemberton sur- 
veyed and laid out a town intended to have been Philadelphia, 
up at Pennsbury and that the people who went there were dissat- 
isfied with the change." Mr. Preston further declared that about 
1786, "having occasion to hunt through the trunks containing sur- 
veys of John Lukens, surveyor general of Pennsylvania, he and 
Lukens then saw a ground-plot for the city of Philadelphia signed, 
Phineas Pemberton, surveyor general, that fully appeared to have 
been Pennsbury manor." While this locality lost Penns Capital 
town, the first capital of the county of Bucks was undoubtedly 
here. Although the exact spot is not marked, it was near the 
falls of the Delaware. Dr. Buckman has located the first 
court-house on a farm formerly owned by Jacob Smith, below 
the town near the mouth of the creek that empties into the 
Delaware at Moon's island. 

The first murder trial was here and the execution is supposed 
to have occurred at Tyburn. 

A French historian informs us that while at dinner with a 
number of officers of whom Gen. Moreau was one. Napoleon 
Bonaparte, then first consul, conversing of America, pointed to the 
Delaware falls as the strategic point of the United States, from 
which to keep in easy communication with aflfairs, and that 
Moreau when, afterward through plotting against Napoleon, he 
was compelled to flee from France, recalled the remarks of his 
former companion in arms and selected Morrisville as his home. 

Both Louis Mallard and Richard C. McMuntrie, Esq., are 
authority for the statement from Joseph Bonaparte that Napoleon 
before his down-fall, in discussing the contingency of being forced 
to abandon France, opened a map and pointing to the falls of the 
Delaware, said that if ever compelled to leave France he would 
go to America and locate somewhere between New York and 
Philadelphia, where he could receive the earliest intelligence from 
France, by ships arriving at either port. Joseph first contem- 
plated settling here but was pursuaded by Commodore Stewart to 
select Bordentown. But Morrisville almost reached the greater 


difstinction of being chosen as the Capital of the greatest of 

At the time the national capital was selected, Pennsylvania 
was represented in the United States Senate by Robert Morris 
and William ]\IcClay. the later a descendant of John Harris the 
founder of Harrisburg. McClay left a diary which contains 
interesting matter upon the question of the choice of a permanent 
residence for the Government. The two Senators quarrelled over 
the location, one contending for the Delaware and the other for 
the Susquehanna. To this unfriendliness and to as discredit- 
able a deal engineered by Alexander Hamilton, as can be charged 
to any modern politicians can be ascribed the failure of Morris 
to secure the capital here. 

Under date of August 25, 1789, McClay says, 
"On Saturday I proposed to Mr. Morris to bring forward all the 
places which had been mentioned for the permanent residence of Con- 
gress at one time, he answered rather gruffly, let those that are fond of 
them bring them forward. I will bring forward the Falls of Delaware. 
He presented the draft of the Falls to the Chair, and a few days after- 
ward I (McClay) presented a draft of Lancaster, and also nominated 
Wrights ferry, York, Carlisle, Harrisburg. Reading and Germantown." 

On September 2d, after giving in some detail, an account of 
bargains with the New England men and Virginians over the 
question, McClay says : 

"Mr. Morris however has not quitted the game, he told me that all the 
New England men and York delegation were now met and they would, on 
the terms of the original proposals, name a place in Pennsjdvania, for they 
had actually agreed on one which he had no doubt was the Falls of 

McClay continued to work for the Susquehanna and some ex- 
pressions from his diary show that the fight waxed warm, he says. 

"Mr. Morris did not speak to me this morning, left his usual seat to 
avoid me. Wynkoop cannot sit with me this evening ; he is caballing 
downstairs. Morris wanted to bring forward Germantown and the Falls 
of Delaware. Fitzsimmons began telling me what the Pennsylvanians had 
agreed to do. Abandon the Susquehanna and try for the Falls of Dela- 
ware or Germantown. McClay declared if he could not get the Sus- 
quehanna he would go to the Potomac. Fitzsimmons then told him five 
Pennsylvanians were for the Falls of the Delaware." 

McClay warmly discusses the manipulations of Morris, Wyn- 
koop. Clymer and other Pennsylvania members, to defeat his 


Susquehanna project and shows that Morris was in a fair way 
to carry his point, when much to McClay's satisfaction along- 
came Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, in search of 
voters for his financial scheme, and seeing that New York had 
lost the Capital, he deftly made a bargain with the Virginians 
and Southern men, that if they would support his financial plan, 
the New Yorkers would vote for the Potomac as the seat of 
government. Thus by a log-rolling scheme Morrisville lost the 
Capital, and Washington City won. Had the federal government 
come here or had Napoleon escaped to America the changed 
conditions would baffle the wildest imagination to suggest the 

What would have been the effect upon the war of the Rebel- 
lion : the irrepressible conflict, with the Capital so far North ? It 
is a curious circumstance that while Washington City defeated 
all efforts to take her, three of the places named on the Susque- 
hanna were captured by Lee's forces. Had Bonaparte arrived, 
and only accident prevented, the change upon the community and 
its progress would have been great. This would have been the 
central rallying point of a remarkable immigration. That great 
man would have drawn after him thousands of his brave and 
powerful followers from France and Central Europe. Here 
would have eminated schemes and plans that would have dis- 
turbed all Europe. And that feverish brain might have conceived 
designs that would have changed materially our own restless 
enterprise. But a reality more important than all in shaping the 
character of our State was the holding of the first Monthly 
Meeting of Friends at the house of William Biles on the 20th. 
of 3d month, 1683, in Bucks county. 

That the spot where these activities should exist would have 
become important and far famed goes without saying. But these 
happenings, so probable, were not to be, and Morrisville at the 
end of an uneventful century is yet to achieve her greatness. 

That this place was so often regarded with favor, was not 
due to accident. The position at the head of the tide water upon 
the Delaware and at the lowest natural point of crossing the 
stream, other than by navigation, connected with a location upon 
a great trunk line has always given to both Morrisville and Tren- 
ton many advantages. 


But methods of trade have greatly changed. The railroad has 
supplanted the canal and the steamboat ; within a few years there 
have converged here great lines of transportation between the 
East and the West and from the North to the South and West. 
Lying between two great ports and at the point of distribution 
of all kinds of merchandise this locality possesses greater com- 
parative advantages than in the days of William Penn, Robert 
Morris and Napoleon Bonaparte. With enterprise and liberality 
there is no reason why in the near future, it should not leap for- 
ward and become the Manchester of America, with its smoke- 
stacks of manufacturing industries piercing the skies for miles 

The rift of light has appeared in the overclouded skies and 
hope eternal, and faith born anew, record the history of failures 
and disappointments with a confident assurance, that there is 
in sight, a new and different capital town than once promised, 
that instead of the city of politics, statesmanship and ambitious 
aspirations for power there is to spring up the capital city of 
commerce dependent upon the skill of the artisan and the honest 
product of labor. And with these aided by combinations of 
great capital, Morrisville is to be reckoned with in the next cen- 

Founding of Morrisville. 


(Centennial Celebration, Morrisville, Pa., May 24, 1904.) 

The origin and growth of a municipahty are always profitable 
subjects for research. It is instructive as well as interesting to 
note the causes which led to its establishment, the influences which 
operated upon and effected its developments and the vicissitudes 
of human experience, which are interwoven in its history. "There 
is no history, only biography," says Emerson. Every narration 
of events is after all but an account of the achievements of in- 

The selection of the site of a town is never a matter of chance. 
It is not due to mere accident that the busy capital of New Jer- 
sey crowns the opposite bank of this noble river, or that the chief 
city of our Commonwealth sits enthroned upon its western shore 
a few miles below. The choice of the situation of this thriving 
borough was, as is always the fact, due to controlling circum.- 

There is frequent mention of the Falls of the Delaware in 
the contemporary records of the fifty years preceding the coming 
of William Penn. While yet the silence of the wilderness rested 
upon these shores, and forests covered the spot upon which we 
have gathered, and the fertile fields that stretch away in every 
direction, a thin line of travel from the colonies on the northeast 
found its way through the well-nigh "pathless woods" to the 
Delaware at this point, and crossing here, passed on down the 
west bank to the settlements below. Travelers from Manhattan 
usually came by boat to Elizabeth and thence overland to the 
river. Here they either resumed the journey by boat or rode 
or marched south along the river bank. Runners bearing let- 
ters between the distant settlements generally took this route. In 
1656 a small detachment of soldiers under the command of one 
Dick Smith, an expedition against the Indians came overland 
and crossed the river here. The ne^t year another company of 
forty men, under the command of Captain Kryger, escorting a 


party of settlers on their way south, passed over this route. In 
May, 1675, Governor Edmond Andros, accompanied by a numer- 
ous retinue, visited the Delaware settlements. He was met here by 
the then sheriff of the district on the river, Captain Edmond 
Cantrell, who accompanied him to New Castle. An Indian 
council was held there on the 13th of the month, which was 
attended by chiefs from both sides of the river. Among the 
matters which received attention at the time was the establish- 
ment of a ferry at the Falls. It was ordered that "a ferry 
boate be maytaned at the Falls on the west side." The rates of 
toll were fixed at two guilders (twenty-four cents) for a man 
and horse and ten stivers (six cents) for a man. 

About this time William Edmondson, an Irish Friend, passed 
this way with a party. He has left m his journal an account of 
his journey, which describes the conditions then prevailing in this 
region. In reference to their crossing he says : 

"About nine in the morning, by the good hand ot God we came to the 
falls, and by his Providence found an Indian man, a woman and a boy 
with a canoe. We hired him for some wampum, to help us over in the 
canoe ; we swam our horses, and though the river was broad, yet got 
well over and. by the directions we received from Friends, travelled 
toward Delaware town along the west side of the river. When we rode 
some miles, we baited our horses and refreshed ourselves with such pro- 
visions as we had. for as yet we were not yet come to any inhabitants. 
Here came to us a Finland man, well horsed, who could speak English. 
He soon perceived what we were and gave us an account of several 
Friends. His home was as far as we could go that day; he took us there 
and lodged us kindly." 

Here is a picture of lower Bucks county in 1675. Edmond- 
son regarded it as providential that the Indians with the canoe 
were found here on his arrival ; otherwise it is evident he could 
not have crossed the river. It may be inferred that the region 
round about was uninhabited at that time. The house of the 
Finland man, the first inhabitant that Edmondson and his party 
met, was almost a day's journey from this point. 

In 1679 two intelligent and observant Dutchmen, Jasper Dan- 
kers and Peter Sluyter, visited this region. They kept a journal, 
which gives a very graphic description of tne country between 
Morrisville and New Castle as they found it in November and 
December of that year. They were members of a communistic 
religious sect in Germany called Labadists, and at the time were 


in search of a place to which their sect might remove and es- 
tabHsh a settlement. This was ultimately done in Maryland. 
Bankers and Sluyter came over the usual route from New York 
and arrived at the river on Saturday, November 18, 1679. They 
took a boat from the opposite side and went down to Burlington, 
where they arrived on Sunday. They*were careful to note that 
it was then and there that they first tasted peach brandy, an 
event which appears to have made a marked impression on them. 
It may be a mere coincidence, but the journal shows that they 
did not succeed in getting away from the place until the follow- 
ing Tuesday. They then went down the river to New Castle, and 
thence proceeded to Maryland. When they returned to New 
Castle on December 15th they had considerable difficulty in se- 
curing a boat for the return trip up the river. They succeeded 
in getting one at last and reached the island near Burlington 
December 28th. On the 29th they crossed to the west bank 
and followed a path along it for some miles. They recrossed at 
Bordentown and followed a path and a cart road on the east 
shore until they reached the new grist mill then recently built 
by Mahlon Stacy. From that point they retraced their way to 
New York. They mention houses at intervals constructed in a 
very primitive style, but for the most part the region was 
without inhabitanrs. 

In June, 1681, Lieutenant Governor Markham reached New 
York and later he arrived at the Delaware settlements, bearing 
with his credentials from William Penn, a letter from Deputy 
Governor Brockholls, at New York, io the settlers here, announc- 
ing the grant of Pennsylvania. On August 3, 1681, he organiz- 
ed a council at Upland, which was the beginning of the gov- 
ernment of the colony of Pennsylvania. When Penn arrived in 
September of the following year, he found English settlers al- 
ready here. They had acquired their lands from Sir Edmond 
Andros, as the representative of the Duke of York in 1679 and 
1680. Among them were John Acreman, who, with his son, own- 
ed 309 acres; Richard Ridgway, who owned 218 acres; William 
Biles, 309 acres ; Robert Lucas, 145 acres ; Gilbert Wheeler, 205 
acres ; and John Wood, 478 acres, all of which lands bordered on 
the river. John Wood's tract included at least a part of the 
present site of Morrisville. According to Holmes' map made in 


1681-84 it adjoined John Lufte on the north, Jeffrey Haukis and 
Ann Millcomb on the west and David Brindsly on the south, 
with a front on the river, including the ferry. John Wood was 
a farmer from Axerchf, county of York, England, who, with 
his five children, settled upon the river in 1678. General Davis 
states that he was at that time the only known English settler in 
this county. In 1703 a patent for six hundred and sixty-four 
and a half acres was issued to Joseph Wood, who is supposed to 
have been his son. This grant probably included that to the 
father and confirmed the son's title to it. The property remained 
in the family until 1764, when seventy acres therefrom were sold 
to Adam Hoops. In 1772-73 a mill was built upon this part of 
the property. In 1772 Patrick Colvin became the owner of part 
of the tract, including the ferry, and it continued in his possession 
until* 1792. During Colvin's ownership of the tract, which in- 
cluded two hundred and sixty-four acres, this place was some- 
times called Colvin's ferry, but it was also quite as well known 
as the Falls. There is no evidence that there was as much as a 
cluster of houses here at the time. The ferry landing was at the 
end of Green street, or the old post road, the eastern part of 
which has recently been vacated, at the point where the stone arch 
bridge of the Pennsylvania Railroad rests upon the Pennsylvania 
shore. Mention has already been made of the order of Governor 
Andros made in 1675 in relation to the keeping of a boat at this 
point and the regulation of the tolls charged. In 17 18 an act of As- 
sembly was passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature establishing 
a ferry at that point. In 1782 another ferry was established 
about half a mile above the falls by John Burrows and George 
Beatty. This was called the Trenton and Beatty's ferry. The 
promoters inserted a notice in the Trenton "Gazette," of August 
14, 1782, soliciting patronage, as follows : 

"The subscribers, having at length obtained a road laid out by authority 
from Bristol road to the new Trenton ferry the shortest way, a pleasant, 
sandy, dry road at all seasons of the year, inform the public that they 
have good boats. Whoever please to favor them with their custom, 
please turn to the left at the cross roads, near Patrick Colvin's ferry, to 
Colonel Bird's mill sixty rods above Colvin's ferry, thence near half a 
mile up the river to the ferry above the falls, and almost opposite Trenton^ 
where constant attendance is given by their humble servants. 



An interesting episode in the history of the river at this place 
is the crossing of the Continental army in December, 1776, after 
its disheartening retreat across New Jersey, it reached Trenton 
on December 3d. Washington, with his usual foresight, had 
assembled the Pennsylvania militia in this vicinity and had col- 
lected and withdrawn all the boats from the New Jersey to the 
Pennsylvania shore as far up the river as Coryell's ferry, now New 
Hope. The army began transferring the baggage and heavy stores 
at once, but the Commander-in-chief with the rear guard did not 
cross until Sunday morning, the 8th. Later in the forenoon the 
British appeared on the opposite shore, but the Americans had all 
the boats. Washington took up his headquarters about a mile from 
the river. He appears to have been here on the 9th, the 13th, 
the 20th and 24th* and at other points along the river farther 
inland on the intervening dates. The reason for his presence 
here the day before the attack at Trenton may be surmised. 
After the battle the Americans brought their prisoners into this 
countv, but did not cross here. It is generally accepted that they 
recrossed at McKonkey's ferry, where boats for the purpose were 
probably available. 

Morrisville will always be associated with the pathetic story 
of the misfortunes of Robert Morris. In 1789 he began the 
acquisition of real estate here. In that year he purchased from 
Samuel Ogden the Delaware mills, with a tract of 450 
acres and another tract of about 400 acres from John 
Nixon. In 1791 he purchased Summerseat with its tract 
of 271 acres. In 1792 he acquired the Colvin tract, with 
the ferry, containing on the Pennsylvania side 264^ acres. 
He afterwards purchased other lands, until in 1795 he was 
the owner of about 2,500 acres here. He undertook an operation 
which in those times was no doubt regarded a very extensive 
one. Here he had a grist-mill, a rolling-mill, a snuff-mill, a hat 
factory and numerous other establishments. He built a large 
mansion in the village and surrounded it with beautiful grounds. 
His "Stables were among the finest in America. His son, Robert 
Morris, Jr., who had charge of the operations at Morrisville, 
resided in the mansion several years. But Morris did not realize 
all his expectations and misfortune swept from him his fortune 
and consigned him to a debtor's prison in his old age. His- 


property here was sold by the sheriff on June 9, 1798, to George 

Clymer and Thomas Fitzsimmons, for $41,000. Clymer at this 

■itifne held a mortgage from Morris for £27,405, covering the Mor- 

•risville properties above referred to, which had been executed in 

1795, and is on record at Doylestown. Clymer was a signer of 

-'-the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Constitutional 

•''C^rivention of 1787 and a member of the first Congress. He 

engaged in business here with Fitzsimmons after the sale, and in 

1799 they erected a new grist-mill in the village. Clymer resided 

here until his death January 23, 1813. He was buried in the 

Friends' burying-ground at Trenton. 

Morrisville was known by that name in 1795, which appears 
by the mortgage given to Clymer above referred to. It had 
become a village and in 1804 was ambitious to secure corporate 
•existence. Accordingly, there was introduced in the Legislature 
of that year a bill creating it a borough. Simon Snyder, after- 
ward governor of the Commonwealth, was then speaker of the 
House of Representatives and Robert Whitehill was speaker of 
the Senate. Thomas McKean occupied the gubernatorial chair. 
The bill was duly passed and became a law, with the approval of 
the Governor, on March 29, 1804. It is entitled "An Act to 
erect the town of Morrisville into a borough." Its first section 
provided "that the town of Morrisville and its vicinity in the 
county of Bucks, shall be, and the same is hereby erected into 
a borough, which shall be called the borough of Morrisville, 
bounded and limited as follows, that is to say : 

"Beginning at the upper comer of the township of Falls, at the river 
Delaware, thence along the line of the township of Lower Makefield, 
south fifty degrees, west one hundred and twenty perches to the Newtown 
road ; thence cutting off a corner of William Jenk's land, so as to take 
the back line of Lewis Le Guen's and Henry Clymer's lands ; south twenty- 
seven and a half degrcs, east two hundred perches to Clymer's corner; 
thence thro' his and Mahlon Milnor's land, and cutting off a small corner 
of Mahlon Longstreth's land, south thirty-two degrees east two hundred 
and seventy perches, into other land of said Le Guen. to a corner at 
twenty perches distance from the line of John Carlisle's land ; thence at 
that distance parallel therewith (where a street is to be opened) north 
sixty degrees east one hundred and twenty perches to the creek ; 
thence up the said creek to its junction with the river ; thence up the 
river, taking in the island, to the place of beginning. 


The elections for borough officers were to be held on the 
third Monday of April of every year at the school-house and be 
conducted by two judges, one inspector and two clerks. The 
electors must have been entitled to vote for members of the 
Legislature and have resided in the borough for twelve months 
previous to the election. One reputable person was to be chosen 
burgess, five reputable persons "to be a town council" and one 
reputable person a high constable. To refuse to serve as burgess 
was to incur a penalty of a fine of twenty dollars. The constable 
of Falls was authorized to act as constable at the first election. 
Under the provisions of the last section of the act, any person 
who thought himself aggrieved by anything done in pursuance 
of the act of incorporation was given the privilege of appealing 
to the next Court of Quarter Sessions, upon giving security to 
prosecute his appeal with efifect. It does not appear from the 
record that anybody did appeal, however much opposition to the 
proceeding or dissatisfaction with it there may have been. 

The first election for borough officers was held in the old 
school-house, which is still standing, near the Smith street canal 
bridge, on April 16, 1804. The following officers were elected: 
Council, Samuel Eastburn, Jonathan Good, Henry Clymer, Ed- 
ward Nutt and William Kirkpatrick; town clerk and treasurer, 
Abraham Warner ; high constable, Thomas Powers. Council 
organized on June 4, 1804, by electing Samuel Eastburn president. 

At the first census following incorporation, in 18 10, the popula- 
tion was found to be 266. In 1850 it was 565. In 1900 it had 
grown to 1,371. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to note the changes which 
100 years have wrought. While Morrisville has not grown to 
be a city, in some measure the dream of Robert Morris has been 
realized. A great stone structure, a monument to modern en- 
gineering skill, spans the river where once the old ferry plied 
from shore to shore, and over it rush the swift trains of a great 
railroad system. Within its corporate limits are established great 
industries and through its streets glide the electric cars. On 
every hand are the evidences of prosperity and progress. But 
while her citizens take a just pride in these things, they should 
not forget that better than material wealth is a conscientious and 
enlightened citizenship. 

"Sharon" and the Indian Legend Connected Therewith. 


(Meeting at "Sharon" near Newtown, October 4, 1904.) 

In 18 1 3 James Worth, a Philadelphia hardware merchant, pur- 
'chased the property which he subsequently named "Sharon" at 
public sale, from the estate of Dr. James Tate, who had owned 
it since February 17, 1782, when it was conveyed to him as 
part of the estate of* his father, Anthony Teate, who had pur- 
chased this particular tract in 1756. 

It had for nearly half a century previous to this been the prop- 
erty of the Nelson family, and comprised originally 450 acres. 
It was devised in 1744 to his son, Thomas, and soon after, through 
various conveyances, practically the whole tract, as well as sever- 
al other tracts, became the property of Anthony Tate, who 
owned at the time of his death nearly 600 acres of land in and 
around Newtown, which descended to his son, Dr. James Teate, 
and to his five daughters. 

Dr. James Tate was an officer in the Continental army during 
the Revolutionary War. and was a physician of more than ordi- 
nary ability. 

Tradition has it that when the farm was "knocked down" by 
the auctioneer, Mr. Worth took out of his pocket a goose-quill 
and out of it drew one bill sufficient to pay for the farm, 
$20,000; but John Wildman, formerly of Langhorne, tells the 
story somewhat differently, he says that his father was one of 
three men asked to come to Newtown to see Mr. Worth count 
out the twenty-thousand dollars : instead of which he took from 
his pocket a goose-quill with which he signed a check for the 
whole amount, an unusual sight in those days. 

Soon after the purchase Mr. Worth moved from Philadelphia 
to his farm and lived there until his death in 1844. From that 
time his widow, Margaret Worth, was in possession of the prop- 
erty until her death,, when it came into the hands of her daughter, 
Mrs. Millimetta C. Thornton. 

On February 13, 1892, the trustees of the John M. George 


bequest purchased of Mrs. Thornton 227 acres of the "Sharon" 
property for $38,000 for a site upon which to locate a school. 
The main building was erected on this site in 1893, and other 
buildings necessary for the growth of the institution have since 
been added. 

Mrs. Thornton retained 60 acres including the mansion, barn 
and tenant house. After the sale was completed she presented 
to George School an avenue 100 feet wide leading from the 
road to the farm house — this is now known as Sharon avenue. 

The mansion, a fine old colonial structure, was built by Dr. 
Tate in 1804, the glass for it being brought from England. The 
original building consisted of a large open hall with rooms on 
either eide, the kitchen being in the basement under the back 
parlor where remains of an open fire-place may still be seen. 
The back buildings were added by Mr. Worth in 1814 since 
which time no material changes have been made. The third 
story was originally a weird structure. Dark closets extended 
under the eaves with doors leading into other closets, and con- 
cealed doors entered the loft that extends over the back part of 
the house, a favorite place for bats and flying-squirrels and 
uncanny sounds. 

The barn and tenant house were also built by Mr. Worth. Dr. 
Tate had fine imported horses, but they were kept in sheds, 
and the grain was stored in the house. 

The lawn as laid out and planted by Mr. Worth was quite 
different from what it is at present. The bank in front of the 
property was walled, with a spruce hedge on top. Two gate- 
ways one on either side of the lawn with square wooden posts 
surmounted by large urn-shaped knobs, were connected by a 
semi-circular drive leading to the front porch ; and in a straight 
line from the front door to a small gate at the road was a 
foot path with box-bush on either side, the same that is now 
in front of the lawn. At that time the lawn was a perfect jungle 
of rare trees and shrubs, many of which were destroyed by a 
cyclone about forty years ago ; and although there are still 
a number of splendid specimens, those familiar with the place 
mourn for the grand old magnolia grandiflora, and franklain, 
the frinare trees, laurels and Scotch broom. 


In the early part of the past century Mr. Ridgley, a son-in- 
law of Mr. Worth became much interested in silk-worm culture. 
Mulberry trees were planted and a culture-house was erected 
in the meadow between Newtown creek and the Neshaminy, on 
the Campbell Bridge road. The enterprise was fruitless, but 
many still remember the low shackling building long known as 
the "cocoonery."'* 

For a period of 15 years, from 1870 to 1885, the mansion was 
unoccupied, and during that time it was the proverbial "haunted 
house" of the neighborhood, and not without reason too; for 
the story goes that at one time Dr. Tate dissected the body of a 
Hessian soldier, and buried his remains in the cellar, and that 
for years afterwards in the dead of night his restless spirit 
might be heard tramping up the stairs and along the halls, and 
it is a well authenticated fact that if you walk on the spot 
where he is buried with a lighted candle the flame will immedi- 
ately be extinguished. 

About 1880 the woods and meadows along Newtown creek 
were leased to a party in Newtown, and for four years, "Sharon 
Park" flourished. 

In 1 89 1, the Thornton family returned a second time, repaired 
the house, and lived there until Mr. Thornton's death in 1901. 

In the spring of 1902, Mrs. Thornton sold the property to 
Miss Elizabeth Roberts, afterwards Mrs. J. Herman Barnsley, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Barnsley resided there for about nine months, 
when it was again sold to Mr. John J. Tierney, of West Virginia, 
by whom the Historical Society is being so beautifully enter- 
tained to-day. 

It would hardly seem proper to give an account of Sharon and 
leave out the Indian legend which is so closely associated with 
the open space in the woods near the George School farm-house, 
long known as the "Indian Field." 


Here dwelt in years long ago the Indian chieftain, Mahpeah, 
the Sky, with his beautiful daughter, Ottawanda, the Deer-footed, 
so named from her fleetness of foot as she bounded over 
mountain and dale, running stream or from rock to rock along 

* See paper on "Silk Culture in Bucks County" by John A. Anderson in this volume. 


the banks of the Neshaminy, on the borders of which her tribe 
pitched their wigwams. The residence of the chief was mounted 
upon this open knoll, where the beautiful springs of clear water 
near by and the woods surrounding his tepee afforded drink 
and shelter for his family. Here he hunted and fished, while the 
lovely Ottawanda cooked his venison and made moccasins with 
her own fair hands. Many braves had sought her favor and 
wished to take her to their own wigwams, farther up the banks 
of the stream, where most of the tribe dwelt ; but Ottawanda was 
glad to remain with the old chief. The most ardent of her 
lovers were Ojewaba, (the Fox,) and Katinda, (the White 
Cloud,) and their canoes were often stranded upon the bank 
below the blufif where the beautiful Ottawanda lived. 

One day the old chief called his daughter to him and said : 
"Ottawanda, thy father is growing old and will soon pass beyond 
the clouds to the eternal hunting-grounds. Who will hunt the 
deer for thee when I am gone? The Cloud and the Fox 
would both take care of thee — which wilt thou follow?" Now, 
Ottawanda loved neither the White Cloud nor the Fox, but a 
white hunter from the north, who had smoked the pipe-of-peace 
with Mahpeah, and who came down the Neshaminy from above 
the forks to see his daughter. "Father," said Ottawanda, "when 
the maize is gathered and the full moon rises above, I will 
run like the deer to the Rock of the Sun, and he who overtakes 
and passes me, him will I follow to his wigwam." Many were 
the young braves who were ready to' strive for the prize. The 
white hunter came down from the north, but none knew but 
Ottawanda how swift of foot was the young stranger. 

The Rock of the Sun was a huge boulder that hung over the 
bank of the Neshaminy about two miles above the Indian field, 
and below it the water was deep and black. It jutted out from 
the bank and seemed to catch the first rays of the sun as he 
peeps above the opposite horizon, from which its name, "The 
Sun Rock," was given. 

Ottawanda was to start from the mouth of the Newtown creek 
where it empties its waters into the Neshaminy, and she well 
knew who could outrun her Indian wooers. The first bend in 
the stream had scarcely been reached before the white hunter 


had passed his fleet-footed companions, but as Ottawanda turned 
to slacken her speed the white lover, followed by the Fox, fell 
to the earth pierced by an arrow from behind. There was no 
wavering- from Ottawanda ; on she sped, pursued by the Indian, 
who seemed to fly through the air, and almost to gain her as 
she reached the rock. Swiftly she glided upon it. Her light 
figure, like a zephyr swaying upon the ragged point in the 
moonlight, was sharply defined against the dark background. As 
she poised upon her nimble feet she looked to the south, where 
the Indian field with her father's wigwam lay, then waved her 
hand in farewell and leaped far out into the deep black pool 

And now they say that when the moon is at its full, her 
spirit rises from the water and she paddles her canoe down the 
Neshaminy until she reaches a point just opposite the Indian 
field, when she moors her phantom bark and wanders silently 
for an hour in the little enclosure encircled by trees. 

Of late years a few straggling bushes have encroached upon 
the spot, but it has never taken kindly to cultivation. The for- 
mer owners of Sharon introduced it to the plow and planting of 
barley and buckwheat, while the present authorities made every 
efifort to enrich it with rare botanical specimens, but like its 
first proprietor, the Indian, it refuses to be civilized or to re- 
spond to the touch of the white man. But here in constant 
succession may be found the most beautiful wild flowers, from 
the modest little "quaker-lady" and the deepest blue violets of 
the early spring to the asters and golden-rods of the late au- 

Now when the spirit of the fair Indian girl turns her phan- 
tom vision northward and beholds the electric lights of George 
School illuminating the woodlands of her tribe, is it not possible 
that she longs to enter its portals of learning and with a sad- 
dened gaze silently steals away to her home beneath the rocks, 
at Schofield's ford. 

An Old Mowing Machine. 

^Meetingat "Sharon" near Newtown, October 4, 1904.) 

Eighty years ago, around and on the field between the Sharon 
homestead and where is now the toll-gate, were scenes and sounds 
causing excitement in those dull days, when there was not a 
railroad in the land, and not even a stage-coach rolled down the 
Bristol road, where now a trolley-car makes hourly glides and a 
railroad bisects the same old farm over which the locomotive rocks 
and roars. At the time mentioned, neighbors were gathered for 
miles around. Their saddle-horses were hitched to fence-posts 
and around the barn, while gigs and white-covered springless 
wagons were in evidence as bearers of the curious and doubting 
to see the attempt to run the first mowing machine ever tried in 
Bucks county. 

It was before the era of inventions, and it requires but little 
imagination to picture the excitement brought out in the human 
line-up along the fence as well as among the more venturesome 
who followed the new-fangled thing which, like a cross between an 
old-time war-chariot and a saw-mill with a circular saw went 
charging at the lines of plumed timothy stalks, or halting when 
a cog slipped or a knife broke off on striking a stone left unpicked 
by the farm boys the previous April. We can picture the trials of 
Inventor Bailey, who must have been on the grounds, as well as 
the agents for the sale of the machine, when the grand conglom- 
eration of wooden cog-wheels, revolving saw, rude levers and 
second-hand wagon wheels took a stunt of working well and 
eliciting applause from well-wishers among the audience. The 
late John Buckman, the last survivor among those who saw the 
trial, and the only one from whom I could get any personal infor- 
mation about the affair, was a boy at the time, and accompanied 
his father to see the show, but was not of an age to give particu- 
lars, except to notice that the two horses drawing the machine 
were driven tandem to hug the standing grass and thereby ease 
the side-draft, and that the main trouble about the working was 


when the "shoe," which was used to keep the cutting arrange- 
ment from the ground, got in surface depressions and stopped 
the machine. The agent on hand was probably Edmund Kinsey, 
of Aloreland, he being the nearest, as there was no Bucks county 
agent, but he made no neighborhood sales, so the farmers here- 
about swung their scythes for almost a generation longer, for it 
was not until the early 50's that mowing machines got in use 
among them. 

Before that time groups of slowly-moving lines of stooping 
■men might have been seen in seasons of ripened grass laying low 
the fields of timothy and clover. No ten-hour-days were those, 
but turning the grindstone and bearing on the ringing scythe from 
dawn till breakfast : mowing till ten o'clock ; shaking up hay 
and raking around windrows till noon ; hauling-in until supper 
time ; and after supper mowing till set of sun, was the rule. 
There was a sentiment clinging around those old-time days of 
hay and harvest which the clatter of mowing and reaping machines 
lias driven away, never to return, and when I think of those 
scenes and sounds ; the early start in the dewy grass ; the falling 
into swath of the lithe lines of clover and timothy over the 
reiterated swishes of the curved blades in the zigzag rows of the 
stooped mowers; the "wetting the banter" by a peculiar clip 
of the rifle or whetstone, wherein a hidden challenge was given 
to the rest; the mortification of the luckless wight who was 
"mowed 'round" at the risk of amputation of one or more legs; 
the luncheon brought out in mid forenoon, a meal of pie, "Dutch 
cheese" and ginger cake, washed down by a nectar composed of 
ginger, nutmeg and water, the whole, except to such unscientific 
lunchers, a begetter of dyspepsia ; the raking 'round : the hauUng 
in of the sun-baked hay ; the pitching off ; the group of tired and 
sweat-stained men around the supper table ; and as all these come 
up before me, pleasant reminiscences come therewith, despite 
stubble-pricked feet and other ills which farm boys were heir to 
in those far-away times. 

But I must stop these comparisons and come down to my sub- 
ject — the "Old Mowing Machine," one of which had its short- 
lived day in the field below old "Sharon." This was so unique 
in construction, the trial was so far back, the hiatus so prolonged 
tmtil such machinery became a success, and the locality appropri- 


ate, that I need no apology for making the "Bailey Mowing 
Machine" the under subject of my heading. 

But there were older machines than the Bailey, as there were 
poets before Homer, even if its origin goes back to the year 1822. 
Pliney saw one in A. D. 60. This was a reaper. It was a low, 
cart-like affair, pushed by an ox, in front of which was a comb, 
which raked off the heads of grain and dropped them in a box. 
In the year 1786 a man named Pitt improved on this by arranging 
a revolving toothed cylinder in place of the comb, which drew 
the grain heads into the cart body. The next we hear of is 
Jeremiah Bailey's, which was invented one year before the cutter- 
bar machine of Henry Ogle, of Alnwick, England. Hussey's was 
built in 1833, and McCormick's in 1834, but it was twenty years 
before that style of machine was much used.* 

As of local historical interest I must make mention of a machine 
for mowing, built by William and Charles Crook, at New Hope, 
in 1852, and modeled after the Pitt and Pliney machines, inasmuch 
as it was a "cart-before-the-horse" affair. The team of two or 
more horses pushed the cutter-bar, the end of the rear-pointing 
tongue being supported by a steering-wheel, over which the driver 
rode and guided the cumbersome affair, which necessarily required 
much room for turning, and required some knowledge of naviga- 
tion by the man at the wheel. Avoidance of side draft 
developed the invention of this mower, which from its weight and 
difficulty of handling, became unpopular, and soon went out of 
use, as lighter machines were introduced. The cost was $140, 
and the cutter-bar was of wood. 

While the Bailey machine is definitely described hereafter, the 
general construction takes us back to old times when all machine- 
ry was, as far as possible, built of wood. Keying iron wheels on 
round shafting had not then come in vogue. A square was forged 
on a round shaft, when a round one was not used, and the wheel 
wedged thereon with thin iron wedges, much of which work wavS 
within the province of the village blacksmith. One of the cog- 
wheels was known as a "wallower," and was a bird-cage looking 

* From information furnished by Cyrus H. McCormick, president of the International 
Harvester Co. of America, I learn that the McCormick machine was first manufactured 
in 1831, and was in operation that year, also in 1S32 and 1S33, although it was not patented 
until 1834. By 1847, 13 years after the patent, it was extensively used in the West, nearly 
1,000 machines having been built in 1847. Bailey's patent was taken out in 1822, but was 
never restored after the fire in the patent-office in 1836. B. F. F., Jr. 


affair, the long cogs coming handy when the knife disc was 
raised or lowered, and was hung on a squared iron shaft and 
bound with iron bands. The machine was evidently made by a 
millwright, but one of the wheels was evidently obtained by de- 
stroying the symmetry of a farm wagon. The machine could have 
been built without the aid of a machine shop. 

Though people were evidently not wanting then to give testi- 
monials for what was probably useless, as even in these later days, 
the Bailey machine was necessarily in use but a short time. The 
field must -be level as a lawn, for whenever the step of the cutter 
shaft got into a rut the knives would strike dirt and choke down 
until the man at the lever bore down and relieved the trouble. 
The absence of a cutter-bar finger required sharp knives and gave 
them free play at stones and other obstructions. 

The following extract is from the American Farmer, published 
in Baltimore in 1828. The "beg leaves" and "respectfully in- 
forms" were more prevalent then than now ; but the ability to 
sign anything in the shape of a testimonial was the same as in 
these later days. The strange part of the thing is that a machine 
which worked such wonders — that swathed like a cradle, and 
which was in satisfactory use for three years, should have gone 
out of use, and the back-breaking scythe retained in use for 
another generation. 

The following is an extract from Bailey's advertisement : 

"Jeremiah Bailey begs leave to state to farmers his belief that the 
machine which he has invented and devoted many years of his life to the 
improvement of, is now as worthy of their attention as any other im- 
plement of husbandry, as being the cheapest and most expeditious mode 
of cutting grain and grasses. A comparative estimate has been made of 
its performance with that of manual labor. When the grass is heavy 
and much lodged it is believed this machine will be equal to the labor of 
twelve men. When the grass is lighter, to that of six men. The machine 
has been much simplified in its construction, and the diameter of the cut- 
ting wheel has been increased from five feet six inches to. seven feet, 
which gives it a decided advantage in the cutting of both grass and grain, 
as its performance is in proportion to the diameter and the distance it 
progresses in a given time. Farmers are respectively invited to view the 
machine at Daniel Buckley's. Esq., Pequea township, Lancaster county, 
Pa. ; Edward Duffield's and Samuel Newbold's, Moreland township, Phila- 
delphia county, who have had the machine in use for three years, and 
where information can be obtained ; also at Clayton Newbold's and John 


Black's. Upper Springfield township, Burlington county. N. J. Orders di- 
rected to Edmund Kinsej', Moreland township. Philadelphia county; Clay- 
ton Newbold, Upper Sringfield township, Burlington county, N. J., or to 
the inventor, on Market street, near Schuylkill Sixth street, will be prompt- 
ly attended to. The following certificates from respectable and practical 
farmers will show their opinions of the utility of this machine: 

We, the subscriber6, having this day witnessed with much satisfaction 
the operation of the mowing machine invented and operated by Jeremiah 
Bailey, of Chester county, on a timothy field of Edward Duflfield, Esq., 
do hereby certify that the cutting was clear and uniform and the swath 
handsomely laid over with great expedition, we doubt not, at the rate of 
six acres a day. We consider it as one of the greatest labor-saving ma- 
chines for agricultural use hitherto invented, and have no doubt that its 
power can equally as well be applied to the cutting of grain crops of any 
kind that could be cradled. 

Philadelphia County, July, 1825. LAWRENCE LEWIS." 

"We, the subscribers, have no hesitation to state to farmers and the 
public generally that we have had the mowing machine invented by Jere- 
miah Bailey in use for three years for mowing our grass crops. He has 
this year had it adapted to^ cutting and laying in regular swaths both wheat 
and oats, which adds very much to the value of the machine, and from 
our experience we recommend it to the attention of farmers as a valuable 
labor-saving machine where the land is regularly prepared for its use. 

Moreland Township, Philadelphia, September 13th, 1825. 

"We, the undersigned inhabitants of Byberry and Aloreland, in Philadel- 
phia county, having seen the operations of Jeremiah Bailey's mowing ma- 
chine in this neighborhood, do certify in our opinion that it fully answers 
the purpose intended, both for grass and grain — the former, though lodged 
and bent down by both wind and rain, it cuts without difficulty, and 
nearly as fast as when it stands upright, and the latter, from an ex- 
periment made on wheat, we have not only seen cut clean but laid in 
swaths so straight and even that it might be raked and bound as readily 
as if cut by the best cradle and sickle. We recommend it to the atten- 
tion of farmers as a valuable improvement. 

Eighth mo., 19th. 1825. JAMES WALTON." 


"We, the subscribers, having seen the above-mentioned machine in opera- 
tion in cutting grass, do fully concur in the above statement. From the 
accounts we have had of its operations in cutting grain have no doubts 
of its answering a very good purpose. 


Eighth month, 19th. 1825." JAMES TOWNSEND." 

The best of modern mowers and reapers could not have much 
better recommendations than these. 

Gilbert Cope, of West Chester, Pa., thus describes the con- 
struction and operations of the Bailey mowing machine : 

"A rectangular frame five feet five inches long by nine feet ten inches, 
of white oak stuff, two and one-fourth by six inches, well mortised at 
the corners, divided lengthways by another piece of the same stuff, is 
supported by two stout wagon wheels about four feet two in diameter. 
The wheel on the off side is on an ordinary wooden axle, and stands out- 
side the frame. The other, or driving wheel, is inside the frame on an 
iron shaft, which revolves on bearings at each end about thirteen and 
one-half inches further forward than the off-wheel, and has spuds on the 
tire to prevent slipping, while outside the heavy felloe is bolted a circle 
of cogs three inches inside the circumference. These cogs gear into a 
cogwheel eighteen inches in diameter, on a horizontal shaft four feet in 
length, at the other end of which is a crown wheel, two feet one in 
diameter, gearing into a wooden trundle or wallower above the frame, 
fifteen inches in l-^nrrtVi and the same in diameter, hooped with iron at the 
Tieads and fast on a vertical shaft, at the bottom oi which is the cut- 
ting-wheel. This may be likened to a broad-rimmed, low-crowned hat; 
the crown three feet five and one-half inches in diameter and about 
■nine inches high ; the brim of sheet iron with a light facing of wood at 
the edge and ten and one-half inches wide exclusive of the knives, which 
increases the diameter of the whole to five feet and a half. These 
Icnives are segments of a circle, and being fastened to the edge of the 
wheel by screws can be removed for sharpening. When in operation the 
wheel rests on a narrow shoe, which keeps it at a proper distance from 
the ground, and which, extending backwards, is bolted to a wooden 
brace sloping from the rear of the frame. To elevate the wheel when 
•not in use, a long wooden lever is attached by a twisted iron strap socket 
to the top of the shaft and extends back to a slotted post on the rear of 
the frame. The horizontal post passes through a post in the side of the 
frame near the driving wheel. This post fits loosely in a mortise, and 
by the use of a wedge in front or back of it the machine is thrown in 
or out of gear as desired. When in operation the horses walk close to 
the edge of the standing grass, and the off-wheel followed a little inside 
of the track covered by the cutting wheel." * 

* Pennsylvania agricultural report for 1892 contains at pp. 79 and So, excellent half- 
tone illustrations of the Bailey mowing-machine. 

The Colonial Origin of Some Bucks County Families. 

(Meeting at "Sharon" near Newtown, October 4, 1904.) 

I take peculiar pleasure in meeting with you to-day, and in 
greeting, under such favorable and distinguished auspices, many 
of the friends and acquaintances of my boyhood. 

To me, in that dreamy and ambitionless past, personal names 
meant simply the marks of distinction between each of you as 
we met or played, or worked ; to-day, I understand them different- 


Those familiar surnames of long ago abound with a deeper sig- 
nificance in connection with the history of this vicinity than they 
did and have since absorbed my interest and much of my attention. 
I read your newspapers and follow your individual careers as if T 
lived among you still; and to a certain extent, although out of 
your sight and probably out of your mind, I have studied your 
progress as well as the history of your forbears. I am now here 
to lift, in part, the veil that enveloped the early movements of 
many of those ancestors in mystery, speculation and doubt. 

Charles Wagner, in his delightful little volume, entitled "The 
Simple Life," says : 

"The very base of family feeling is respect for the past ; for the best 
possessions of a family are its common memories. * * * We must 
learn again to value our domestic traditions. A precious care has pre- 
served certain monuments of the past. So antique dress, provincial dia- 
lects, old folk songs, have found appreciative hands to gather them up' 
before they should disappear from the earth. What a good deed to guard 
these crumbs of a great past — these vestiges of the souls of our ancestors. 
Let us do the same for our family traditions, save and guard as much 
as possible of the patriarchal — whatever its form." 

In a study of the racial elements introduced into Pennsylvania 
through the operation of William Penn's scheme — wise and phil- 
anthropic as it was — we learn how one of the highest attain- 
ments in provincial colonization was peacefully and successfully- 
achieved ; and how, by the rapid and extensive diffusion of those 
elements, all diversities of language, religion, classes and customs 


were assimilated to produce, in future years, that composite char- 
acter of unique and complex quality, called the American citizen. 

One needs but to look at the conquests — not of war, but of 
peace — within the past decade or two, to realize the world-strides 
our country has taken toward the foremost place on the map of 
the nations. Such a position is not the accomplishment of men 
newly come across seas out of the oppressed and overburdened 
East! But of men begotten of the trials and throes of a War 
for Independence, and the no less patriotic, but pioneer- 
spent lives of those who had to maintain what their fath- 
ers had won. By them these possessions were made to render 
out of the treasury of their resources rich tribute to its masters ; 
hence the pack-horse, the wagon-train and the swift development 
of vast areas, as we come down the generations. These were the 
men who inherited from sturdy, fearless sires, the breath of 
liberty: who reared at their firesides, as they pushed from ocean 
to ocean, and from the rock-ribbed North to the sunny Gulf, al- 
tars to God and freedom, and children, as well, to defend them; 
and in whose posterity burns to-day the same inalienable spirit 
of patriotism as ardent, unquenchable and enduring as the fabled 
fires of Prometheus. Of such qualities were many of the early 
settlers of Bucks county. 

Many years before Penn was born, the Dutch, one of the then 
world-powers, had carefully explored, taken possession of and 
peopled a vast province, extending from the Connecticut to the 
farther shores of the South (Delaware) river. This great colonial 
dominion was called New Netherland almost from the day, in 
1609, when Henry Hudson (an English navigator in the employ 
of the Dutch West India Company) ascended the mountainous 
confines of the North river in his attempt to discover the long- 
sought passage to the western sea, and continued (barring an 
intermittent period of English rule) until her power was finally 
overthrown in the days of the erratic Governor, Jacob Leisler, in 
1689, the dawn of the Briton's supremacy, which ran nearly the 
length of a century, or until the rise of the Republic. 

In all these years of Dutch influence there cam.e steadily from 
the provinces and cities of Holland a stream of enterprising 
traders and burghers — men of thrift, respectability and progress, 
who found along the bays and waterways of New Amsterdam 


snug harbors and havens so like those they left beyond the sea. 
They overflowed to the western end of Long Island, and mingled 
with the vanguard of New England whalemen whom they found 
cruising down from the bleak North ; then the tide flowed toward 
the Jersey shores, where Communipaw, Bergen, and other nearby 
points mark their landing. Wherever they set foot ashore, little 
towns were established, erecting their homes, their wind and 
water-mills, until such communities as New Utrecht, Flatbush, 
Gowanus, Gravesend, Brooklyn and other places interlaced each 
other. Here the peltry hunters and the rivermen, prospering in 
their trade in the marts of Manhattan came to abide in shady 
bouwerij which stretched from the ferry to the Sound shores 
eastward, and northward beside the stately Hudson ; down the 
Staten and Coney's islands and across the Kill-von-Kull and into 
the Scotch English settlements on Newark bay beyond. 

Pushing aside mere village limitations, the forward movement 
advanced to far-distant points. Grants of lands of princely size 
were made far up the river, back into the forest, and to the ver>' 
rim of the Great Lakes. With these came the introduction of 
patroonships and the translation of a feudalism, patterned from 
the baronies of the Rhine. Perhaps the most notable of these 
lordly Dutch domains was that of Renssalearwyk, on a portion of 
which stands, to-day, the present city of Albany, called by the 
Dutch New Orange. 

Throughout the whole dominion the Dutch spirit of barter 
soon permeated, drawing largess from the tribes inhabiting its 
uttermost parts, and it even knew no bounds. Here was laid 
the foundation of that commercialism which has long since made 
New York dominant in the Western world, and ensnared and en- 
slaved the hearts and souls of her people. 

In the second decade of the latter half of the seventeenth 
century, a settlement was formed, by some French Huguenot 
emigrants and Hollanders who had found their way up the Hud- 
son from Manhattan and its neighboring villages — at a point in 
the Catskill lowlands, eighty odd miles above the bay. In a 
little fertile valley, watered by the Wallkill and Esopus, with an 
area of perhaps 3,000 acres, running toward the interior; these 
people founded five small settlements, known as Esopus, Hurley, 


Marbletown. Kingston and New Paltz, but collectively called the 
New Paltz region. 

Within a short time, as a result of peaceable communal inter- 
course, the Dutch and the French refugees fraternized ; forgot 
their political jealousies, social and religious differences, and 
entered into harmonious relations with each other ; and 
this condition was still further advanced and strength- 
ened through intermarriage and its resultant kinship, so that 
before the first native generation had reached maturity the Dutch 
tongue had been adopted for use in official and ecclesiastical 
affairs, while the French served for social and domestic inter- 

There was one church — the Dutch Reformed, at Kingston — 
where all might worship. Here was kept, with a fidelity rare for 
the times, and by different pastors, the records of births and mar- 
riages of three communities in common. 

These records have been carefully and systematically edited 
and published, and to-day form a valuable index of the mixed 
inhabitants of Ulster county, N. Y., from 1663, to a comparatively 
recent time. In looking over this register I have found a col- 
lection of names which I take to be of unusual and singular 
interest to some of their descendants in Bucks county. Our local 
histories and genealogies have, in the main, and in a generalizing 
sort of way, credited the colonial origin of some of your fore- 
fathers to New York, Albany, Bergen, and places other than the 
real point of migration, and I do not find our pleasant little New 
Paltz valley mentioned as one of these. While it is probable 
that at the end of their voyage from the fatherland, some of 
these ancestors may have landed and stopped for a time among 
friends living in New Amsterdam, or its adjacent towns, or 
whatever may have been their wanderings prior to the dates 
found on the Kingston register, it is nevertheless certain that 
the New Paltz region furnished some very desirable and re- 
spectable of her citizens toward the settlement of that section 
of Bucks county lying between the Poquessing and Neshaminy 
creeks, and running westerly from the Delaware to this vicinity, 
but more particularly to Southampton township. The Kingston 
records contain the names of several whom you will no doubt at 
once recognize. Among the Dutch inhabitants were : Wynkoop, 


Tenbroeck, Bogard, Sleght, (Slack), Van Buskirk, Newkirk, 
A'andergrift (Vandegrift). Among those of French nativity- 
were: DuBois, Hasbrouck, Lefevre, Ferree and LaMetre. 

Incidentally and curiously enough, too, I find that the two 
great political leaders in the present campaign (1904) Roosevelt 
and Parker — are parties to my subject, not only because they 
represent ideals in American citizenship, but also for these two 
facts, namely, the Republican candidate's Dutch ancestors, the 
Roosevelts, Bogarts and Van Schaicks, were contemporary resi- 
dents of Esopus with your own sires, and therein, it may be, he is 
related to you ! And the other fact is that the Democratic nominee 
at present is a resident of the same town. Thus the past, with 
its associations, is interwoven with the present and its actualities. 

About 171 1, local history tells us, there was a movement of 
many thousands of Germans from New York to Pennsylvania, 
partly because of bad treatment received in the former, and partly 
to take advantage of the liberal terms the Proprietary was offer- 
ing his Dutch kindred in this Province ; in this way a number of 
Hollanders came to settle about that time in the lower portion of 
Bucks county, principally on the Neshaminy and its branches. 
This is amply verified by the recently published church records of 
the Bensalem and Neshaminy congregation, covering a period 
from 1 7 10 to 1758. It appears that there was at this time an 
overland path to and from New York and the falls of the Dela- 
ware (Trenton) via the Raritans (New Brunswick.) This trail 
has been identified as the site of the present turnpike which 
■extends from Morrisville to Philadelphia; but in 1675 the trail, as 
it continued to the Swedish settlements on the lower Delaware, 
thence into Maryland, was called the "King's Path." It was 
probably the route by which the Dutch contingent reached Penn- 
sylvania, for Bensalem and Moreland manors were the first to 
receive from it the nucleus of their future population, and later, 
the more distant and outlying townships. 

Of the Dutch families coming here the Wynkoops may be 
reckoned the foremost in the way of prominence, and Peter is said 
to have been the first of the name to come to America from Hol- 
land, which was in 1640. He had settled at Albany by 1644. 
where he was commissioned by the Patroon to purchase land about 
the Catskills from the natives. It is in the Catskill region, at 


Kingston, that we tind the next generation of this family, and 
several of them were there in 1683 — Cornelius, Elizabeth, Chris- 
tina and others, who intermarried with the Newkirks, de la 
Meters, Tenbroecks, &c., but the progenitors of the Bucks county 
branch were Cornelius Wynkoop and his wife Marie Jansen; 
their son Gerritt married Helena, daughter of Gerritt and Jacom- 
yntje (Sleght) Fokker, the issue of whom consisted of nine 
children, born in the Paltz between the years 1694 and 1713. 

Gerritt Wynkoop sold his land at Esopus in 171 7 and removed 
to Moreland manor, Philadelphia county, where he was afterward 
know as Gerardus. He was an elder in the Abington Presby- 
terian church in 1728, and in 1734 was assessed for 200 acres, and 
his son Cornelius for 100 acres of land, in this township. The 
most of his children married in Moreland and from there dispersed 
to other parts. Gerardus finally removed to Northampton town- 
ship. As much has already been said of this family from about 
this time, I will confine my further reference to them, to those 
who have not heretofore been mentioned in the addresses before 
this society. 

Ann Wynkoop baptized August 21, 1698, married about 1717 
Isaac VanMeter, of Salem, N. J., and went there to live. The 
subsequent history of this couple would fill pages of very interest- 
ing reading, for a generation later they went pioneering into the 
wilderness of Virginia, where the family figured extensively in 
the annals of its western development. 

They, with their sons Henry and Garrett, and their daughter, 
Sarah Richman, were among the organizers of the Pilesgrove, N. 
J., Presbyterian church, in 1741. In 1744 Isaac ofifered his 
Salem lands and improvements (about 1,000 acres) for sale, and 
with his older sons departed for the south branch of the Potomac. 
He took up a part of the immense grant which he and his brother 
John VanMeter obtained in 1730, from Governor Gooch, of 
Virginia, consisting of 40,000 acres, but which they subsequently 
disposed of to Jost Heydt — "old Baron Heydt," as he was called. 
The land VanMeter now settled upon was in what is called "ye 
Trough," mention of which is made by George Washington in 
his "Journal of My Journey Over the Mountains." Isaac Van- 
Meter was killed by the Indians in 1757. His will, which is 
upon record at Trenton, disposes of his great possessions in 


detail among his widow and children — Henry, Garrett, Jacob, 
Sarah, Catharine, Helita and Rebecca. Henry and Garrett were 
the two sons who remained in Virginia, and Rebecca, who married 
one of Jost Heydt's sons. The two brothers became very famous as 
frontiersmen and traders, and during the progress of the Revolu- 
tion supplied vast quantities of forage to the Continental army. 
They, with their sons, served in the Indian border wars, and also 
in the Revolution; and it was to this family of hardy borderers 
that Governor Pennypacker recently paid marked tribute in con- 
necting them with Boone, Brady, Wetzel, Filson and other pioneers 
in the winning of the West. 

Henry Wynkoop, baptized October 19, 1707, also went to Salem, 
N. J., but he remained a bachelor for many years. He was a 
large landowner at Salem and was otherwise prominent. The 
following curious advertisement appeared in one of the Pennsyl- 
vania newspapers in 1737, referring to the disappearance of one 
of his help, and it is a marvel in the way of description : 

"Ran away on the 27th of March last, from Henry Wynkoop, of Salem, 
an Irish servt. man named John MacNeal, aged about 21 years of mid- 
dle stature ; he has a smooth Face and a Fresh Colour. He had on When 
he went away, a brown Coat and Jacket, both of them much mended, with 
Metal Buttons to the Jacket ; Buckskin Breeches, double seamed within 
the Thigh ; a new Tow Shirt ; Brown stockings ; good Shoes ; and a 
Castor Hat. Whoever takes him up and secures said Servant so that his 
master may have him again, shall have Forty Shillings Reward and all 
reasonable charges. 

Paid. By Henry Wynkoop." 

On 7th mo. I2th, of same year, 1737, Henry married Sarah 
DuBois, daughter of Isaac DuBois, of Perkiomen, Philadelphia 
county, Pa., and in 1741, his nephew, Henry VanMeter, son of 
his sister Ann, married Sarah]s sister, Rebecca DuBois — Henry 
thus becoming brother-in-law to his own nephew. 

The Dubois family into which the Wynkoops married, sprang 
from Louis deBoyes, one of the twelve patentees of New Paltz, 
in 1660. He, too, had a numerous family, who are frequentl)/' 
noted in the Kingston records. It was his daughter Sarah who 
married John VanMeter, brother of Isaac, who had married Ann 
Wynkoop. Isaac and John, jointly, with Sarah and Jacob DuBois, 
took up 6,000 acres of land at Salem, N. J., about 171 7. Barent 


DuBois, the son of this Jacob, married Jacomyntje, the daughter 
of Solomon DuBois. She was his double cousin. He, with his 
wife, his brothers, Louis and Garrett DuBois, and a son, Jacob 
DuBois, Jr., were all associated with the VanMeters in the organ- 
ization of the Pilesgrove church, under pastor David Evans. 

Among the eight children of Barent and Jemima DuBois, was 
the son Jonathan, who was born in 1727, and who married El- 
eanor, daughter of Nicholas Wynkoop, of Bucks county. Pa. Jon- 
athan was the pastor of the Dutch Reformed church, at Southamp- 
ton, from 1752 to 1772, and was the father of the Rev. Uriah Du- 
Bois, of the Doylestown Presbyterian church ; the grandfather of 
Chas. E. DuBoie, one of the parents of the late John L. DuBois, 
Esq., an esteemed lawyer of this county, and a distinguished and 
much lamented elder of this Presbytery. 

Thus were the Wynkoops, Van Meters and the DuBois families 
doubly and trebly related. 

The Slacks (Sleghts) too, were evidently among the earliest 
inhabitants of New Palz, as there are a number of intermarriages 
recorded there and several entries of the baptism of children. 
One of the earliest entries is that of Henry and Elsje Sleght, who 
were sponsors of Roelof, the child of Jan and Jacomyntje (Sleght) 
Elting, baptized 1681. Anthony Sleght and Neeltje Bogard, 
sponsors of Alida Elting, baptized 1724. Then we find Cornelis 
Sleght and his wife, Johanna Van de Water having their son Ben- 
jamin baptized at Maidenhead, West Jersey. June 15, 1712; and 
at the Neshaminy church Jenke, the son of Jacob Sleght and his 
wife, Elizabet VanHooren, baptized the 14th of April, 1735. 
Johannes Sleght was a sermon reader in the Neshaminy 
church in 1732. Anthony Sleght's name was perpetuated in the 
person of Anthony T. Slack, son of Capt. Slack, of Upper Make- 
field, who removed to Indiana in 1837. 

The foregoing are but a few from among the good old Dutch 
families in the Catskill valleys, whose sons and daughters came 
hither to make fair the virgin soil of Bucks. 

The Corsons, one of the best known families of lower Bucks, is 
also conspicuous for the high percentage of its professional mem- 
bers. They are now widely dispersed over the country, and 
wherever they have gone the prestige of an honored name has been 
cherished and maintained. 


The first of the name (and its variations are legion) found in 
the annals of Pennsylvania, was Arent Corrsen, one of the official 
household of the doughty and placid Gov. Wouter VanTwiller, 
of New Amsterdam. Corrsen came first to New Jersey as com- 
missary at Fort Nassua, on the South river. He was afterward 
commissioned to treat with the chiefs on the western side of the 
Schuylkill, in 1648 for the purchase of lands there, and to obtain 
trading privileges upon its waters. In these matters he was 
successful, but was less fortunate, a few years later, when Govern- 
or Keift undertook to send him on a mission to Holland. He 
embarked at New Haven and started upon his voyage, but 
neither the ship nor Arent Corrsen was ever heard of again. 

It has been customary in writing of the Corson family of Bucks 
and Montgomery counties, and those of South Jersey, to attribute 
their colonial origin to circumstances attending the casting away 
of a vessel bearing French Huguenot emigrants on their way to 
the Carolinas, on the sands of Staten Island, about 1685, and 
from among whose passengers are found the names of Coursen, 
Larzelere, Dubois, Cruzen and others, refugees fleeing from 
France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. This tra- 
dition is based mainly upon a statement found in the second 
volume of Weiss' History of the French Protestant Refugees. 

In the pursuit of data for tracing the origin of the South Jersey 
Corsons, I found it necessary to consult many genealogical au- 
thorities and examine many original documents, and from which, 
facts are developed to show that the Corsons were here much ear- 
lier than the period stated by Weiss, and perhaps, were not French 
Huguenots at all. 

The ancestors of the Bucks and Montgomery county Corsons 
are traced back to New Amsterdam, where the Widow Corson 
was living in 1657, with her three sons : Cornelius, born 1645 ; 
Peter, born 165 1; Henry, born 1654; and a daughter, Catharine. 
In 1657 the widow married Fred. Lubbertse. 

This Cornelius Corson was the forefather of our local Corsons. 
He married, March 11, 1666, Maritje, daughter of Jacob Vander- 
grift, of Wallabout (Brooklyn), and went to live near his father- 
in-law, and where he later became a citizen of more than ordinary 
station. On December 30, 1680, he obtained from Governor An- 
dros a patent for 400 acres of land on Mill creek, on the north 


shore of Staten Island, where he very soon after settled, and on 
the 28th of February, 1683-4, he purchased from the Lords Pro- 
prietors extensive tracts of river lands on both sides of the 
Raritan, in the Province of East Jersey, which he divided, 
on the same day, with his brother, Hendrix Corson and 
Pieter Van Ness — Henry 6 wife's brother; but Cornehus 
remained on Staten Island, where he was a justice of the 
peace for Richmond county and a captain of militia. He died 
in 1693, leaving his widow Maritje, and six children: Jacob, Cor- 
nelius, Jr., Christian, Cornelia, Daniel and either John or Ben- 
jamin ; historians do not agree which of these two names was 
the correct one for the younger son, but as Benjamin has been 
generally accepted I will not question it further. 

Benjamin married first Blafidina Vile, of Staten Island. Their 
children were : Jacob, Daniel, Cornelius and Benjamin, Jr., who 
was born in 1718, and came to Bucks county with his father about 
1726. The father was installed as an elder of the Neshaminy 
church on May 30, 1730. Benjamin married second Maritje, 
daughter of Ryk Hendrickse, of West Jersey, and her sister, 
Christina, married John Bennett, of Bucks county. Another sis- 
ter, Ida, married John Van Meter, of the Middlesex county 
family of that name. 

Benjamin Corson, Jr., married on the 2d of January, 1741-2. 
Marie Suydam, and they were the parents of the first generation 
of native born Bucks county Corsons. Here I will drop further 
consideration of this family, as their genealogy, from this time 
is no doubt known to you. 

Hendrix Corson, brother of Captain Cornelius, of Staten Island, 
was also formerly a resident of Wallabout, where he married 
Josina, the sister of Peter Van Ness, co-grantee of the Raritan 
lands. He afterward married Judith Rapilye, and removed to the 
Raritan, in the vicinity of Rahway, about 1690, where he died 
prior to 1698. Some of his children assumed the name of Vroom, 
according to Stiles' "History of Brooklyn," and Bergen's "Kings 
County Settlers," and one of these was the ancestor of Governor 
Vroom, of New Jersey. Rachel, a daughter of Hendrix Corson, 
retained the Corson name until it was changed by her marriage to 
Christopher VanSandt, after which she and her husband came, 
with the influx of Hollanders, to our locality, and in 1710-11, were 


received, by certificate, into the Neshaminy congregation, and 
where, for many years, Vansant was an elder. Hence the name of 
Vansant is common now in these parts. 

Peter Corson, the youngest brother of Henry and Captain Cor- 
neUus, married, about 1679, Catharine Van der Beck, a widow 
residing in Brooklyn. For a time they, too, were residents of 
Staten Island, but removed back to Brooklyn, where Peter was a 
judge of the Kings county courts. From Brooklyn they finally 
removed to New York, where they spent the remainder of their 

These brothers, with their mother, Tryntje, were members of 
the Dutch Reformed church at Flatbush, Long Island, until they 
dispersed to homes in other localities. 

Other Corsons, probably of the same stock, were living in the 
Brooklyn villages in these early times, one of whom was Jan 
Corson, whom I find first, at Albany, in 1653, as a patentee under 
Governor Stuyvesant, for land ; in the next decade he had re- 
turned to Flatbush, and from thence to Gravesend, where, it 
appears, Cornelius Corson, too, had been in his earUer days. Jan 
had large holdings at Gravesend between the years 1677 and 1695. 
He was the father of John and Peter Corson, who emigrated to 
the Cape May settlements prior to 1690, and they, in turn, were 
the ancestors of the present dynasty of Corsons in South Jersey. 
These people, like those of their kindred of Staten Island, were 
highly popular, and filled many important public positions. Both 
families were intensely patriotic, as may be seen from the 
following facts. In the expedition to Canada, in 1715, the Staten 
Island family sent twelve of their number as officers and privates, 
and the Cape May county branch had eleven of their kinsmen in 
Captain Willett's company Cape May County Brigade in the War 
of the Revolution. In religion the Staten Island Corsons were of 
the Dutch Reformed church, while those that went to South Jersey 
became Friends, and were members of the Egg Harbor Meeting. 

Elizabeth Corson, another resident of one of the Long Island 
towns, and contemporaneous with those previously mentioned, 
married Isaac Bennett, of Gowanus, rnd very soon joined in the 
pilgrimage to New Holland in Bucks county. The father of 
Isaac was Arience Bennett, an English settler of New Utrecht; 
from thence he joined the Dutch colony on the Raritan, became 


an elder in their congregation in 1710, but came to Bucks county 
in the following year. 

In passing, I may add that the first marriage recorded at 
Neshaminy church was that of Josua Corson and Catharine Brow- 
ers, on September 24, 1710, and their child, Josua, Jr., was bap- 
tized there August 5, 1711. 

As to the Cornells, of whom there are now very many living 
beyond the Neshaminy, they appear to have derived their descent 
from one Pieter Cornell, of Flatbush, Long Island. He 
had three sons : Cornelis, William and Peter, Jr. William seems 
to have been the first to reach New Holland, in Northampton 
township. I find his name first mentioned among the Long Island 
records, wherein it is stated that John and Peter Corson, then of 
Cape May, disposed of certain allotments, held jointly, on Gis- 
bert's Island (east end of Coney Island), in 1694, to Kornelise 
Willemse, as the Dutch form for William Cornell was rendered. 
By 1 7 10 Kornelise Willemse had drifted into the Dutch settlement 
at Six Mile run, on the Raritan. His wife's name was Geertje 
Guluck. He was identified with the Dutch Reformed congrega- 
tion, and there he had his son Samuel baptized on August 8, 17 10. 
From this locality I have been unable 1.0 fix the date of his removal 
to Bucks county. 

Herman Van Barkalow, who was a member of Neshaminy 
congregation, was a son of Herman and Willemtji Van Barkalow. 
He came from Constable's Hook (Bergen, N. J.,), in 1694. 

Dereck Hoogtland, another Northampton pioneer, came hither 
from New York. He was a mariner, and the son of Christopher 
and Catharine Hoogtland. Dereck first settled at Flatbush, and 
married, in 1662, Ann Bergen, a widow. After this time it 
appears he first went to Manhattan to live, and finally reached 
this part of the country before 1729. Elias Hogeland, a former 
sheriff of this county, was one of his descendants. 

I might continue the enumeration and the genealogical history 
of many more of your foreparents who journeyed from the wave- 
washed shores of New York to this beautiful pastoral country, 
but I must desist after a word or two more in reference to their 
influence in this locality. 

The Dutch Reformed church of Pennsylvania owes its inception 
to the pilgrims from the dyke-bound lands of the Zuyder Zee. 


Those who came here, after various wanderings and periods of 
unrest, formed the nucleus of the congregation of Neshaminy and 
Bensalem, which was organized on May 20, 1710, by the Rev. 
Paulus Van Vlecq, in the vicinity of Churchville. From these 
modest beginnings the denomination has extended its influence 
far and wide until other churches, like the Abington and the 
Bensalem Presbyterian churches, came to honor it as their parent. 

With the incoming of settlers of other nationalities, who soon 
followed the Hollanders into this promising land and affiliated 
with the Dutch congregation, the church, as well as the locality, 
took on a more cosmopolitan character. The ancient records of 
Churchville, the oldest in Pennsylvania — barring those of the 
Quakers — disclose the names and dates of reception of the Davis, 
Morgans, Stones, Coopers, Seeds, Pickens, Fosters, Whites, and 
many others, indicative of the infusion of Welsh, English and 
Scotch-Irish blood among its membership. These, with a few of 
French Huguenot extraction, such as de Normandie, de Hart, 
Conte, and the like, intermingled and intermarried, and, in time, 
evolved a type of citizen that has given you merited distinction 
among the inhabitants of Pennsylvania. 

Foremost in settlement, rapid and upward in development and 
industry, coupled with habits and qualities inherited from God- 
honoring sires and here expanded into the broad ways of useful- 
ness, have made you what you are. We may travel the State 
over and nowhere find more exemplary lives, a higher standard of 
domestic and public virtue, more comfortable homes, or thriftier 
landscapes, than are made manifest in the reputation, growth and 
material prosperity which mark the scene of your nativity. Even 
Lancaster county, your reputed rival in agricultural eminence, 
with all its exaltation and success attained by kindred blood, is 
not more great, nor more glorious in the things which make for 
its renown than this, my native county, which your Dutch ancestry 
have converted, by toil and tilth, into a fairy region, whose fair 
fields and rolling slopes, with their abundant harvests, bespeak 
your praise in the bounteousness of their tribute. 

Old Presbyterian Church at Newtown. 

(Meeting at "Sharon" near Newtown, October 4, 1904.) 

One of the benefits derived by the citizens of Bucks county 
from the Historical Society is the love and veneration instilled 
for that which is "old." We live in a wonderful age of invention 
and progress — old things are passed away, behold all things 
are become new. Many of the common kitchen utensils used 
by our grandparents have now become curiosities and are con- 
sidered worthy of a place in our historical museum. 

This veneration for the old extends to almost every depart- 
ment of domestic life and we look with wonder on the old tin 
lanterns, the old tallow rod and dip, the brimstone match, (con- 
sidered a great invention in its day,) the foot-stove used in church, 
the warming-pan for the bachelor's bed, or the machinery for 
making homespun garments. 

Never in the history of our country have more handsome 
churches been erected than in recent years, yet none of them 
attracts more visitors than the old Presbyterian church of New- 
town, and when this old landmark was assigned me by the liter- 
ary committee as the subject of my paper I at once accepted it 
as a labor of love, for in common with our many visitors who 
seem to be inspired with a veneration for its old walls and love 
to worship with us, we are all proud to learn and to know its 
history, which extends back over a period of 170 years. 

When the Presbyterians built their beautiful chapel over in 
the heart of the town, the building was set well back on the 
lot to allow room for a new church in front. But we have 
found, whenever its erection was agitated, many of our older 
members were so much in love with the old church building and 
the hallowed associations of past years that no action has yet been 
taken to transfer our place of meeting except for Sabbath school 
and evening meetings. 

The first building was erected in 1734 on the Swamp road, 
nearly a mile west of Newtown. Many of the earlier docu- 

On west side of Newtown creek, built in 1769. Hessian prisoners were quartered here 
after the battle of Trenton. Building repaired in 1842, also at other times, but greater 
part of the original walls remains. This stone church is the succes.sor of a frame building 
erected in 1734 on the Swamp road, one mile west of Newtown. 

Built in 1704 by Amos Strickland on site of Red Lion inn. The third story, also the 
brick addition on west end built about 18.-57, by Capt. Joseph Archambault, a page of 
Napoleon's. Continental soldiers and Hessian officers quartered here after the battle of 

(From photographs in Historical Society's album.) 


mentary records have unfortunately been lost, so we cannot 
say how many members were connected with the church at its 
first organization 170 years ago. 

On December i, 1744, Nathaniel Twining and his wife, Sarah, 
deeded to George Logan, Anthony Tate and James Cumings, 
one acre of land in trust only to and for the benefit and use 
of the people called Presbyterians to build a meeting-house and 
church thereon and for a burying-place. 

On July 20, 1769, (George Logan and James Cumings being- 
deceased) Anthony Tate deeded this same acre to John Harris, 
Thomas Buckman, James Tate, Robert Keith and John Sample, 
they to hold the property in trust for the benefit and purposes 
before described, namely, to build a church thereon and for a 

The following named men were some of the members of the 
Presbyterian congregation at the time this trust was accepted 
by the above mentioned trustees : Reverend James Boyd, James 
Sample, William Keith, Abraham Slack, Cornelius Vansant, Char- 
les Stewart, John Thompson, Robert Thompson, James McNair, 
Lamb Torbert, John Wilson, Henry VanHorn, Barnard Van- 
Horn and William McConky. 

Among the early members of the Newtown Presbyterian church 
were Rev. Isaac Stockton Keith and John Keith, each of whom 
bequeathed a scholarship to Princeton Seminary, three of the 
descendants of William Keith having had the benefit therefrom. 

The building was a frame structure, its location being still 
marked by several graves with inscriptions on the stones, almost 
illegible and there seems to be none of their descendants living 
in the vicinity to care for them. This building was used for 
■church purposes for 35 years and was afterward sold and re- 
moved to the farm near what has been known as the chain bridge 
over the Neshaminy, where it did service as a wagon-house. 

The present stone church building was erected in 1769, the 
heavy walls constructed of large well-dressed blocks, are still 
standing and in good repair. The writer remembers the entrance 
on the south side which was changed to the east end in 1842, 
the high pulpit on the north side and the high box pews, where 
as a boy he sat many a weary hour, his father requiring him 


to sit erect and woe betide him if his closed eyeUds gave 
evidence of inattention. In the early days of this church, funds 
were occasionally raised for the expenses of repairs by holding- 
lotteries under authority from the State. 

The following is a copy of one of these lottery tickets: 
Newtown Presbyterian Church Lottery 
1 761 — No. 104. 

This ticket entitles the bearer to such prize as may be drawn against its 
number if demanded within six months after the drawing is finished, sub- 
ject to such deduction as is mentioned in the scheme. 


Although the original walls are still standing the building has 
been repaired and changes made during the 135 years that it 
has been used for worship by the congregation ; the more promi- 
nent repairs were made in 1842, 1850 and 1870. In December, 
1901, two stained glass memorial windows were placed each 
side of the pulpit alcove, the organ and choir placed in alcove 
fronting the congregation, and the whole interior painted and 
frescoed. A legacy has recently been received from one of 
the oldest members, the income by terms of the will, to be used 
in keeping the property in order ; the building will therefore 
doubtless be used for morning services of the congregation, ex- 
cept in mid-winter, for many years to come. 

There are no records to show who the pastors were previous to 
1743, but for the last 160 years the succession is almost unbroken. 
Rev. Hugh Carlisle was chosen in 1743, serving the church four 
years. James Campbell, 1747, 12 years; Henry Martin, in 1759, 
10 years; James Boyd, 1769, 44 years; James Joyce, 1813, 2 
years; Alexander Boyd, 1815, 23 years; Robert D. Morris, 
D. D., in 1838, 18 years; George Burroughs, D. D., 1856, 
3 years; Henry F. Lee, 1859, 2 years; Samuel J. Milli- 
ken, 1861, 5 years; George C. Bush, 1866, 10 years; A. Mc- 
Elroy Wylie, 1877, 11 years, and in 1888, Thomas J. Elms was 
chosen and has now (1904) almost completed his sixteenth year 
of service. 

Of several of the earliest pastors we know but little owing 
to loss of church records. Rev. James Boyd, who held the 
sacred office for 44 years, came to this country in his youth from 


Rev. Alexander Boyd, who was pastor 23 years, was born in 
Chester county, Pa., graduated in Dickinson College, and came to 
the Newtown church in 1815 ; his wife was a granddaughter of Dr. 
Beatty, of Log College fame, and sister of the late John Beatty, 
a venerable elder of the Doylestown church. 

Rev. Dr. Robert D. Morris, after serving the church 18 years, 
became principal of Oxford Female Seminary in Ohio, and 
held the position for about 25 years, when he died. 

Rev. George Burroughs, D. D., after leaving Newtown, became 
professor m a college in San Francisco, Cal. He was not only 
a fine preacher and scholar, but wrote among other books a 
popular commentary of the Song of Solomon. 

Rev. Samuel J. Milliken, after leaving Newtown, accepted a 
charge in Huntingdon Presbytery, then at Fox Chase, Philadel- 
phia and Titusville, N. J. A short time before his death he 
went to Japan and engaged in missionary work, assisting his 
daughter. Miss Bessie Milliken, who was successfully engaged 
there until his death. 

Rev. A. McElroy Wylie was a man of more than ordinary 
ability, both as preacher and writer, and belonged to a family 
embracing several distinguished lawyers, judges and ministers. 
He died a few years after leaving Newtown. His eldest son, 
Henry, now deceased, was a very successful business man, buying 
and selling real estate in New York city. His youngest son, 
Andrew, is one of the rising young lawyers of Philadelphia. 

But the success of the church for so long a period could not 
depend on the ministers alone, but on the ruling elders as well. 
Previous to 1838 the roll is not complete, but the following 
named persons are known to have served as elders at or before 
that date, viz: James Slack, Anthony Torbert, Reading Beatty, 
M. D., David S. McNair, Abraham Slack, Solomon McNair, 
Lamb Torbert and David Taggart. Since then William H. Slack 
was elected in 1838; James M. Torbert, 1838; WiUiam Ben- 
nett, T838; Isaac Vanartsdalen, 1838; Jonathan Wynkoop, 1839; 
James M. McNair, 1839; James S. McNair, 1854; David Mc- 
Nair, 1866; Cyrus T. Vanartsdalen, 1866; James Anderson, 
1872; William D. Stewart, 1872; William Wynkoop. 1872; 


William T. Seal, 1872; Ashbel W. Watson, 1888; Charles Cra- 
ven, 1888; Harry A. Smith, 1888. 

Of these all but three continued active until their death or 
removal from the bounds of the church. The present session em- 
braces Messrs, Vanartsdalen, Wynkoop, Watson, Craven and 

Three of the Torbert family and five of the McNair family 
in the successive generations have held the office of elder in 
this old historic church. 

In the Vanartsdalens we find father and sons in this church, 
the line having been continued in other churches back to the fifth 
generation, numbering two ministers and seven elders in their 
several churches. 

The Wynkoops can trace their connection with the Reformed 
or Presbyterian churches for eight generations and in these var- 
ious churches many of them were either ministers or elders. 
Thomas L. was an active trustee of the Newtown church for 
about fifty years. Many others worthy of honorable mention 
served faithfully as trustees or as members, but time forbids an 
extended notice of them. 

The present board of trustees consists of I. Wilson Merrick, 
Isaac T, Vanartsdalen, Horace D. Hogeland, William M. Wat- 
son, James S. Hutchinson and Garret B. Girton. The deacons 
are James T, Keith, William M, Watson, Horace B. Hogeland 
and Frank B. Craven. 

The trustees care for the temporal interests of the congregation, 
the deacons having oversight over the poorer members and all 
of them are proving themselves worthy successors of the noble 
line of men who have preceded them. 

Much of the continued prosperity through all these years has 
been due to the loyal, intelligent co-operation of the women of 
the organization. Home and Foreign Missionary Societies have 
been maintained and were never more perfectly organized than 
at present ; and a Ladies' Social Aid Society is doing much in 
helping on the work and raising the necessary funds for repairs 
to the parsonage and other buildings. 

In 1855 the congregation purchased the old Bucks County 
Academy which was used for educational and religious purposes 


for 31 years. The Sabbath school held its meetings here 
most of this time, but in 1886 a modern stone chapel was erected 
in the town at -a cost of about $9,000 and the Sabbath school 
removed thereto in January, 1887. The Wednesday and Sun- 
day evening services have also been held in the chapel since that 
date. The church also built a neat frame chapel at Edgewood 
in 1884, at a cost of about $2,000, where a prosperous Sab- 
bath school has since been maintained and preaching services con- 
ducted once a month. The graveyard in the rear of the church 
contains over 150 graves of persons born before 1800, but since 
the organization of Newtown cemetery, some 50 years ago, there 
have been comparatively few interments there. 

Much more might be said of its history ; of the Hessian prison- 
ers confined within its walls for a few days after the battle of 
Trenton; of the organization of the Sabbath school in 1817, 
and the meetings in the galleries of the old church, but we must 

Can anyone wonder that the members of such a church with 
its record extending back as it does for 170 years, should manifest 
a love and veneration for the present building in which services 
have been held continuously for 135 years. 

There is no pretensions to architectural beauty, but everything 
though plain is substantial and surrounded by lofty shade trees 
under which in summer a cool breeze is ever present to cool 
the heated brow after a rather long walk; and so while the 
town has reversed history by extending eastward instead of 
westward and the walks to the church are not as good as we 
might desire yet withal we still love to meet where our fathers 
and mothers were wont to assemble, and unite in praising God 
for his goodness to us as a people in preserving this "Old 
Presbyterian Church of Newtown." 

Links in the Chain of Local History. 


(Silver Anniversarj' Meeting, Doylestown Courthouse, Jan. 17, 1905.) 

The part, assigned to me, on this interesting occasion, that of 
presenting to the audience the historic sequence accomphshed by 
the Bucks County Historical Society, in a quarter of a century, is 
a duty and a pleasure. In other words, I am expected to present to 
you an intelligible rehearsal of what this society has accomplish- 
ed since its organization, to advance the cause of local history. 

No portion of Pennsylvania is richer in events that make up 
its history, from its settlement to the present day, than this 
county, frequently spoken of as "Penn's beloved Bucks." It is 
redolent of the very essence of historic lore. From the early 
settlement of our county, much was done to preserve current 
history from the despoiler; subsequently, greater success was 
achieved by organized efforts in whose footsteps the Bucks County 
Historical Society and every kindred association, have trod. In 
this work the Friends were the pioneers, followed by other agen- 
cies in the order of their coming, the Bible, the church and the 
court records being their main reliance in handing down historic 
events to those who come after them. 

Gradually family history made its appearance, and at last, 
organized effort took possession of the field and local history had 
come to stay. Still later the genealogist, with his science, makes 
his appearance, and from which our Librarian gets much con- 
genial learning, and not infrequently makes use of it in tracing 
back our pioneer families and telling us whence they came. 

Denominational pioneers followed the Friends almost in the 
order named, the English and Welsh Baptists, Dutch Presbyter- 
ians, German Lutheran and Reformed, Moravians and Mennon- 
ites. Gathering these bits of history, handed down from the 
pioneers, those fond of such research began organizing societies 
like our own. and soon had capital to begin business with, and, 
from this small beginning, the historian soon had an occupation 
creditable to the individual and the family ; the pursuit has almost 


reached the realm of science, the professor thereof is made wiser 
and happier, while a few even grow rich. The quieter the histo- 
rian goes about his or her mission, the more successful he or she 
will become, but it should never be forgotten, that the occupation 
is almost a sacred calling. In concluding this branch of my 
subject permit me to say, this region is so rich in history of the 
most interesting character, they, who seek it should never halt 
at the threshold but follow it to the end. 

Our society is young compared with many others. It is however 
the oldest in the county having passed its 25th birthday, and with 
its age it is growing in interest and usefulness. 

The question of organizing the society had been discussed for 
some time by those friendly to it, but the movement first took 
shape at a meeting held in the library room, Lenape building, at 
Doylestown, on the afternoon of January 20, 1880. There is no 
complete list extant of the persons present on that occasion, but, 
from the treasurer's records, the following persons who were 
there and took part in the proceedings, may be considered the 
founders of this now popular institution, as they are recorded; 
Josiah B. Smith, Mahlon Carver, Henry C. Mercer, Dr. A. M. 
Dickie, Dr. Joseph B. Walter, Capt. John S. Bailey, George S. 
McDowell, Alfred Paschall, Richard M. Lyman, Thomas P. Ot- 
ter, Jesse Leedom and W. W. H. Davis. Five of these persons 
are known to be dead, Bailey, Smith, Otter, Leedom and Dickie, 
the last named meeting a violent death. 

The meeting was organized by calling Josiah B. Smith, of 
Newtown, to the chair and appointing Henry C. Mercer, Secre- 
tary. A brief draft of a constitution and by-laws, was submitted 
by Mr. Davis and adopted, the organization was then completed 
by the election of the following officers : President, W. W. H. 
Davis ; Secretary, Richard M. Lyman, and Treasurer, Alfred 
Paschall. The society shortly entered upon its assigned work 
of holding meetings and making a collection of curios of historic 
interest and value. On February 23, 1885, a charter was granted 
by the Court of Common Pleas and, since that time, the society 
has been active in its labors and become a recognized educator 
of the county. When Mr. Lyman resigned the office of secretary 
he was succeeded by Alfred Paschall who still holds the office, as 


well as that of treasurer, and Mr. Mercer was elected a trustee 
and is etill in office. 

While the Bucks County Historical Society was the first to be 
organized in the county, one other similar institution was close 
behind it — the "Buckwampum Historical and Literary Associa- 
tion" of Durham, Springfield, Nockamixon and the neighboring 
townships. Its inception was on September 25, 1885; its first 
meeting was held in June, 1888, and subsequent meetings yearly, 
about the same date. William J. Buck, an historian of 
long practice and good repute, was the head and from, 
while Charles Laubach, (now deceased), C. E. Hindenach, 
Miss Margaret J. Moffat, John A. Ruth, Miss Emily A. Boyer, 
Lewis Sigafoos, Rev. O. H. Melchoir, A. B. Haring, Asa 
Frankenfield and a few others were his mainstays. Papers 
were read at every meeting, while Mr. Buck was living, and 
sometimes diversified with music. The death of Mr. Buck 
(February 13, 1901,) was a great loss to the associa- 
tion and occasional meetings only have been held since.* 
The Buckwampum Society gave new life to local history in that 
section and we hope to see it in working order again in the near 
future. I would suggest that our two societies be united into one, 
the trolley lines bringing us closer together than in the past. They 
would then be a powerful organization. The upper-end of the 
county is rich in history. 

For several years our meetings were held quarterly, but, find- 
ing them too frequent for the best interests of the society, they 
were reduced to two, midwinter and midsummer, the former in 
the court-room where we are assembled to-day, by courtesy of 
the board of county commissioners. While our meetings were 
held quarterly there was something of a struggle at times to 
bring together a proper audience befitting the occasion and the 
necessary papers to be read. On one occasion the society nearly 
gave up the ghost and it seemed that it had passed into history. 
This was a midsummer meeting in Solebury, one of the most intel- 
ligent townships in the county. There were but three persons 
present, Mrs. Davis, Mr. Bailey, who assisted to organize the 

* The Buckwamputa Historical and Literary Association held its first meeting on 
Buckwampum Mountain June 14, 188S, and its last meeting at Springtown, Pa., August 
15, 1903. It held 16 meetings during the time of its existence, at which iSo papers were 
presented and read by 82 authors. Editors. 


society, and myself and we met in a beautiful grove. Two papers 
were read and the president had no trouble keeping the audience 
quiet. After the literary exercises were disposed of, Mrs. Davis 
opened her lunch basket, a napkin was spread on the ground, we 
partook of the refreshments and the audience dispersed. On this 
occasion the society was at the lowest ebb it ever reached, but we 
did not dispair ; there are always some to look at the bright side 
and, in the end, we triumphed, as faith and hope always will if 
persisted in. In evidence, as to how our meetings fluctuated in 
audiences during the formative period, about that time we met on 
the summit of Buckingham mountain, where the number present 
was estimated at one thousand. The inquiry may be made what 
caused the difference in attendance between Solebury and Bucking- 
ham mountain? That mountain has a good deal of history about it, 
and hobgoblins, spooks, etc., are talked of in connection with it, 
which may have induced some to attend the meeting to get a peep 
at them. Under the amended constitution of recent date the Bucks 
County Historical Society holds three regular meetings yearly, 
January, May and October, that in January being known as the 
"Annual Meeting." In recent years the ladies have taken increas- 
ed interest in the society and the attendance thereby enlarged. 
At the last report from the secretary he had issued over six 
hundred certificates to members, with a,bout one hundred addition- 
al, eligible to membership. 

The Bucks County Historical Society is prospering on every 
line but one, which I will mention later, and the membership is 
probably as large, if not larger, than any county society in the 
State. The museum connected with it, is the most attractive 
feature to the general visitor, and it is astonishing with what 
interest visitors look at the articles on exhibition. That section 
of the museum, known as the "Tools of the Nation Maker," is the 
most attractive feature and nothing elsewhere in this country com- 
pares with it. The founder of this branch of our exhibits, and 
large contributor to it, was Mr. Henry C. Mercer, who in the 
early days of our society prepared the handsomely illustrated 
catalog containing 761 articles which he published at his own ex- 
pense in 1897. It has both an English and German index, and 
also an "introduction" and "postscript" in English, in explanation 
of the contents. To this collection frequent additions have been 


made until the number is much increased. This exhibit, to some 
extent, duplicates the famous Museum of Cluny in Paris, and 
these articles and tools of ours, are almost an epitome of the 
implements, etc., that assisted in driving savagery from Bucks 
county at its settlement and introducing civilization. A copy of 
the handsome edition of "The Tools of the Nation Maker" at 
their request, adorns the Congressional Library, Washington. 
Besides the publication named, Mr. Mercer has published several 
other pamphlets which (including the' "Tools of the Nation Mak- 
er") were presented to our historical society; "The Survival of 
the Mediaeval Art of Illuminative Writing among the Germans," 
the "Decorated Stove Plates of Durham," "Light and Fire 
Making," "The Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania 
Germans." In all, Mr. Mercer has published 48 pamphlets on 
colonial, archaeological, geological and other subjects of interest 
among them being that of "Cave Hills of Yucatan." Five of 
these pamphlets Mr. Mercer contributed to the Bucks County 
Historical Society, and some of them are yet on sale. One con- 
tains 60 pages and another 20 pages. 

Down to the present time no official acknowledgment or ref- 
erence has been made to this member of our society to whom we 
are indebted for this collection. One who knows something of 
the pecuniary value of such a collection, has stated that ours 
would bring $100,000 at public auction. Independent of this, a 
gentleman of Philadelphia, who visited our museum two or three 
years ago, told me that our collection of the "Tools of the Nation 
Maker," would be worth half a million dollars, in a century. 
Now, let us make allowance for extreme enthusiasm and esti- 
mate the value at one tenth of the first sum or $10,000, it would 
be a splendid gift. Therefore, it is not flattery to say that to none 
of our members, or contributors, is the society more deeply indebt- 
ed than to Mr. Mercer. Under these circumstances, it would 
not be out of place but a simple act of justice to see a resolution 
recognizing this obligation, spread upon the record ; it would be 
an act of justice and a stimulation to others. 

Some years ago, a member of our society, about to read a paper 
before it at the Plumstead meeting-house, quoted a famous writer, 
as follows, giving "The Object of a Local Historical Society:"* 

* See paper by Henry C. Michener, Vol. i, page 297. 


"The true historian must see ordinary men as they appear in their 
ordinary business and in their ordinary pleasures ; he must obtain admit- 
tance to the convivial table and the domestic hearth ; he must bear with 
vulgar expressions ; fle must not shrink from exploring even the retreat 
-of misery ; he considers no anecdote, no peculiarity of manner, no familiar 
saying, as too insignificant to illustrate the operation of laws of educa- 
tion, of religion and mark the human mind. Men will not merely be 
described, but will be made intimately known to us." 

This extract may suggest to some the object and aims of some 
historical societies, but that of Bucks county, we are pleased to 
say, has a higher aim. 

As we have mentioned a few things the Bucks County Histor- 
ical Society has accomplished, it will not be out of place to 
present the other side of the picture, and show what we "have 
not done." We are criticised by our contemporaries and histo- 
rians, generally, for failing to publish, in some enduring form, the 
product of our historic investigations. The; failure militates 
against us. The Montgomery historical society, much to its 
credit, has published two large and handsome volumes, which 
adorn our shelves, but we have nothing to present in exchange. 
This can easily be remedied by us with little cost. After each 
meeting at which papers are read and published in our newspapers, 
we should have a given number struck ofif in leaflet form and 
bound in volumes. In a membership of nearly 700, we could not 
fail to get enough subscribers from them to cover the expense 
of imposing the forms and binding. These we could exchange 
with other societies. The number of papers, read before the 
Bucks county society, since its organization, including the Mav 
meeting, 1904, is enough to make several interesting volumes. 

The works of art and other illustrations, that embellish our 
walls, are very attractive and much admired, but, when they are 
hung on the walls of our new building, they will be more appre- 
ciated. Independent of the "Rescue of the Colors," and a few 
other paintings of decent size, the engravings number about one 
hundred and fifty. The following exhibits are among the "Tools 
of the Nation Maker :" Suspended, in the middle of the room, 
is a wooden plow, and a few feet from it, on the wall in a frame, 
is a patent for the Smith plow, signed by John Adams. 1800, 
then President of the United States ; near by is a painting by 
Edward Hicks, of "Washington Crossing the Delaware," Christ- 


mas night, 1776; in one of the glass cases is Edward Marshall's^ 
famous rifle he carried in the "Walking Purchase," of 1737; a 
pasteboard box, that carried the wedding bonijet of the mother of 
Hugh Mearns, Warwick, 150 years old; suspended, between two 
windows, is a uniform coat worn by Joseph Archambault who was 
at the battle of Waterloo, 181 5, and left for dead on the field. 
Archambault belonged to the household of Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Such a collection is not duplicated in this country. 

Phases of Library Life. 

(Silver Anniversary Meeting, Doylestown Courthouse, Jan. 17, 1905.) 

On this anniversary occasion, permit me to congratulate you 
on the zeal, prosperity and usefulness of the work in which 
you are engaged, and furthermore, to participate with you in 
the satisfaction which you must feel, that after many days, you 
will soon be enjoying a beautiful home of your own for the 
display and protection of the treasures which you have gathered. 
As the usefulness of your labors becomes more widely known, 
I hope that your membership may be increased, and with it 
your income, for you are entitled to substantial recognition in 
a generous support. 

Before taking up the subject on which I am to address you, I 
desire to call your attention to a very important organization that 
was effected two weeks ago at Harrisburg — the Pennsylvania 
Federation of Historical Societies. The objects of the federa- 
tion are to bring the various historical societies of the State 
together and enable them to become more familiar with the 
historical work that is being done, to exchange duplicate publi- 
cations of interest and value, and the preparation of a Bibliog- 
raphy of Pennsylvania. About fifty representatives of societies 
were present, and much enthusiasm prevailed. I hope that your 
society will become a member of the federation. 

Facts are the materials of experience and the basis of science. 
They are collected from observations of the present time and 
acquaintance with the records of the past. History is as truly 


a science as mathematics, and in its larger sense, applies to all 
the facts which fall within the reach of universal experience. 

Biography is next in order of comprehensiveness, and perhaps 
of dignity, but more limited in its scope than history. Whether 
the object to be attained, be disinterested or selfish, of personal 
aggrandizement or enlarged philanthropy, whether actuated by 
religious zeal or military ambition, the first participants draw 
around them the thoughtful consideration of students. 

In genealogy, we recognize the close relations existing with 
history and biography, and in the law, and even in fiction, it 
bears an important part. Eighty years ago, when the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania was founded, only five out of the three 
thousand and more American genealogies that now exist, had 
been published. 

How many are aware, or if aware of it, appreciate the fact 
from an historical point of view, how completely the Proprietary 
government of Pennsylvania had become a family affair before 
it ceased to exist? 

William Allen, who was made chief justice in 1750, and had 
laid the foundation of a large fortune, by assisting the Penn 
family to pay the mortgage William Penn had been obliged to 
place on the Province, when in financial difficulties, married 
the daughter of Andrew Hamilton, the legal counselor of the 
Penns and attorney general of the Province. Through this mar- 
riage, it came to pass that James Hamilton, the deputy governor 
from 1746 to 1749, and again from 1754 to 1763, the son of 
Andrew, was the brother-in-law of the Chief Justice. Later, Ann, 
the daughter of William Allen, married John Penn, one of the 
Proprietors, who was also deputy governor from 1763 to 1771, 
and from 1773 to the Revolution; his brother Richard, (who mar- 
ried Mary Masters, the daughter of Mary Lawrence, whose 
brother John was the father-in-law of James Allen) serving in 
the interim, from 1771 to 1773. 

William Allen, Jr., the son of the Chief Justice, and brother- 
in-law of Governor John Penn, became attorney general. Besides 
this, William Allen, Chief Justice, and the wife of Edward Ship- 
pen, of Lancaster, were first cousins ; and Edward Shippen, Jr., 
(chief justice after the Revolution,) married the daughter of 
Tench Francis. Another daughter of. Tench Francis married 


John Lawrence, and their daughter married James, the son 
of WilHam AUen. Another daughter of Tench Francis mar- 
ried James Tilghman, secretary of the land office, the bro- 
ther of Edward, who married the sister of Benjamin Chew, 
who succeeded Tench Francis as attorney general, and subse- 
quently became chief justice. Tench Francis, Jr., the son of 
the attorney general, married the daughter of Charles Willing and 
A-nn Shippen Willing, the latter the sister of Edward Shippen of 
Lancaster and mother of Thomas Willing, the eminent merchant, 
who, as early as 1761, was one of the justices of the Supreme 

In 1771, James Hamilton, Benjamin Chew, Lynford Lardner, 
James Tilghman, Andrew Allen, (another son of the former chief 
justice) and Edward Shippen, Jr., were all members of the 
Governor's council, or, in other words, the large majority of 
his advisers on public measures were in some way connected with 
his family. 

With such relationships existing between the families I have 
named, is it any wonder that when Edward Shippen, of Lancaster, 
felt some doubt as to his being continued in the office of pro- 
thonotary of the Lancaster court, and wrote to Chief Justice 
Allen on the subject, the latter, after assuring him that the office 
was always a life appointment, should have added, "But in case 
the Proprietor should contemplate such a step, can you believe 
that your interest with the present Governor and his friends, 
your alliance with Mr. Francis and his family, to say no more, 
would not be sufficient to prevent any thing of the sort being 
put into execution? Believe me, I think you are as safe from 
any danger of removal as I am from being dispossessed of the 
house in which I live." 

Family connections by blood also had a great efifect in New 
York colonial politics, from the end of the seventeenth century, 
through the eighteenth, down to the end of the Revolution. But, 
unlike the same thing in Pennsylvania, it was mixed with religion. 
The same influences were powerful in Maryland, Virginia and 
South Carolina. 

It was only a few years ago that the principal historical socie- 
ties of the country were asked to employ persons to search 
newspapers and church records of a certain period to find evi- 


dence of the marriage of Col. Richard Maitland, fourth son 
of the sixth Earl of Lauderdale in the peerage of Scotland, to 
Mary McAdam, of New York. Richard Maitland was born in 
1724 and died in 1772. He entered the British army in 
1764, and was twice appointed adjutant general of the British 
forces in America. At the time of his death, the evidence of 
his marriage either was wanting, or possibly, from the fact that 
he was a younger son, was not of importance. In the course of 
time, however, by the extinction of the elder branch of the family, 
the estates became vested in his representatives, and they were 
finally awarded to his descendant, Frederick Henry Maitland, 
who through investigations made on this side of the Atlantic, 
proved that Col. Maitland was his ancestor, and that he had been 
married on his death bed, July 11, 1772, to Mary McAdam,. 
making the children that had been born to them, his legal descen- 

In the year 1800, James Moore, of Philadelphia, who had been 
a colonel in the Revolution, made an assignment of all his prop- 
erty for the benefit of his creditors, and removed to Virginia. 
He never returned to live in Philadelphia, and only visited it 
occasionally. After his debts were paid, a balance of $1,327.23 
was, in 1821, by order of the court, paid into the hands of a 
receiver, to be held for the benefit of those entitled to it under 
the deed of assignment. In 1891, this balance, having been 
invested and reinvested, amounted to over $i8,coo, and an at- 
tempt was made to escheat it to the State. Upon this, two sets 
of claimants appeared, one representing his collateral heirs in 
Philadelphia, and the other claiming to be his direct heirs in 
Maryland. The latter, in support of their case, submitted, among 
other things, a family Bible, containing a lineage of a James 
Moore, with his signature on the title-page. The Philadelphia 
claimants showed that their collateral ancestor had been a colonel 
in the Revolution, and a member of the State Society of the Cin- 
cinnati of Pennsylvania, and, by a sketch of Col. Moore, written 
as early as 1805, that in 1784 he was at Wyoming, with troops 
sent there to suppress the difficulties between the Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania settlers. From the fact that the Philadelphia claim- 
ants did not submit, in support of their claim, the signature of 
Col. Moore attached to the list of members of the Cincinnati, 



the attorney who represented the Maryland claimants, concluded 
that it was not the same as the signature attached to the deed of 
assignment; and to prove this, which, if true, would upset the 
claim of the collateral heirs, he at once set himself to work to 
discover an autograph of Col. James Moore of the Revolution. 
In this he was successful, but it proved exactly what he did not 
wish it to prove, namely, that Col. Moore of the Revolution and 
James Moore, the assignee, were one and the same. In other 
words, he had won the case for his opponents, and the money 
was ordered to be distributed among his collateral heirs. 

The case having attracted some attention, the attorney gave the 
facts to a reporter, and the next day an article appeared in one 
of our newspapers headed, "Won by a 1784 Signature." Less 
than two months later, our attorney received a letter from Texas 
referring to the article which had been copied by a New Orleans 
paper, stating that the writer was a grand-daughter of Col. James 
Moore, and her letter contained such inherent evidence of the 
truth of this, that Mr. Attorney knew that at last he was on the 
right track. The order for the distribution of the money among 
the collateral heirs of Col. Moore was revoked, and it was finally 
distributed among upwards of fifty of his lineal descendants. 

Thackeray, the novelist, must have been a born genealogist, 
notwithstanding the fact that he kills the mother of Lord Farin- 
tosh on one page, and brings her to life on another ; but what 
genealogist has not been guilty of a like slip? It is also true that 
he has his fling at the study and all connected with it ; nevertheless, 
it is done in such a kindly spirit, that it disarms the sarcasm of its 
sting. John Pendennis, he said, framed his Cornish pedigree, 
reaching back to the Druids and showing intermarriages with the 
Normans. It is in Esmond and the Virginians, however, that 
genealogy is used with the greatest effect, and so admirably is 
this done, that I know of a lady who became so interested in the 
wonderful intricacy of the plot, that she drew out a pedigree 
of the Castlewood family, to understand the story better. 

The story of The Wandering Heir, by Charles Reade, is 
gathered from the life of James Anneslay, son and heir to the 
Earl of Anglesey, of the Irish peerage, whose career has more 
than a general interest to Pennsylvanians. At the instiga- 
tion of his uncle, the next heir to the estate, he was 


kidnapped and sent to America, where he Hved from 1728 to 
1742, mainly in Lancaster county. The story of his Ufe is also 
said to have been used by Smollett in his Roderick Random, 
and by Sir Walter Scott in Guy Mannering. Family history has 
certainly been used with telling effect in Hugh Wynne. 

You are famiHar with "Diary of Christopher Marshall," which 
he wrote in Philadelphia and Lancaster, during the Revolution, 
and for many years the only continuous journal of local events 
in print. To this have been added the equally valuable journals 
of Sally Wistar, written for the edification of a friend ; Elizabeth 
Drinker's, (1759-1807) ; and Jacob Hiltzheimer's, the latter filled 
with many bits of jolly social life. 

Do you recall the humor which pervades Sally Wistar's jour- 
nal, and are you not inclined to believe that one of the American 
officers had made an impression upon the heart of the jolly 
little Quakeress ? But fate had marked her for a spinster ! Recent- 
ly two additional volumes of her diary were discovered in New 
England, and now repose in the library of his Excellency, the 
Governor of our Commonwealth.* But alas! you will miss in 
them the sprightly flavor of those of an earlier date ; her thoughts 
have turned to religion and poetry. 

The original manuscript of the journal of Elizabeth Drinker, 
was submitted to me for criticism, before its publication, and I 
regret to add, that much valuable data has been omitted by the 
editor. Prior to her marriage, Mrs. Drinker kept a faithful 
record of the visits of her future husband — "H. D. was here this 
evening until 10 o'clock," so runs the usual record. After they 
had "passed meeting," the first time, it will be observed that, 
Henry prolonged his visits to eleven o'clock, an hour later. But 
one entry, "H. D. was not here this evening," made an impression 
on my mind, of irritation or disappointment of the journalist 
which had its solution in the "Diary of Jacob Hiltzheimer," 
which I subsequently edited for publication. Referring to the 
same date in the Hiltzheimer diary, I ascertained the reason 
for Henry's absence from Elizabeth — he had accompanied 
some friends to Greenwich Point, on the Delaware, to a beef- 
steak and punch supper. 

There are women who visit my Library to-day who are famil- 

* Gov. Samuel Whittaker Pennypacker. 


iar, in a general way, with the construction of the colonial 
governments and who will discourse learnedly regarding the 
members of the governor's council, or of the duties of a forester 
pr ranger, and can tell you in what colonies such and such an 
officer was appointed, and they are familiar with all the important 
events in our history. But a little more than a decade ago, such 
was not the rule, and many family traditions proved disastrous 
on investigation. 

The founders of patriotic hereditary societies, by women, were 
earnest and enterprising. Having been instrumental in organiz- 
ing one of these societies, the officers frequently called on me 
for advice. In the matter of an insignia, it was proposed to 
design a clasp for each ancestor from whom a member was 
ieligible, but it was shown that if this should be adopted, some 
members would wear a string of clasps, reaching from the 
shoulder to below the waist. This design was abandoned for 
prudential reasons. 

There next developed a difference of opinion as to eligible 
ancestors. Some ladies insisted that high sheriffs be included, 
while others vehemently opposed, on the ground that he was a 
hangman. Again an arbitrator was sought who decided favor- 
ably to the high sheriff party. If the high sheriff was ineligible, 
then the governor was also, for he signed the death warrant, and 
the high sheriff executed the warrant through the public hangman, 
in colonial days. 

Another difference, of more importance, was submitted for 
settlement. "When did the Colonial period end ? On the Decla- 
ration of Independence, July 4, 1776, or on the ratification of the 
Treaty of Peace between the United States and Great Britain? 
(Sept. 3, 1 783). "The question was propounded by the president of 
the society, a matron of majestic presence, and an all around hust- 
ler. I gave my opinion at once, in favor of July 4, 1776. and very 
soon found that Madam President was of the 1783 way of 
thinking, for she remarked, "Dr. Jordan, if you were not seated 
at your desk, I'd give you a good shaking." It is the ambition 
of every member of the society to find a civil or mihtary record 
for all their male ancestors, prior to the Revolution, and neces- 
sarily much time and patience is devoted to historical and 
genealogical research. One of its officers, sensitive of the rivalry 

phase;s of ubrary lifb 411 

that had been developed, requested me to aid her on a new Hne 
of ancestry on which she was working. Coming to my desk one 
day, in great glee, she informed me that she had found an 
ancestor who held an office new to her, and requested an explana- 
tion. Pointing to a line in a volume of vital records of a Massa- 
chusetts town, I read, "Ezra Blank, cordwainer, Captain of Train 
Band." "What was the nature of this office," she inquired, 
still pointing to the word cordwainer. Perceiving that she was 
really ignorant of the meaning of the word, and that she believed 
it to be the designation of a civil office, new to her, I explained 
that, in the olden time, the trade of shoemaker was divided into 
two branches; the man who made the shoes was called a cord- 
wainer, and he who patched them, a cobbler, and that her ancestor 
was a cordwainer by trade. "Why, sir," she excitedly replied, 
"all my ancestors were born gentlemen." "I do not dispute that," 
I rejoined, "but the official records give his occupation, and it 
cannot be changed by you." "Well sir," she retorted, "he will 
not go in ;" meaning that she would not add a cordwainer to the 
galaxy of her eligible ancestors. 

Curiosity prompted me to follow for three generations, the 
descendants of Ezra Blank, cordwainer. First, I found that Ezra 
in addition to being captain of the train band, filled for a number 
of years, the office of town clerk, both highly responsible posi- 
tions ; that a son was a reputable citizen, filling both civil and 
military positions with credit, and that a grandson became the 
colonel of a regiment in the Massachusetts Continental Line, Old 
Ezra was the last to follow the occupation of a cordwainer. 

I do not believe there is the least probability that the influences 
exercised by these patriotic-hereditary societies will be ephemeral. 
I am in accord with Daniel Webster's views, that it is wise for 
us to recur to the history of our ancestors. To be faithful to 
ourselves, we must keep our ancestors and posterity within the 
reach and grasp of our thoughts and affections. Eiving in the 
memory and retrospect of the past, and hoping with affection 
and care for those who are to come after us, we are true to 
ourselves only, when we act with becoming pride for the blood 
we inherit, and which we are to transmit to those who are to 
fill our places. 

The ccrrespondence that passes through my hands daily, is 


largely composed of genealogical inquiries from all sections of 
our country, and perhaps, I cannot do better than read a few 
selections, to enable you to comprehend their vanity and scope. 

From a member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
of Walla Walla, State of Washington, this modest demand on 
my time was received. 

"I wish the records searched for all names of the Baker family, I had 
an ancestor, Benjamin Baker, who enlisted in the Continental Army in 
1775. Please give the name, date of Birth and Death, place of residence, 
where from and whence to, of the males of the Baker family, but the 
females also, and to whom married. Also did any of them own property 
to any extent, and if so, where? Be careful to take down this last. A 
reply is anxiously awaited for, as the business involved in this request 
needs immediate attention." 

To this request the regulation reply was made — that the 
Historical Society does not undertake genealogical investigations 
looking to the recovery of estates, that the services of an attorney 
were needed. The following reply was received : 

"To the President or the Secretary of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania : — Some time since I wrote to the Librarian of the Society, asking 
for certain records to be searched, for which I proposed to pay (which 
she did not, and furthermore we never make any charges for investiga- 
tions). His reply was a refusal so short, that for a time I left off all 
efforts to search for what I wished. But thinking I might find in one 
or the other of you a gentleman and a man of principle, I appeal to you. 
What I wish is this : Search the historical records first, then any other 
records or documents which may contain desired information. I will be 
honest with you, and tell you plainly this, I have in my possession records 
of my family genealogy on my mother's side, who was a granddaughter 
of one Benjamin Baker, a son of Benjamin Baker. Both served in the 
early wars — one in the Revolution. From certain things I remember of 
my mother having said (she is now dead) I am convinced of the fact that 
she was a direct heir to a large estate in that part of the country some- 
where. On reading in the papers of the estate of Col. Jacob Baker, at 
Philadelphia, I was convinced that that was the one of whom my mother 
spoke, claiming to be an heir. I am a poor woman, not able to employ 
a lawyer who would go and investigate, but am willing to pay you the 
fee you will probably charge to search the records. Please to find the 
names oi the three brothers of Jacob Baker, and the names of the present 
known claimants, and it might be best to trace the lines of each of the 
three brothers down to the present time. Some members of mother's 
family lived in New Hampshire. I have about all of these records and 
only mention it for fear you might get things wrong. Others of her family 
of the Bakers removed to Pennsylvania. She was raised in Pennsylvania, 

phase;s of ubrary life 413 

"her tnother once Mary or Polly Baker, after having married Samuel 
Cilly, made their future home there. My records of the Baker family 
are incomplete. Now if you will do' this for me and charge a reasonable 
fee, I will pay you. What will such a charge be? Again another propo- 
sition will be that, if I ever should be able to prove myself one of the 
heirs, through any efforts of yours, I will double tO' you dollars for cents. 
Kindly reply at earliest convenience, otherwise, I may write to some one 

For many months I had received so many letters of a similar 
'Character from the West, that my curiosity was excited, and I 
finally ascertained from a correspondent that, the editor of the 
Inter Ocean, of Chicago, in charge of its Genealogical Depart- 
ment, habitually referred all claimants to estates, to the Librarian 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It was a species of 
advertising, no doubt well intended, but undesirable. We cheer- 
fully respond to general queries, but decline all overtures to aid 
in recovering estates or to connect families with royalty. 

From Knightstown, Henry county, Indiana, also comes this 
modest request : 

"I write to you in regard to some old history that I am trying to get. 
Have you any history of a family by name Gunkle, who emigrated from 
•Germany and settled in Penna. during the seventeen hundreds, The 
father's name was John and he had a son named Jacob. Some of this 
family spelled their names with a G others with a K. Can you find in 
your books where they came from in Germany and in what year they 
came over, and how much land did they own, either from the Govern- 
ment or the State of Penna., and where was it located. Can you give 
me the date when Jacob Gunkle was married to his wife Susanna. Have 
you any record of an estate coming to the family from Penna. or Ger- 
many. What will you charge me for the same ? 

"Is there any history on your books of a family by name of Beakler, 
whose son Henry married Catherine Gunkle; a daughter of this Jacob 
Gunkle? Is there any history of Henry Beakler, and whether any estate 
is coming to him from the State of Penna. or from Germany? What 
will you charge for the same? 

"There was a man by the name of Keys, his given name was Lemuel — 
I think but not sure — who came to America as a soldier with the English 
army and settled in Penna. After the war of 1776, he married a lady 
by the name of Swope. I think her given name was Mary or Elizabeth. 
They was married in Penna. and years after moved to Ohio, where they 
died. Is there any history of the Keys or Swope family on your books? 
This Mr. Keys came from Dublin, Ireland. Is there any estate coming 
to this family? And what will you charge me for a copy of the same?" 


A lonely widow of Orange, New Jersey, in the belief that 
she is related to the distinguished General Nathaniel Greene, of 
the Continental Army, writes as follows : 

"It is with becoming timidity that I address you, in order to prefer 
my request; for I can scarce credit the assurance that was given me^ 
that you will search the records in your possession to discover through 
numerous branches a Family Tree. 

•'I am not a Native Philadelphian, but as 'Adoption strives with Nature,'' 
I find myself clinging to it with the indissoluble ties of thirty years 

"Through a strange fatality all my family records were destroyed ; and 
I find myself 'the last leaf on the Tree,' unable to trace my ancestry. 

"I believe myself related to General Greene of Revolutionary Fame and' 
would like to crystallize the belief into a fact. 

"I am sorry that divested of every record, and bereaved of every knowre 
relative, I can only trace my lineage to a grandfather, whose name was^ 
Caleb C. Greene, of Newport. Rhode Island. 

"As my father, his son, if living, would be about one hundred years old,. 
the date of my grandfather's birth or somewhat near it may be deter- 

"I shall be very grateful if any investigation can — and would be — made 
from this clew. Should compensation be expected for the labor entailed 
through the search, please drop me a line to that effect." 

During Christmas week, a motherly looking old lady spent 
one morning delving among some of our genealogical works, and 
observing that she had been apparently unsuccessful in her 
quest, on inquiry suggested that she should examine our abstracts 
of Chester county wills, when she informed me that she had done 
so, but she was "certain that her grandfather had died of an 
administration !" 

A London book-man pestered me for six months to purchase 
for our Genealogical Department "A Heraldic and Physiological 
Curiosity" — thirty-nine children of one father and mother (seven 
sons and thirty-two daughters), amply proved, and with all 
rights reserved. I failed to respond. 

From Delaware a lady wrote : "I have been given me by our 
Century Club of which I am a member, a paper to prepare on 
the subject "The unfulfilled promises of the Nineteenth Century." 
Can you help me?" I regret to say that, the vastness of the 
subject, impelled me to ask that I be excused. Of a different 
character came an oflfer from the capital of the Dominion of 


Canada, to furnish the Library with a petrified woman, weighing 
about 400 pounds. But the enterprising Canadian having failed 
to give the pedigree of his specimen, I could not give her case 

From Middle Fork, Indiana, comes this query: 
"Will you please tell me the names of all the ships that brought the 
Quakers from London to America? I woiuld like to know if Jaushua and 
Thomas Kenworthy were with the Pilgrim Fathers, and the name of the 
ship Thomas went back on?" 

From Barnwell, South Carolina, comes the following: 
"I am hunting an old ancestor, Lord Newport. His daughter, Sally, 
ran away with and married Peter Head, of Virginia. Her parents were 
never friendly with her after this, and the young couple moved to this 
State, and their descendants ignored this, keeping up with their ances- 
tors, and kept no records whatever, only a few things handed down from 
one generation to the next. I am of the fifth generation and am 
anxious to know something of my relatives. I have no dates of births, 
marriages and deaths, except those of my grandmother, who was Sally 
Newport. Any help you can give me will be appreciated. I think Lord 
Newport's Christian name was William F., but do not know what the F. 
is for. It is said that the records were burnt with the city of Richmond, 
during the Civil War." 

I have given you some incidents connected with one of the 
many phases of library work, and I do not believe that it would 
be hard for me to convince any one, that the general activity 
in genealogical research is not a fad to procure transitory hap- 

Jacob Jennings Brown, the "Fighting Quaker" of Bucks County^ 

(Doylestown Meeting, January i6, 1906.) 

As "Old Mortality" passed from stone to stone, restoring and 
deepening the impressions nearly obliterated by the ravages of 
time, so should those of each generation, who reverence the 
heroes in our country's history, re-carve the record of their 
achievements, that a younger generation may read the story as 
they reach the stone. • 

Therefore, it becomes not only a pleasure, but a duty for the 
chisellers of this generation to restore to the view of those who 
are passing, the record of a most valiant hero in battle, and inval- 
uable citizen in peace, an example to his contemporaries, an in- 
spiration to posterity, Jacob Jennings Brown, the Fighting Quaker 
of Bucks county. 

Two years before the Great-Proprietor had obtained his charter 
from Charles I., George Brown of Leicestershire, England, had 
sailed for the new country with his affianced bride. His choice 
had fallen on an elder sister, but the prospect of life in the wil- 
derness appalled her, and she declined to accompany him. Phil- 
osophical and undaunted, he transferred his invitation to Mercy^ 
a younger sister, who accepted. 

Arriving at New Castle, they were married and then sailed up 
the river to the land George Brown had purchased of Sir Edmund 
Andros, representing the Duke of York. Tradition says, they 
first located in a dugout on the west bank of the Delaware. 
Mercy proved a true helpmate. Together they traveled through 
the forest, across streams and over swamps to procure a cow, 
driving it home before them. And when they sought to replenish 
their larder by hunting game, as the lock of their one gun had 
become disabled, Mercy held the torch until George had placed 
his aim aright, then at his signal, touched it to the priming. 

They soon left the dugout and removed their gun and "hominy- 
block" to an elevation overlooking the Delaware where George had 
built a house. His land adjoined that of Phineas Pemberton, 


afterwards the "Morris place" at the falls of the Delaware. 
Perm's manor was one of its boundaries. Here was the first 
permanent settlement of Bucks county. 

Sir Edmund Andros had appointed George Brown justice of 
the peace in June, 1680, which office he held until Captain Wil- 
Ham Markham (Penn's cousin) became deputy governor and 
re-organized the court. As Brown was not a Friend, he was 

George and Mercy Brown had eleven children and their de- 
scendants down to the present day have been distinguished by 
sterling traits of character left as an inheritance by this brave 

Their son, Samuel, became a Friend and a member of the Col- 
onial Assembly. He married Ann Clark, a member of Friends' 

Samuel's son, John, married Ann Field. This John was called 
the "fox-hunter," a notable man of his day. His house was 
between Emilie and Fallsington and as recently as 1898 the 
"stone-end" was visible in the brick structure of a more recent 
date. The church and the school-house of Emilie of to-day are 
built on his land. John, the fox-hunter, was a prominent figure 
in the Colonial government. 

His son, Samuel, married Abi White, in Friends' meeting. 
Jacob Jennings Brown, the "Fighting Quaker," was their eldest 

Jacob Jennings Brown's inheritance was remarkable in many 
particulars, and the deeds of his relatives, connections and de- 
scendants benefited their own and future generations. So num- 
erous are their descendants that even a recital of their names at 
this time is impossible, but a brief account of some of Jacob 
Brown's ancestors may show from whence he obtained many 
of his characteristic traits. 

Miss Abi White who married Samuel Brown, was a daughter 
of Joseph White, a Quaker preacher of renown. She is said to 
have possessed a degree of intelligence and strength of mind 
seldom equalled in her day — qualities which were developed in 
her son, Jacob Jennings Brown at an early period and which 
shone conspicuously through his life. 


Samuel Jennings was a Quaker preacher, in London, for twelve 
years. William Penn induced him to come in 1680 to govern 
West Jersey. After serving as deputy governor, he was elected 
governor ; served in the Provincial Assembly, and headed the list 
of the "Council of Proprietors." His home at "Green Hill" 
near Burlington, from which he ruled for 28 years was standing 
until a recent date. After removing to Philadelphia, he was ap- 
pointed receiver general of Pennsylvania. He was one of a 
committee of two appointed to go to London and lay matters 
affecting the Friends before the council there assembled, and 
returned successful in the undertaking. He was a strong char- 
acter, vigorous for right, as he saw it, and was called "imperious" 
by those who could not rule him. Historians say of him that 
he was endowed with both spiritual and temporal wisdom, a 
suppressor of vice, and encourager of virtue. 

His daughter, Sarah, the widow Pennington, married Thomas 
Stevenson, third, whose granddaughter married John Brown, the 

The Revolution of the Celestial Orbs (in which Copernicus 
overthrew the mystery of Ptolemy which had ruled the world for 
2,000 years,) was left as a legacy to the world. The first copy 
was brought to him on his death-bed 12 years after John Field 
the English mathematician and astronomer published the first 
astronomical-tables in England and made the true system of 
the universe familiar to the dawning science of Great Britain. 
Philip and Alary authorized him to bear as a crest over his 
family arms (therefore a sheaf-of-wheat) "a dexter arm, habited 
gules, issuing from clouds, supporting a golden globe." 

This Sir John Field married Jane Arnvas of London, afterwards 
living at Ardsley. Sir John's son was Matthew. INIatthew's son 
was James. James' son was Robert who w'ent to Newport, R. L, 
in 1635 and was afterward patentee of Flushing, L. L The 
American line is thus : Robert, Anthony. Anthony 2d, Benja- 
min, Benjamin 2d. 

Benjamin 2d was of Chesterfield, New Jersey, afterwards re- 
moved to Bucks county. He was recorder of Bucks, a member 
of the Penn Assembly from 1738-1745. He married Sarah 
Stevenson, great-granddaughter of Thomas Stevenson ist. Their 
daughter Anna Field, married John Brown, the fox-hunter. 


Thomas Stevenson was a son of an officer in the army o£ 
WilHam the Conqueror and fought in the battle of Hastings. A 
signet ring and silver plate engraved with his coat-of-arms are 
in the possession of a lineal descendant. He first came to Vir- 
ginia, and afterwards went to New York, and served under Capt- 
ain John Underhill in his campaign against the Indians, who 
were descending on New York. Underhill, returning to his home 
in Connecticut, Stevenson accompanied him, and afterward joined 
the Connecticut Colony to settle Southold, L. I. There he mar- 
ried Maria (Bullock) Bernard, of New York, a widow. He was 
a large land owner but the times were troublous on account of 
jealousies between the Dutch and English neighbors. He died 
about 1665. 

Thomas Stevenson, 2d, son of above, lived at Newtown, L. I. 
He held nearly all the offices of that town and other positions of 
trust. He married Elizabeth Lawrence, daughter of William 
Lawrence, of Flushing, L. I. After her death he married Ann 
Field, a kinswoman of Robert Field. He then became a Friend, 
probably through the influence of Samuel Jennings, who had visit- 
ed Long Island, preaching to the people. Thomas Stevenson, 2d, 
made large purchases of land in New Jersey and four of his 
sons moved there. 

Thomas Stevenson, 3d., of Bucks county, was a member of 
the Pennsylvania Assembly from 1710-1719; justice of the peace, 
one of the Council of Proprietors of West Jersey, and was a 
large land owner. He married Sarah, daughter of Governor 
Samuel Jennings, whose first husband was Edward Pennington, 
son of Isaac Pennington, once lord mayor of London and one of 
the judges who condemned Charles I.; he was. related to William 
Penn through the Springetts. Three Stevenson brothers married 
the three daughters of Governor Jennings. 

Sarah Stevenson, daughter of Thomas and Sarah Jennings 
Stevenson, married Benjamin Field of Middletown, Pa. Their 
daughter, Anna Field, married John Brown, the "fox-hunter," 
of Fallsington, Bucks county. 

In the Lawrence family, the numberless lines may be traced 
through English families to Egbert I., first king of England, also 
to royal ancestry in various other countries. From Egbert, 
through Kings, Barons and Earls to the Magna-Charta Barons and 


down to Lady Elizabeth Seagrauss, granddaughter of Edward I. 
She married John Baron de Mowbray, who was also of royal 
descent. Their daughter Lady Mary de Welles, married John 
Lawrence, Esq., of Rexton, Lancastershire. Their daughter, Mar- 
garet married Robert Lawrence. This Robert was born in Rome, 
Italy, and emigrated to Lancastershire. He was an officer attend- 
ing Richard I, and accompanied him on the Crusade. For prowess 
in the East he was knighted and received Ashton Hall and was per- 
mitted to bear arms, and to wear Ermine, and was called "Law- 
rence of Lancaster." He married Margaret Lawrence as above. 
The line then ran : William, William, John, William, Henry, Wil- 
liam, who married Joan. After William's death, Joan Lawrence 
with her children came to New England. Her son, William, 
called Captain Lawrence, became a patentee of Flushing, L. L, 
and a magistrate. His daughter, Elizabeth, married Thomas 
Stevenson, 2d. William Lawrence's widow married Sir. Philip 
Carteret. Elizabethtown was named after hex-. (His daughter 
and his second wife were both named Elizabeth.) Such was 
Jacob Brown's inheritance. It now remains for us to read the 
story of his life, to see what use he made of such valuable assets. 

He was born in that significant year, 1775. Reared on the 
farm in the simple home life of the Friends, without ostentation 
or incentive to notoriety. Who can know if in the long winter 
evenings, sitting before the great fire-place of blazing logs he 
might not have been tracing in the coals the picture of a modern 
crusader or a staunch governor of a province, or a pioneer settling 
a new country and making a wilderness bloom? 

From his early youth he showed a disposition to go forth and 
find work fit for his accomplishments. Little is found concerning 
his childhood, but at 18 years of age, having obtained the begin- 
nings of an education at Trenton, he commenced teaching school 
at Crosswicks, N. J., just across the river from his home ; and 
in his spare time, he studied surveying. At 21, he was appointed 
surveyor of Government lands in Ohio, the task occupying two 
years. He returned to his home, but soon opened a private school 
in New York city. At the same time, he commenced the study 
of law, and for pastime, wrote an occasional political article 
for the press, presumably for the "Advertiser," of which Noah 
Webster was editor. 


These articles attracted the notice of Alexander Hamilton, who 
sought their author and invited his acquaintance. 

In view of the anticipated war with France, Hamilton was 
strengthening the fortifications of New York harbor, and he 
engaged young Brown as military secretary. 

Thus commenced his military training which was to him and 
to his country so providential an acquisition at a later period. 

Here, he also met Gouverneur Morris, whose friendship he 
held through life. The French trouble passing, the provisional 
army disbanded, and Jacob Brown looked about him for the next 
step. He met Ralph Tillier, agent for the Chassanis lands in the 
Black river country and decided to make a venture. He per- 
suaded his father and two brothers to join him and purchased a 
large tract at $2 an acre. 

Turning his back on the elusive excitement of political life, he 
and his brother John started in March, 1799, for the forest wilds, 
as his progenitor had done 120 years before him. He was then 
24 years old, the journey nearly 500 miles through a spansely 
settled country, and beyond Utica, (their last civilized stopping- 
place) northward, was the primeval forest. On horse-back they ap- 
proached their possessions and reached the place where Philomel 
creek dashes its waters over a rocky bank twenty feet high, into 
the majestic Ka-hu-ah-go, modernly called Black river. The 
high cedar-crowned banks on either side, the beauty of the water- 
fall, the deep black of the mighty river, the out-spread below, en- 
tranced and delighted them. "We will locate here !" cried Jacob, 
and dismounting they encamped upon the spot. The immense 
water-power showed them the value of their purchase. 

They commenced to clear the land to build a log house. The 
father and brother Samuel joined them and other settlers came. 
A saw-mill and a grist-mill were erected. And in 1802 the first 
bridge over Black river was built. Then as all was in readiness. 
Jacob Brown rode south to Utica for a wife. She was Pamelia, 
daughter of Captain Judah Williams, formerly of Massathusetts. 

As she crossed the new bridge, her girlish figure mounted on a 
white horse, the rare teakettle hanging from her arm. her bright 
eyes peering forth on her new home, she must have presented a 
charming picture to the settlers assembled to give her a welcome 
home. And from that minute until she died, over 90 years of 


age, her voice was never unheeded by Brownville ears, her coun- 
sels never disregarded by Brownville hearts. 

Later Jacob Brown commenced the magnificent grey stone 
mansion on an elevation overlooking village and river, and 
occupied by members of his family until i86i. It is still occu- 
pied and in a perfect state of preservation. 

The year he married 1802, Brownville was incorporated as a 
town, the opposite side of the river being called Pamelia in compli- 
ment to his bride. 

From that time until 181 1, both town and village grew and flour- 
ished under the wise guidance of its founder, the details of which 
are given in the histories of Jefferson county. New York. A 
militia company was formed and Jacob Brown's brief mihtary 
training was fortunate, for here too, he became a leader. In 
1809 he was a colonel, and in 1810, a brigadier general. 

He prepared his men, it is said, with especial care, though 
hoping peace might ensue, without loss of honor. In a letter 
to Governor Tompkins of New York, in July 181 1, he declares 
himself in the following terms : 

"I am not one of those that believe a war with Great Britain 
the best thing that can happen to my country. But to my humble 
vision, it appears that we must fight or cease to prate about 
national sovereignty, and national honor and national dignity." 
He thus concludes, "I am serious in my application to be upon 
duty, if there be war." 

He was appointed commander of the frontier from Oswego to 
St. Francis, a water line of 200 miles in extent, with headquarters 
at Ogdensburg, where he successfully repelled an attack by land 
and water in the spring of 18 12, although the enemy far out- 
numbered the defending force ;and he was only a brigadier-general 
of militia, of Quaker ancestry and training, who had never seen 
a battle, and was opposed to war ! For his prowess on this occa- 
sion, he was offered a regiment in the regular service, but he 
declined the lesser title, preferring to remain a brigadier-general 
of militia than a colonel of regulars. Possibly, too. he recalled 
that it was the Bucks county militia who came to Washington's 
aid, and helped him to win the battle of Trenton. Still, he felt 
himself capable of a larger command with increased responsi- 
bilities and wrote to General Armstrong in the following terms: 


"I am a full-blooded Bucks County Quaker, knowing nothing of 
military affairs ; but I believe myself possessed of every other 
requisite for a soldier and an officer. I will be as good as my 
word. If you give me a brigade, you shall not be disgraced, but 
I will accept nothing less." 

Like Samuel Jennings, his worthy ancestor, he was self- 
respecting, firm and fearless as to the opinions of others when 
he knew he was right, and had confidence in his own ability to 
meet any situation which might arise. 

In July of the same year, rumors of an attack on Sackett's 
Harbor reached him and he hastened to that point and again 
repelled the invader. He now changed his headquarters from 
Ogdensburg to Sackett's Harbor, where were stored all the 
military and naval supplies of the frontier. During a brief 
absence to his home, May 28, 1813, leaving Colonel Backus in 
charge, runners brought word to the fort that a squadron under 
Sir James Yeo was sailing from Kingston. A fleet messenger 
was sent in the night to the general at Brownville. With a 
hasty good-bye to his biave wife Pamelia, he mounted and dashed 
through his little village, across the covered bridge, up the short 
hill, and down the road, 10 miles distant, to Sacketts at breakneck 
speed. Sending express riders in all directions to summon his 
militia, ordering the village bells rung to arouse the inhabitants, 
and making what preparations he could, daylight found him in 
readiness to meet the enemy. Before the fateful news an 
additional force had started from Oswego in boats, to strengthen 
the feeble garrison, but they had not yet been sighted. As the 
militia men arrived. Brown posted them behind a ridge com- 
manding the landing (about where the light-house now stands) 
the volunteers on their right. In all they numbered about 500. 
The small force at the fort was drawn up in order at their 
camp about a mile from the landing to protect the stores. Towards 
noon, the six vessels and 40 bateaux with 300 Indians appeared. 
The Indians seeing the boats from Oswego making for the harbor, 
pursued them and nearly all abandoned their boats far below to 
save their scalps, for fear of the Indians was above every other 
fear. Prevost with 1,000 regulars landed and at the first fire, the 
militia broke and took to the woods. The volunteers stood fire at 
first but were obliged to retreat. At this sight, the officers at the 


fort seeing Sacketts was about to fall into the hands of the Britisii 
set fire to the store-house and to the frigate "New Orleans" 
on the stocks and to a captured British vessel lying in the bay. 
No one but General Brown could have turned such a disaster 
into victory! But, John the "fox-hunter" had his share in this 

General Brown galloped after the fleeing- company, but 
the on-rush was so wild he could not at first succeed in 
rounding them. Fortunately, a miUtiaman (son of a Revolu- 
tionary soldier) who was borne on against hie will, bethought 
himself of a cry to give them pause, and cried loudly, "The 
Indians ! An ambush !" which succeeded in partially check- 
ing them. It would have been but momentary, however, had not 
General Brown's militiamen had confidence in their command- 
er. "Stop ! My brave fellows !" he called. Would you run just 
as we are winning! Come back and share in the victory!" So 
assuring was his voice, so victorious in tone, they turned, and 
he led them back on a run. 

General Prevost had mounted a stump to survey the field. The 
dense smoke hid the background from view, and he saw Brown 
returning at the head of what appeared a large body of troops 
firing steadily as they advanced. He thought reinforcements had 
arrived and hastily gave the order to sound the retreat. So 
hurried was their flight, that they left dead and wounded on the 
field. The timbers of the "New Orleans" was so green the 
fire was quickly extinguished and it was on exhibition until long 
after the Civil War. 

Sackett's Harbor was never again attacked, and remained the 
base of supplies for the northern frontier until the close of the 

The President now gave Jacob Brown the brigade to which he 
was so justly entitled, with the rank of brigadier-general in the 
regular army. 

On the following January, 1814. he was promoted to the rank 
of major-general and placed in command at Niagara. His mili- 
tary career was marked by a series of victories, and it is 
on record that he was never defeated. The details of his various 
engagements would fill a volume, but brief reference to the more 
important ones will portray his character. 


In March, Generals Brown and Scott moved the troops from 
Plattsburg to the Niagara frontier. After reaching Utica, Gen- 
eral Brown went to Sackett's Harbor to march the troops from 
that post. Their route lay through a rattlesnake infested forest, 
only a log hut marking the present site of Rochester. Both 
divisions reached Buffalo late in June. Crossing the river both 
above and below Fort Erie, July 3d, it surrendered to Brown 
with 170 prisoners. 

The following day, although weary with the long march, 
immediately succeeded by the taking of Fort Erie, General Brown 
inspired his men with reference to the significance of the day, 
July 4th, and they enthusiastically marched on Chippewa, 16 
miles away, where with General Riall's command were also Red 
Jacket and his Indians. "Nothing but Buffalo militia!" sneered 
Riall, as he saw them advancing. But Jacob Brown was their 
leader, and the British retreat became a disorderly flight. 

General Brown then turned back towards Fort Erie to strength- 
en its defenses. It was nearly sunset, as they wended their 
way through Lundy's Lane, Brown as usual, riding far in ad- 
vance. Suddenly there burst upon his view, British troops drawn 
tip in line. But Jacob Brown was never daunted and never missed 
an opportunity. Hastily riding back to his men he acquainted 
them with the situation. "We must fight !" he said. "No retreat- 
ing! Form ranks! Advance!" Hastily forming, they followed 
their intrepid commander, and then took place that most extraordi- 
nary battle by night. Commencing at sunset and lasting 12 hours. 
The night grew dark, the battle-field was lighted only by the 
fitful flashes of the firing guns. Brown was desperately wounded 
1>ut would not leave the field. The British finally retreated. 
There were 4,500 British and 2,600 Americans engaged in this 
battle of Lundy's Lane. 

Another instance of Jacob Brown's valor was in September of 
the same year. His wounds hardly healed, when in Fort Erie they 
were besieged by General Drummond, who attempted to retake 
the fort, but was repulsed with heavy loss. In the night. Brown, 
with a small company made a sortie, and leaping into the 
enemy's works exploded the magazines, dismounted the guns, 
captured several prisoners and returned in safety to the fort. 

It might perhaps be mentioned in this place that during this 


Niagara campaign a British officer who was slain, left a little 
daughter alone in a foreign land. She fell into General Brown's 
hands and he sent her to Brownville where under the charge of 
Mrs. Brown she was taught and cherished with their own little 
daughters until her relatives in England could be reached. This 
is but one of many instances of his kind-heartedness, not general- 
ly known. 

The city of New York voted General Brown the freedom of 
the city in a gold casket, and also ordered a full length portrait 
of him to be executed and placed in the City Hall. The New 
York Legislature voted him a gold-hilted sword. He received 
the special thanks of Congress, and a gold medal emblematic of 
his victories was struck in his honor. He had successfully de- 
fended the frontier from Pennsylvania on the southwest to 
the extreme northern border on the northeast. 

At the close of the war, he was retained in command of the 
"Northern Division," as Andrew Jackson was of the "Southern 
Division." The "Fighting Quaker" had saved his country and 
could now rest on his laurels. 

In March, 1821, he was appointed General-in-chief of the 
United States army which office he held, until he was gathered to 
that peace he so ardently loved. 

His funeral pageant in Washington was magnificent. An af- 
fecting incident was that of his old steed Niagara, (on which 
he had made the Niagara campaign) following close behind his 
old master, saddled and bridled and bearing his arms reversed. 
His remains were interred in the Congressional cemetery where a 
suitably-inscribed column marks his resting place. 

Jacob Jennings Brown was an example of a man who never 
sought to rise by the failures of his compatriots; of one who 
could live a public life with integrity of purpose and of action; 
whose private life was without a blemish ; and who could assem- 
ble the best traits of his ancestors into one harmonious whole, and 
by using them aright benefit the entire Commonwealth. 

A letter from Lafayette to Jacob Brown's widow will give an 
idea of how he was viewed from a personal standpoint. 

Paris, March 30, 1828. 
My Dear Madam : 

Amid the many heavy blows I have had to bear on this side of the At- 


lantic by the loss of a young and beloved grand-daughter and of an old 
friend and relative, the melancholy account from Washington has filled 
my heart with inexpressible grief. 

Previous information had led me to hope for improvement in the state 
■of the excellent General's health, and has rendered the lamentable event 
still more painful to me. You know, dear madam, the intimate and con- 
fidential friendship that had formed between us. 

Our personal acquaintance was recent, although our characters had long 
been known to each other; but no old intimacy could be more affectionate, 
no mutual confidence better established. 

While I deeply regret him on my own account, be assured dear madam 
that I most affectionately sympathize in your affliction and the feelings of 
your family. 

My son and Monsieur L. Vasseur beg to be remembered and I am most 
'Cordially Your aff. mourning friend, 


While this letter gives but a personal view, the character of 
the writer, and the fact of his being a foreigner and a man of 
rank, gives it value. 

But the testimony of the Secretary of War, which but voiced 
the general sentiment of the nation, is conclusive as to the high 
■esteem in which General Brown was held by his countrymen. 

February 28, 1828. 

The Secretary of War by direction of the President of the United 
.'States announces to the army, the painful intelligence of the decease of 
Major-General Brown on February 24. 

To say he was one of the men who have rendered most important ser- 
vices to his country would fall far short of the tribute due to his 
■ character. 

Uniting with the most unaffected simplicity of character, the highest 
■degree of personal valor, and of intellectual energy, he stands pre-eminent 
before the world, and for future ages, in that land of heroic spirits, who 
upon the ocean and the land, formed and sustained during the second war 
with Great Britain, the martial reputation of their country. 

To this high and honorable purpose General Brown may be said to have 
sacrificed his life ; for the disease which abridged his days and has ter- 
minated his career (a period scarcely beyond the meridian of manhood) 
undoubtedly originated in the hardships of his campaigns on the Canada 
frontier ; and in that glorious wound which though desperate could not 
remove him from the field of battle until it was won. 

Quick to perceive, sagacious to anticipate, prompt to decide, and daring 
in execution, he was born with the qualities which constitute a great 

His military coup d'oeil, his intuitive penetration, his knowledge of 
men, and his capacity to control them, were known to all his companions 


in arms, and commanded their respect ; while the gentleness of his dis- 
position, the courtesy of his deportment, his scrupulous regard for their 
rights, his constant attention to their wants and his affectionate attach- 
ment to their persons, invariably won their hearts and bound them to him 
as a father. 

Calm and collected in the presence of the enemy, he was withal tender of 
human life, in the roar of battle more sparing of the blood of the soldier 
than of his own. 

In the hour of victory, the vanquished enemy found in him a human 
and compassionate friend. Not a drop of blood shed in wantonness or 
cruelty sullies the purity of his fame. 

Defeat he was never called on to endure, but in the crisis of difficulty 
and danger, he displayed untiring patience and fortitude, not to be over- 

Such was the great accomplished Captain whose loss the Army has now 
in common with their fellow citizens of all classes to deplore. While 
indulging the kindly impulses of nature and yielding the tribute of a tear 
upon his grave, let it not be permitted to close upon his bright example 
as it must upon his mortal remains. 

Let him be more nobly sepulchred in the hearts of his fellow soldiers, 
and his imperishable monument be found in their endeavors to emulate 
his virtues. 

The officers of the army will wear the badge of mourning for six 
months on the left arm, and the hilt of the sword. 

Guns will be fired at each military post at intervals of 30 minutes from 
the rising to the setting of the sun, on the day succeeding the arrival of 
this order, during which the national flag will be displayed at half-mast. 


You have heard how those who knew General Brown in life 
regarded him. But what of this generation? The hero of New 
Orleans is honored by the observance of an anniversary in his 
memory. But what of the hero of Sackett's Harbor? Of Chip- 
pewa? Of Lundy's Lane? 

If our fellow countrymen seem to have forgotten this noble 
patriot and conqueror ; if Pennsylvania has neglected to do him 
honor; may not Bucks county seek to make amends by reserving 
one day from the busy year and devoting it to the memory of this 
the most glorious of all her sons, Jacob Jennings Brown, the 
"Fighting Quaker" of Bucks county. 

The Dungan Ancestry. 


(Doylestown Meeting, January i6, 1906.) 

The following paper was prepared in consequence of a request 
made by our honored president, and to which request assent 
was given by the writer, with little idea of the possible range 
that could be given to the subject. Such a wealth of interesting 
detail confronted him that in an effort to avoid the charge of 
prolaxity much material germane to the subject has not been used 
because of the necessary limitations of this paper. 

We are sensible, also, of the current belief that when a man 
begins to hunt industriously for notable ancestors he is uncon- 
sciously trying to find some counter-balance to his own deficien- 
cies, however, it is a work that has neither pride of ancestry, nor 
hope of posterity. Yet this effort is in no sense a genealogy of our 
family, but rather memoirs collected in the few idle moments of a 
busy life. It is to be hoped that members of the family and others 
having data and records pertinent to the subject will communicate 
with the writer. 

The variants on the name of Dungan : O'Donaghan, O'Don- 
egan, Dunnegan, Donnagan, Donagan, Donegan, Dungen, Dun- 
gin, Dongan and Dungan. 

The transition from Dongan to Dungan was easy and occurred 
when a branch of the family removed from Ireland to England 
about the year 1600. The change was not universal as is seen 
by the official documents pertaining to Governor Thomas Don- 
gan, of New York. Also, as late as 181 1, the name of Rev. Thom- 
as Dungan is spelled "Dongan." — See "A Picture of Philadel- 
phia,'" by James Mease, M. D., page 204. 

Ask an Irishman from whom he is descended and he will 
answer "from Heremon," that pagan sovereign, first king of Ire- 
land, ruling jointly with Heber, but who ruled alone after B. C. 
1699. It is claimed by interested parties that we are of Irish 
extraction, which, if true, permits us to claim descent from a 
line of kings flourishing before the Christian era, but, as ancient 


Irish history is both mystical and mythical, we venture the sug- 
gestion that the historian is in error by not less than i,ooo years. 
Speaking of the ancient kings of Ireland, Keating says : 

"The chief of each noble family in Ireland was always styled as king, 
the only title in use among the Irish to distinguish the nobility from the 
inferior gentry, until the English introduced the titles of earl, viscount, 
baron, etc." 

iThe early records of Ireland are not of an ofificial character, 
and are generally but family traditions grossly flavored in many 
instances to suit personal vanity. Being of so doubtful a nature 
many were cast aside by the writer as worthless because of their 
manifest unreliability. The first mention worthy of credence 
of the family is made by Connellan, the next by O'Hart. From 
them we learn that O'Donegan (Dongan) was prince of Aradle, 
of the race of Heremon. The O'Donegans were styled princes 
of Mulscrith Tire, now Lower Ormond, in Tipperary; and pos- 
sessed Aradh Cleach, now the barony of Owney and Arra, also 
in Tipperary. The tenth ancient chief mentioned of county Cork 
is Donegan (Dongan) chief of "Muscry of the Three Plains," 
now the half barony Orrery, in county Cork. Again, of the 
chiefs and clans mentioned of Tirowen, the ninth was O'Donegan 
or Dongan, a chief of Tealach Ainbith and of Muinter Birn, 
districts in the baronies of Dungannon and Strabane. 

By some it is averred that our ancestry is of English origin, 
and there is basis for the claim that our forbears partook in 
the Norman occupation of Ireland in the twelfth century, but 
not prominently enough, however, to invite Froude's attention. 
It is probable that their elders accompanied the Duke of Nor- 
mandy when he overran England and gained for himself the title 
of "The Conqueror." 

Existing documents declare the Dungan family in Ireland dur- 
ing the thirteenth century to have been of English extraction. 
Quoting from Connellan, the following were the chief families 
of Anglo-Norman and early English settlers in the counties of 
Eimerick and Clare: Wolfes, Dongans, Rices. O'Hart, in 1876, 
speaking of Kildare says : The other chief families of English 
descent have been Burroughs, Boyces, Dungans or Dongans. An- 
other writer says, "The following have been the noble families 


of Limerick: The Dungans, earls of Limerick." That the 
Dungans were of the nobility we have ample evidence. 

Of records available to the writer the next mention, speaking' 
chronologically, is from "Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ire- 
land, 1536 to 1810," which mentions will of Richard Dungan, 
barrister, Dublin, 1574. The record is to-day in an imperfect 
state, and its condition is such as to prevent clear testimentary 
details. We do know his brother, Sir John Dungan, died in 
1592 after a life of unusual activity in municipal affairs of the 
city of Dublin. He was created Earl of Dungannon by Queen 
Bess, and his coat-of-arms is thus described : Az. six plates, 
three, two, and one, on a chief or, a demi lion ramp. gu. Crest- 
An ar, banded and surmounted by a cross pattee or. 

His second son, William, was a member of the bar, and was 
recorder of the city of Dublin. Burke describes the Dungan 
arms thus : same as foregoing, with a crescent for a diff., and 
'impaling O'Brien. The significance of the crest has its origin 
not in the assumption that O'Brien was slain in personal combat, 
but from the fact that he was worsted by Sir William in a pas- 
sage-at-arms of a professional nature before the High Court of 
Dublin, of which both were members. Sir William died Decem- 
ber II, and was buried in St. John's church, Dublin, December 
19, 1622. The title descended to son Joshua Dungan, of Caple- 
town, Clain Barony. He had a brother Thomas, a well-known 
Dublin barrister, and who died in 1663, leaving a widow Anne. 
The latter dying in 1670 left behind her a reputation for phi- 
lanthropy and activity in the interest of the poorer classes of 
that city. A patent of nobility was also granted by James 1, 
to Walter Dungan, Esq., of Castleton, county Kildare, a cousin of 
Sir William Dungan, of Dublin. Letters were granted him undet 
the privy signet bearing date of Westminster, July 8, 1623 ; patent. 
Dublin Oct. 23, 1623. It is believed the royal favor was con- 
ferred on Sir Walter for his energetic work in the crown's be- 
half during the 1 yrone rebellion. As commander of a local regi- 
ment he did much to restore order in that disaffected region. 
Large tracts of land had been forfeited to the English crown and 
this land was now given by royal grant to English and Scotch 
settlers and to Irish favorites. Sir Walter received an extensive 
tract at Castleton, county Kildare. He died in 1627. 


John Dungan resided at Curihills, near to Castleton, and was 
of the landed gentry. He died in 1636 at a ripe old age. 

Edward was a magistrate and held minor court at Kiltaghan, 
county Kildare, and died in 1639. His will is on file in Dublin. 
William removed to London, attracted there by the promise of 
royal favor from the "Wisest fool in Europe." James' well-known 
weakness of character prompts us to believe William Dungan 
was disappointed. That he turned to mercantile pursuits we 
1<novv, for in his will he styled himself "merchant." He died 
in 1636, and was the father of Thomas Dungan, who is the 
central figure in this sketch. 

I Permit us to digress so far as to follow the changing fortunes 
of the ennobled family of Dungans remaining in Ireland. On 
the death of Sir Walter Dungan in 1627, the title descended to 
his son, John. He was a strong partisan of the house of Stuart, 
yet his loyalty was no bar to the rapacity of Charles when land 
was needed for the homesteading of his alien soldiery, for the 
Irish author Prendergast (p. 209, Cromwellian Settlement) says 
138 acres of profitable land were so seized of this Irish pro- 
prietor in 1641, and styles him "Sir John Dungan, Knt. of 
Norbynstown." Sir John commanded a regiment at the battle 
of Naseby, where Charles I. went down in disaster and was 
taken prisoner. For his faithful adherence to Charles, his 
estates were ordered confiscated. Being the head of one of the 
most influential families in the province of Ulster, he was, 
though attainted, the most prominent figure in civil affairs, yet 
withal he refused to participate in the outbreak of 1647. These 
malcontents under General Preston were that year entirely defeat- 
ed by an English army under Jones at Dungan Hill, a few 
miles west of Dublin. For his forbearance his estates were 
restored, as shown by the enumeration of forfeiting properties 
under the Cromwellian settlement, as entitled to lands for- 
feited to the Commonwealth on order of October 14, 1655. 
Under means from Lord Protector's Council for the affairs of 
Ireland. The excerpt is from O'Hart's "Irish Landed Gentry 
when Cromwell came to Ireland." 

Sir John Dungan, Knight, Kildare ; Sir Joshua Dungan, 
Knight, Capletown ; Edward Dungan, Esq., Blockwood, Clain 


Barony; Sir Walter Dungan, Knight, Capletown ; Dame Mary 
Dungan, Castletown, near Cellbridge, barony of Salt, Kildare ; 
Edward Dungan, Blockwood, KilcuUen. 

This restoration of Sir John's lands is confirmed by Dublin 
records marked 1821-1825 styled "Inrollments of the Decrees 
of Innocents under the Commonwealth Rule in Ireland." Cisley 
Dungan, James Dungan, John Dungan, and Sir John Dungan. 
Sir John died in 1663 at the baronial hall, Castletown, county 
Kildare. A copy of his will is on file in Dublin. 

His eldest son and heir was William Dungan, who had spent 
several years in the French army on the continent and returned 
to claim his inheritance after the accession of Charles II., and 
which had been recently enlarged by the restoration of many 
estates when monarchy was established in Ireland. The wrongs 
and cruelties inflicted by Cromwell upon that unfortunate island 
led as many as 40,000 to enlist in the armies of Continental Eu- 
rope by which they sought freedom from the Protector's tyranny. 
Prendergast says : Sir Walter Dungan and others got liberty 
to beat their drums in different garrisons to a rallying of their 
men that laid down arms with them in order to rendezvous, and 
to depart for Spain. They got permission to march their men 
together to the different parts, their pipers perhaps playing "Ha 
til, Ha til, me tilidh," we return, we return no more ; or more 
probably after their first burst of passionate grief at leaving home 
and friends forever was over, marching gaily to the lively 6trains 
of Garryowen. This was nine years before the death of the 
patriarchic head of the family. Sir John. His son William, his 
brother Thomas and his grandson W^alter, were among those 
voluntarily expatriated. Thomas led a regiment of his compatri- 
ots in the army of that selfish ally of the . unfortunate house of 
Stuart, Louis XIV. We extract from the de la Ponce MSS., 
in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, of a list of Irishmen 
who served in that army, "Colonel Dungan, ent. 1677, Regt. 
d'Irlandais." He was afterward Governor of New York. 

A writer of London in 1870 in speaking of the family says : 

"The family of Dungan, distinguished in the 17th century by its exten- 
sive landed property, high connections and honorable civil and military 
pasts, was equally remarkable for its loyalty to the Crown in the Par- 
liamentarian and Cromwellian wars, and its adherence to the Stuarts, 


during their exile on the continent after the execution of Charles I. It 
was among the few Irish families who were restored to their estates 
when monarchy was re-established, under King Charles II. In 1685, its 
head, William Dungan, was created, by King James II., Viscount Dun- 
gan of Claine, in the county of Kildare, and Earl of Limerick. The ar- 
morial insignia were same as Sir John Dungan who died in 1592, — Crest- A 
lion pass or supporting with the dexter foot a close helmet ar. gar- 
nished gold. Supporters — Two lions ramp. ar. gutte desang, each charged 
on the shoulder with a pellet." 

His Lordship was also made a member of the Royal Privy 
Council for Ireland, Lord Lieutenant of the county of Kildare^ 
and Governor of the province of Munster; and upon the break- 
ing out of the Revolution, he adhered to King James. He sat 
together with his son Walter in the House of Lords of the Par- 
liament convened by that monarch in Dublin, according to a work 
printed in London in 1691, which in a list of the Lords and 
Commons that sat in King James' Parliament, commencing on 
the 7th of May, 1687, includes Lord Dungan, Earl of Limerick, 
also. Lord Dungan and Charles White from county Kildare, 
Borough of Xass, the former being William and the latter 
Walter. From a quaint list consulted taken from "The State 
of the Protestants in Ireland, under King James' Government," 
comprising all men of note that came with that monarchy out 
of France, or that followed him after, so far as could be col- 
lected, we find the names of Lord William Dungan, Capt. John 
Dungan, and Lord Thomas Dungan, Col. of ist Dragoons. 

O'Callaghan says, "Sir William was colonel of the king's regiment of 
dismounted dragoons, which was called the Earl of Limerick's dragoons, 
and which appointment he held till the spring of 1689, when his advanced 
period of life, and the bad state of his health, unfitting him for the active 
military exertion that would be required in the warm contest which was 
then approaching, about the middle of April that year, he resigned his 
command ; and the colonelship of the regiment was transferred to his son, 
the Lord Walter Dungan, who was subsequently killed. After the loss of 
his only son Walter, just mentioned and hereafter more particularly no- 
ticed, at the Boyne, the earl proceeded with the rest of the Irish Jacobites 
to Limerick. He was consequently attainted by the Revolutionists, or 
Williamites, in April, 1691 : but continuing steadfast to the royal cause, 
retired to France. There Captain Peter Drake, of Drakeroth, in the county 
of Meath, his exiled relative (and whose father, the Earl, before the 
Revolution, had appointed, at Limerick, one of the commissioners of cus- 
toms, and chief comptroller of the mint,) speaks warmly of the Lordship's 


.good nature; mentioning him, in the year 1694, as 'My best friend, 
William, Earl of Limerick, who took me to his house, and there supported 
me ;' and, in 1696, it is added, sent him, with a recommendation for a mili- 
tary provision, to Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Barnwell, of the Queen's 
E.egiment of Dragoons, commanded by Colonel Oliver O'Gara, and then 
forming part of the French Army of Catalonia, under the Duke of Ven- 

By following his banished sovereign to France rather than 
.acknowledge the revolutionary government by remaining in Ire- 
land, the Earl of Limerick forfeited a noble estate in the counties 
of Kildare, Dublin, Carlow, Meath, Kilkenny, Longford, Tip- 
perary and Queens, containing 26,480 acres, besides house prop- 
erty in the city of Dublin, and many tithes ; all of which (and 
much more) were granted, as a reward for his success against 
the Irish, to the Dutch Lieutenant General Baron de Ginkell, 
•created Earl of Athlone. 

Under King James' administration in Ireland, the Earl of 
Limerick's son, Lord Walter Dungan, held by deputy and sub- 
deputy, the civil situation of clerk of the Common Pleas in the 
Irish court of the exchequer; was, as before narrated, with 
Charles White, Esq., of Leixley castle, one of the mernbers of the 
borough of Nass, in the county of Kildare, in the parliament of 
1689; and in the national army, colonel of the regiment of dra- 
;goons bearing his name. The regiment was part of the small 
Irish force despatched early in 1689, by King James' govern- 
ment against the revolutionists of Ulster. With that small force 
it assisted to beat the superior numbers of the Williamites out 
of the field of Derry; was at the blockade of that place; and 
after the disembarkation of the Prince of Orange's commander, 
the Marshal Duke of Schonberg, in Ulster, and his advance to 
Dundalk, is noticed in the Irish official account as one of the 
best cavalry regiments in the army, by which that campaign 
was brought to its miserable termination on the side of the in- 
vaders. Next year, 1690, the regiment was at the engagement 
oi the Boyne, where the death of their Colonel by a cannon-bail 
as they were going into action, produced such depressing effects 
upon them, that King James in his account of the conduct of the 
Irish cavalry there, which, with the exception of these and the 
Clare dragoons, he describes as excellent, says "Lord Dungan 


being slaine, at their first going on, by a great shot, his dragoons 
could not be got to doe anything." His lordship's body was 
conveyed from the field to the family mansion of his father, the 
Earl of Limerick, at Castletown, near Cellbridge, in the county 
of Kildare, where on the retreat of the Jacobite troops from 
Dublin to Limerick, the day after the battle was devoted to the 
ceremony of the funeral, the troops on the next resuming their 
journey to the south. 

Thus while the Dungans in Ireland were fighting to retain 
their estates and armorial bearings and were shedding their life's 
blood for their earthly king, their kinsman. Rev. Thomas Dun- 
gan, in America was adding stars to Heaven's Crown, planting 
seed of the church at Cold Spring, which has brought forth fruit 
the angels might covet the privilege of gathering. 

Lord Walter Dungan was succeeded in command of the regi- 
ment by his relative, Walter Nugent, of the county of Meatli, 
son of Francis Xugent, Esq., of Dardistown. and Lady Nugent, 
sister of Wm. Dungan, Earl of Limerick. Of this marriage 
three sons were officers of eminence ; Christopher, attaining the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of Horse under King James H., and 
of Mayor General of Cavalry in France ; Patrick, after serving 
as Captain in I^rd Dungan's Dragoons, becoming Lieut-Colonel 
to the Duke of Berwick's regiment in France: and Walter (who 
was the elder brother of Patrick) succeeding as Colonel to his 
cousin. Lord Dungan ; Colonel Walter Nugent was slain at the 
battle of Kilconnell in July, 1691. 

According to legal documents connected with the family of 
Dungan, William Dungan, Earl of Limerick, died in 1698, with- 
out leaving issue ; his only child, as before stated, Lord Walter 
Dungan, colonel of dragoons, having been killed at the Boyne, 
or Aughrim, in 1690. 

A word or two about Dungan Hall. It was situated at Castle- 
town, county of Kildare, and being a castle gave to town nearbv 
its name ; was twelve miles due west of Dublin and overlooked 
the beautiful river Liffey. To-day it is but a pile of ruins, though 
of a size to indicate the original massive proportions of the baro- 
nial seat. Its present dilapidated condition prompts us to quote 
Barry Cornwall, from "Footsteps of the Normans." 


"The weeds mourn on the castle wall; 

The grass lies on the Chamber floor, 
And on the earth, and in the hall. 

Where m.erry music danced of yore ! 
And the blood red wine no longer 

Runs — (how it used to run!) 
And the shadows within grow stronger, 

Look black on the mid-day sun ! 
And the steed no longer neigheth, 

Nor paws the startled ground ; 
And the dum-hound no longer bayeth, 

But death is all around." 

On the death of William, Earl of Limerick, in 1698, the title 
came to Colonel Thomas Dungan, who was borh in 1634. The 
latter, under the will of his father. Sir John Dungan, bart, in- 
herited an estate in the Queens county, and served in the army 
of Louis XIV. till 1678, as colonel of an Irish regiment, worth 
to him "about £ 5000 per annum." He had from Charles II. a 
life pension of £ 500 a year ; was made Lieut-Governor of Tan- 
gier, in Morocco ; and subsequently Governor of New York in 
America. From American Historical Record, vol. i, p. 128, we 
learn he held that office from 1683 to 1688. He was sent out 
by the Duke of York, brother of Charles II., to call an Assembly. 
It was convened Oct., 17, 1683, and was the first gathering of 
popular representatives since the Province had passed into the 
hands of the English. Then it was that the Province was di- 
vided into twelve counties. Dungan was an enlightened man, 
and a sincere well-wisher of the American Colonies. He was 
a "Professed Papist," a character which the colonists had been 
taught to abhor; but his personal goodness and liberal public 
policy soon made the most bigoted opponents of his faith forget 
that he was a Roman Catholic. He promoted popular liberty 
as much as he could. He gave a charter to the city of Albany. 
To Robert Livingstone, a Scotch immigrant, he gave a feudal 
principality on the banks of the Hudson, and he encouraged im- 
migration in every way. But his chief distinction as a magis- 
trate was the wise course pursued toward the Indians, espe- 
cially those of the Iroquois Confederacy of the Six Nations over 
whom the French were exerting a powerful influence. Had he 
been properly supported by his King (James II.) he might have 


speedily ended the French dominion in America, and saved the 
blood and treasure so fearfully wasted afterward in inter-colonial 
wars. The influence of the French King, through the medium 
of religious considerations, over the weak English monarch was 
such that Dungan, who for wise State purposes and with patri- 
otic zeal, had done all in his power to obstruct the operations of 
the French Jesuits among the Indians, was recalled in 1688, 
and the government was placed in the hands of Sir Edmund 
Andros, a narrow-minded tyrant. Dungan was on terms of inti- 
macy with Wm. Penn who, knowing the strong friendship held 
for him by the Iroquois, had him act as his agent in securing 
title from that confederacy to central and northern Pennsylvania 
drained by the Susquehanna. (See Colonial Records.) From 
Rupp's History of Northumberland county we learn : 

"Penn before his return to England, in 1684, adopted measures to 
purchase the lands on the Susquehanna from the Five Nations, who pre- 
tended a right to them, having conquered the people formerly settled 
there. The Five Nations resided principally in New York ; and Penn's 
time being too much engrossed to visit them personally, he engaged 
Thomas Dungan, Governor of New York, to purchase from the Indians, 
all that tract of land lying on both sides of the river Susquehanna, and 
the lakes adjacent in or near the Province of Pennsylvania." 

Dungan effected a purchased, and conveyed the same to William 
Penn, January 13, 1696, "in consideration of one hundred pounds 
sterling." (See Recorder of Deeds files, Philadelphia.) 

Additional record of Col. Thomas Dungan's public services is 
contained in the Carte Manuscripts, 228 volumes, in the Bodlein 
Library, Oxford, England, to this effect: Among the petitions 
to the House of Commons in May, 1701, was Thomas Dungan, 
Earl of Limerick, who had "Spent the greater part of his life 
in foreign countries, and for the most part in the service of 
England." He petitioned Parliament for £ 17000 "Owing to 
him by the Government for disbursements against the French 
and Indians of Canada in America, and for arrears of a pension 
of £500 per annum, granted him by the late King Charles II., 
in consideration of his losses, by leaving the service of the French 
King and entering into the service of England.